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Business research methods Lecture 5


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Introduction to managerial research for masters students. This is their first talk on correlation and causation. It also deals with Kuhn and the notion of a paradigm.

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Business research methods Lecture 5

  1. 1. Business Research Methods for Masters students: Lecture 5 Dr Robert Shaw School of Management Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
  2. 2. Today 1. Course progression 2. Assessment 2 is due last day of course (week 15, December 15 December) 3. Lecture: Four research methods
  3. 3. Course objectives At the completion of this course students will be able to: 1.Identify and use research that is available through a university library and other online academic databases. 2.Write a cogent argument about some issue that relates to public policy, management or business and support their reasoning with quality research. ASSIGNMENT ONE 3.Produce basic scientific research which is of a good standard and shows the characteristics of research that is published in the business and management academic literature. ASSIGNMENT TWO
  4. 4. Task for 12 December 1. Completion of Assignment 2: - submit it both by email and in hard copy. 1. Send an email to your professor (“Business Research” in subject line) i. Attach your final paper. ii. Include the university cover page. iii. Your paper will be submitted to plagiarism software so make sure references are correct and you do not include anything taken from the internet without proper use and acknowledgement.
  5. 5. Lecture: Four research methods 1. Social science research methods & their links to business research 2. We consider: a. Historical method b. Descriptive / correlational methods c. Case study methodologies d. Experimental methods
  6. 6. Historical research Uses in social science research Uses in business research Criteria to judge such research Objectivity - Subjectivity Interpreation
  7. 7. Correlational research 1. Most common type of field study. 2. Description is a starting place. 3. Correlational coefficient, r 4. Two dangers: 1. Conceptual confusions (tautologies) 2. Causation claims
  8. 8. Correlational research 1. Relationships between variables. There are three possible results of a correlational study: a. a positive correlation b. a negative correlation, and c. no correlation. 2. The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00.
  9. 9. Correlational research 1.Bivariate data 2.Types of correlational studies (how, advantages & disadvantages) a. Naturalistic observation b. Survey methods c. Archival research
  10. 10. Correlational research - Pearson’s r An example follows: Raw values (X, Y) Calculate means for raw Deviation scores (value less mean) (x,y) Multiply the deviation scores Square each of the deviation scores Add everything up Calculate mean for deviation products
  11. 11. Height of the salesperson Height Number Sold 120 34 130 20 98 32 111 43 121 34 124 87 165 23 278 34 154 45 142 37 Do tall salesperson sell more? Watch out for the little trap.
  12. 12. Case studies What is the naturalistic method? Qualitative research Social science Business Purpose is everything Theory – real-world
  13. 13. Experimental research Scientific research(misnomer) Cause and effect Aristotle and the sacramental chalice Begins with a theory Variables – Independent (manipulated) Dependent (result)
  14. 14. Experimental research - bias Selection bias Placebo Effect Experimenter bias Control for bias Randomize Blind study – placebo, subject blind Double blind study – experimenter also blind Standardization, replication
  15. 15. Experimental research - bias Beliefs Cinematic photography
  16. 16. Experimental research - progress Paradigms How does science advance? Normal science – Revolutionary Science 1962 Thomas S Kuhn
  17. 17. Experimental research - progress Paradigms
  18. 18. Experimental research - progress Role of hypothesis Newton’s struggle What is a hypothesis today Law / theory Prediction Null hypotheses
  19. 19. End of Lecture 5 Wednesday 5 December 2012