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Medicine, western and Chinese philosophy

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Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine: This presentation was a part of a series of invited lectures on Western philosophy as the foundation of Western medicine.

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Medicine, western and Chinese philosophy

  1. 1. The philosophical origins of Western medicine Robert Shaw Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
  2. 2. 2 The public announcement 这四个讨论会是探索与西方医学的出现相关的哲学 问题。既然现代科学与现代技术是西方医学的一部 分,那么就有这样一个问题:西方科学、技术和医 学的形而上学基础是什么 ?为了解答这个问题,本 系列讲座将会利用德国哲学家马丁海德格尔的著作 和观点。这是一次历史和哲学性的问题。这个系列 讨论会是一个绪论,只是在对相关问题的原始思 考,不一定最终会得出关于西方形而上学的结论。 讲座的风格是苏格拉底式的而不是陈述性的。
  3. 3. 3 The public announcement These four meetings explore the philosophy that is relevant to the occurrence (phenomenon) of Western medicine. Modern science and modern technology are integral to Western medicine, and so we can pose the question: What are the metaphysical foundations of Western science, technology and medicine?
  4. 4. 4 The public announcement The approach taken to this question draws upon the work of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. It is an historical and philosophical enquiry.
  5. 5. 5 The public announcement The series is a prolegomena - an initial exploration of related questions with no suggestion that we will draw conclusions about Western metaphysics. The style of presentation is Socratic and not declarative.
  6. 6. 6 1. The Origins西方方法论的起源 无论在西方哲学、西方生活方式还是西方医学中, 前苏格拉底时期的哲学家们和苏格拉底开创了知识 的传统是十分清楚的事实。一直以来影响着专业领 域研究和个人实践的西方思想的支柱是什么?西方 思想的基础是什么?为什么这个独特的生活方式和 方法会出现?巴门尼德和毕达哥拉斯学派的观点是 本次讲座的重点内容。
  7. 7. 7 1. The Origins of Western Ways The Pre-Socratic philosophers and Socrates began intellectual traditions that are still evident in Western philosophy, Western ways of living, and Western medicine. What are the pillars of Western thought which hold sway over our professional and private practices? What are the foundations of Western thought? Why did this distinctive approach to living occur? Parmenides and the Pythagoreans are important in this talk.
  8. 8. 8 2. Truth西方思想中的真理 真理的概念是西方思想中最重要的基础之一。尽管 如此,从真理这个词诞生以来人们对它的概念一直 争论不休。在西方许多实用主义者和怀疑论者认为 真理论是不可知的。这次讨论将会围绕有史以来对 真相的定义、真理在医学发挥的作用以及海德格尔 关于真理的概念的根本看法进行。本次讨论将会介 绍海德格尔关于形而上学以及真理在其中的作用的 看法。
  9. 9. 9 2. Truth in Western Thought Truth is one of the principal foundations of Western thought. Nevertheless, the concept of truth has been in contention since its birth. Many in the West – pragmatists and sceptics –believe that truth is unobtainable. This discussion examines the historical concepts of truth, the role of truth in medicine and Heidegger’s radical insights into the notion of truth. It introduces Heidegger’s notion of metaphysics and the role of truth therein.
  10. 10. 10 3. Science 什么是科学 对于伽利略和牛顿来说,现代科学的本质是存在争 议的。由于人文学科面临的种种挑战,这种争议依 然存在至今。打个比方,现代物理往往会遭遇到普 遍性的概念性问题,如何处理科学和社会的关系也 是挑战之一,还有由于目标不明确所导致的科普教 育推广的步履蹒跚。这个讲座所要介绍的是哲学解 释学上对于科学的看法,并且探索其给我们带来的 启示。以及它与实证主义和建构主义对科学的解释 的区别。
  11. 11. 11 3. What is Science? The nature of modern science was contentious for Galileo and Newton. It remains so today because of the challenges that humanity confronts. For example, modern physics endures with pervasive conceptual problems, the relationship between science and society is a challenge, and science education falters because there is a lack of clarity about objectives. This talk introduces the hermeneutic philosophy of science and explores its implications. It contrasts this account of science with positivism and constructionism.
  12. 12. 12 4. Modernity西方现代化进程与医学 这次讨论会提及到康德、尼采、胡塞尔以及海德格 尔的观点来讨论对西方思想的重新定义。现代化的 诞生给西方带来了对哲学和人们的生活方式的危 机。在文学上,大卫·福斯特·华莱士的小说以及梅 尔维尔的《白鲸记》同样描述了这样一个危机。这 次讨论将会围绕西方医学中的形而上学危机以及对 未来的思索进行。
  13. 13. 13 4. Western Modernity and Medicine This talk draws upon the work of Kant, Nietzsche, Husserl, and Heidegger to discuss a radical reconceptualization of Western thought. The birth of modernity established for the West a crisis that embraces philosophy as much as the way of life of ordinary people. In literature, the novels of David Foster Wallace describe the crisis, as does Melville’s Moby Dick. This discussion considers the metaphysical crisis in Western medicine and speculates on the future.
  14. 14. Lecture 1 The Origin of Western Ways Robert Shaw Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
  15. 15. 15 Structure for this talk Pythagoras Parmenides Plato
  16. 16. 16 What do you need to think if you are to think as the West thinks? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rationality 合理性 Logic 逻辑性 Transcendence 超然性 Reality 现实性 Truth 真理 Evidence 证据
  17. 17. 17 Western metaphysics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rationality 合理性 Logic 逻辑性 Transcendence 超然性 Reality 现实性 Truth 真理 Evidence 证据
  18. 18. 18 Metaphysics 形而上学, n. pl. With of: The theoretical principles or higher philosophical rationale of some particular branch of knowledge. Occas. construed as sing. 某些学科的独特分支的理论原则和更高的哲学原理,就像在某一 时期的一首歌所描述的一样。
  19. 19. 19 Metaphysics 形而上学, n. pl. That branch of speculative inquiry which treats of the first principles of things, including such concepts as being, substance, essence, time, space, cause, identity, etc.; theoretical philosophy as the ultimate science of Being and Knowing. 作为思辨探索的分支,探讨事物的最初根源,包括存在、物质、 本质、时间、空间、缘由、同一性等等概念;理论哲学是存在与 认识的根本科学。
  20. 20. 20 Metaphysics 形而上学, n. pl. In various inaccurate or extended uses (partly based on the erroneous etymology mentioned above): Used by some followers of positivist, linguistic, or logical philosophy: concepts of an abstract or speculative nature which are not verifiable by logical or linguistic methods. 在各种各样模糊和扩展的用途当中(一定程度建立在以上提到 的错误语源学之上):被一些实用主义、语言学或者逻辑哲学学 的追随者所利用:一些抽象概念或思辨性本质的概念是无法通过 逻辑或语言学方法证明的。
  21. 21. 21 Metaphysics A digression Definition pointless / strangely problematic After Aristotle: a search to find it appropriate Use is helpful Aristotle –after physics, Thales (water) Ultimate reality What is (being) Heidegger: Western metaphysics = modernity Turner, W. (1911). Metaphysics. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10226a.htm
  22. 22. 22 School of Athens Raphael, Sistine Chapel, 1511 1-Plato 2-Aristotle 3-Socrates 4-Xenophon 5-Æschines 6-Alcibiades 7-Zeno 8-Epicurus 9-Federico Gonzaga 10-Averroes 11-Pyhthagoras 12-Parmenides 13-Heraclitus 14-Diogenes 15-Archimedes 16 -Zoroaster 17-Ptolemy 18 Raphael.
  23. 23. 25
  24. 24. 28 Ancient Western Philosophers
  25. 25. 29
  26. 26. 30
  27. 27. 31 Pythagoreans -3 1. Pythagoras 2. Pythagorean sects –5th & first-half of the 4th C BCE 3. Others said to be Pythagoreans – centuries later
  28. 28. 32
  29. 29. 33 Pythagorean sects 毕达哥拉斯教派 What produced their ideas? 什么使他们产生想法? How did they live? 他们怎么生活? Leisure休闲 Political power政治势力 Needs of law法律的需要 Initiation – secrecy – elitism 启蒙传授—保密—精英主义
  30. 30. 34
  31. 31. 35 Pythagoreans
  32. 32. Pythagoreans
  33. 33. 37 Pythagorean mathematics
  34. 34. 38
  35. 35. 39 Parmenides Fragments of 800 verses
  36. 36. 40 Parmenides
  37. 37. 42 Parmenides Born 515 BCE Eleatic School (from Elea) Zeno c490 – c430 The peninsula Those terrible Pythagoreans Xenophanes of Colophon (c.570 – c.475) – animal’s Gods, holism, truth & the unit Law – needs the truth Rejection of the senses! Power of reasoning 拒绝感性主义!理性的力量
  38. 38. 43 Plato fragment on Parmenides
  39. 39. 44
  40. 40. 45 On nature begins The mares (car) which carry me as far as my spirit ever aspired were escorting me, when they brought me and proceeded along the renowned road of the goddess, which brings a knowing mortal to all cities one by one. On this path I was being brought, on it wise mares were bringing me, straining the chariot, and maidens were guiding the way. 一直带着我并在通向女神的著名大道上前进时,带领通往精神所 向往的地方的母马一直守护着我,女神把博学的人类们一个 一个地带到城市中。在这条道路上我一直被引领着,智慧的 母马一直引领着我,我抓紧马车在处女在指引下前进。
  41. 41. 46 The two worlds
  42. 42. 47 Parmenides poem Journey from darkness to light The way of opinion – doxa, perception The way of truth – logos (being) To think like God
  43. 43. 48 Parmenides insights He brings to Western thought Logic Importance of existence Truth (not Doxa) The province of the Gods
  44. 44. 49 Plato
  45. 45. 50 Plato 427 BC 407 BC 403 BC 399 BC 398 BC c. 385BC 380 BC 367 BC 361 BC 347 BC Born at Athens, Greece Meets Socrates Turns from politics toward philosophy The execution of Socrates by the Athenians Plato flees to Megara with other Socratics Travels Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily Founds his Academy outside of Athens Second trip to Syracuse Attempt to make Syracuse king a philosopher Dies at his Academy
  46. 46. 51 Plato’s Academy From 1 BC Critical thinking taught
  47. 47. 52 Plato: The Republic Third century manuscript, earliest c 380 BC (1713 text) Socratic dialog Ten books
  48. 48. 53 Major advances 主要的发展 Use of reason 理性的作用 Integration of thought 思想的集成 Justice正义 Individual 个体 Utopia 乌托邦 Analysis of society 对社会的分析 Political theory 政治理论 Education教育 Epistemology 认识论/ ontology 存在论 Appearance & reality 表象与现实 Doctrine of forms 形式主义 Allegory of the cave 洞穴的寓言
  49. 49. 54 The Republic Prologue I.1. 327a—328b. Descent to the Piraeus I.2—I.5. 328b—331d. Cephalus. Justice of the Older Generation I.6—1.9. 331e—336a. Polemarchus. Justice of the Middle Generation I.10—1.24. 336b—354c. Thrasymachus. Justice of the Sophist Introduction II.1—II.10. 357a—369b. The Question: Is Justice better than Injustice? Part I: Genesis and Order of the Polis II.11—II.16. 369b—376e. Genesis of the Polis II.16—III.18. 376e—412b. Education of the Guardians III.19—IV.5. 412b—427c. Constitution of the Polis IV.6—IV.19. 427c—445e. Justice in the Polis Part II: Embodiment of the Idea V.1—V.16. 449a—471c. Somatic Unit of Polis and Hellenes V.17—VI.14. 471c—502c. Rule of the Philosophers VI.19—VII.5. 502c—521c. The Idea of the Agathon VII.6—VII.18. 521c—541b. Education of the Philosophers Part III: Decline of the Polis VIII.1—VIII.5. 543a—550c. Timocracy VIII.6—VIII.9. 550c—555b. Oligarchy VIII.10—VIII.13. 555b—562a. Democracy VIII.14—IX.3. 562a—576b. Tyranny Conclusion IX.4—IX.13. 576b—592b Answer: Justice is Better than Injustice. Epilogue X.1—X.8. 595a—608b. Rejection of Mimetic Art X.9—X.11. 608c—612a. Immortality of the Soul X.12. 612a—613e. Rewards of Justice in Life X.13—X.16. 613e—621d. Judgment of the Dead
  50. 50. 55 Plato: The Republic 1. Aristocracy • Head • Guardians rule • Meritocracy or proto-technological state • Paternalistic 2. Timocracy • Chest • Spirit rules • People who love honour • The warriors rule • City state Spata • Security • G Bush 3. Oligarchy • Stomach • Emerges from the tension between economic status and honour • Divides the rich and poor • Creates criminals and beggars • Rich plot against the poor and visa versa 4. Democracy • Stomach • The poor win • Desire rules • People become downtrodden 5. Tyranny • Outcome of excessive freedom • Commoners invest power in a an elected demagogue who becomes corrupted by power • Leaders have a small group of loyal supporters for protection and control of the masses. Doctrine of three: head chest stomach The Soul 1. Reason 2. Spirit (zest) 3. Desire (for food, sex …) Castes of society 1. Governing 2. Protective 3. Productive
  51. 51. 56 Plato’s analogy of the cave
  52. 52. 57 The Republic
  53. 53. 58 Conclusion The Ancient Greeks are still with us, if hidden The problems they found, we find Our task is to think for ourselves Three philosophers augment our thinking
  54. 54. 59 1. The Origins of Western Ways The Pre-Socratic philosophers and Socrates began intellectual traditions that are still evident in Western philosophy, Western ways of living, and Western medicine. What are the pillars of Western thought which hold sway over our professional and private practices? What are the foundations of Western thought? Why did this distinctive approach to living occur? Parmenides and the Pythagoreans are important in this talk.
  55. 55. 60 1. The Origins西方方法论的起源 无论在西方哲学、西方生活方式还是西方医学中, 前苏格拉底时期的哲学家们和苏格拉底开创了知识 的传统是十分清楚的事实。一直以来影响着专业领 域研究和个人实践的西方思想的支柱是什么?西方 思想的基础是什么?为什么这个独特的生活方式和 方法会出现?巴门尼德和毕达哥拉斯学派的观点是 本次讲座的重点内容。
  56. 56. 61 Western metaphysics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rationality 合理性 Logic 逻辑性 Transcendence 超然性 Reality 现实性 Truth 真理 (next week) Evidence 证据 (next week)
  57. 57. Thank you Robert Shaw Guangdong University of Foreign Studies

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