Exploring Tools for Promoting Teacher Efficacy with mLearning (mlearn 2014 Presentation)
Exploring Tools to Promote Teacher
Efficacy with mLearning
College of the North Atlantic-Qatar
Dean Cristol & Belinda Gimbert
Ohio State University
@xPat_Letters @drdcristol &
“What is the single greatest barrier to the widespread
adoption of mobile learning strategies in K12 and
higher education institutions?”
“Teachers’ confidence in the technology and their
ability to use mobile learning in their own practice.”
Paraphrased exchange between Robert Power (moderator) and Dr. Mohamed Ally (panelist) at the
Panel Discussion on Tablet Deployment Initiatives at the 12th World Conference on Mobile and
Contextual Learning (mLearn 2013), Doha, Qatar
The Problem with Teacher Training
The current educational model is outdated because it
was developed before the advent of information and
communication technologies. The current model,
based on classroom-based face-to-face delivery, is
geared towards educating a certain segment of the
population. Also, teachers are being trained for the
current model of education, and will therefore
continue using the model when they become
teachers. Teacher training must be re-invented to
prepare teachers for the technology-enhanced
(Ally & Prieto-Blazquez, 2014)
The Problem with Our Understanding
of Teacher Efficacy
Lack of training in the pedagogical considerations for the
integration of a specific type of technology can have a
negative impact upon teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy
(Kenny, et al, 2010). However, Kenny et al. (2010) note
While a significant body of research exists on learners’ feelings of
self-efficacy concerning computer technology, online learning, and
even podcasting… this concept does not yet appear to have been
examined in any detail in a mobile learning context (p. 2).
The Essential Issues Addressed by
CSAM and the mTSES
• Put the focus on pedagogical decision-making.
– Tool #1: The CSAM Framework
• Determine if that approach has an impact on
teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy with
– Tool #2: The mTSES Instrument
What is CSAM?
• CSAM is:
– A summarization of the key pedagogical elements
present in recent case studies of the use of mobile RLOs
to facilitate collaborative learning.
– A framework to guide instructional design decision-
– Consistent with Activity Theory, the zone of proximal
development, Transactional Distance Theory, and FLOW
• CSAM is not:
– A new learning theory.
– A new model of instructional design.
Detailed meta-analysis of 403 chapters, journal
articles, and conference proceedings papers between
The ARCS Model
(Keller, 1987, 2013)
The FRAME Model
The TPACK Framework
(Koehler & Mishra,
Activity Theory and ZPD
Learning Theory, and
1. Does the Collaborative Situated Active Mobile (CSAM)
learning design framework provide teachers with an
increased sense of self-efficacy in the use of mobile
reusable learning objects (RLOs) to facilitate or
enhance collaborative learner interactions?
a) Do teachers perceive greater self-efficacy when
using the CSAM framework?
b) Do teachers perceive their use of mobile RLOs be
more effective when using the CSAM framework?
How to Measure Impact on
Perceptions of Self-Efficacy?
• Use the CSAM Learning Design Framework as the focus
of pedagogical decision making and self-reflective
practice in a short, online professional development
course on creating mobile reusable learning objects.
• Measure the impact of that training on participants’
perceptions of self-efficacy.
• Get feedback from participants on their perceptions of
self-efficacy and the use of CSAM to help make
instructional design decisions.
A Snapshot of the Intervention
Online Professional Development course called
Creating Mobile Reusable Learning Objects
Using Collaborative Situated Active Mobile
(CSAM) Learning Strategies.
• Hosted on the Canvas open LMS
• Accessed via computer or mobile device.
• Five modules, run over ten days (two days per
• Research survey instruments were embedded
as learning activities (to reduce extra time
commitments for participants).
• May 2014.
• Four institutions in Canada, the US, and Qatar.
• 72 participants enrolled for the course.
• 42 participants completed the Informed
Consent, and participated in the research
Measuring effects on perceptions of self-efficacy?
• Mixed-methods research:
– Mix of quantitative survey data and qualitative
feedback from follow-up interviews
• Design-Based Research:
– This study constitutes the first phase of a longer-
term DBR project. Subsequent phases will build
upon this research to inform iterative improvements
to the professional development course, and the
eventual development of an OER RLO (Anderson &
Shattuck, 2012; Cohen et al., 2011; Design-Based
Research Collective [DBRC], 2003)
• Combined Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)
and Mobile Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale
(mTSES) survey instruments (Benton-Borghi, 2006;
Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001a, 2001b)
– Pre and post-intervention surveys
– General sense of self-efficacy vs self-efficacy with
using mobile RLOs before and after the training
• Follow-up Interviews
– Qualitative feedback regarding the training, and
participants’ perceptions of self-efficacy with mobile
What is the mTSES?
• Modified version of the Ohio State
Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)
– Included slight alterations to question
wording to contextualize the survey for
– Followed procedures outlined by Benton-
• Original TSES and mTSES questions were
combined and administered together
Trends from the Qualitative Coding
Frequency counts of primary comment codes
Primary Codes Descriptions nSurvey nInterviews nTotal Most Common Sub-Theme
100 Framework Strengths 21 35 56 Guidance (n = 26)
200 Framework Weaknesses 1 12 13 Too narrow in scope (n = 6)
300 Course Strengths 1 50 51
Interaction / Feedback (n = 19),
Multiple learning resources (n = 11)
400 Course Weaknesses 6 12 18 Development tools (i.e Winksite™) (n = 8)
500 Self-Efficacy 0 0 0
600 Interest 11 31 42 May use mRLOs if appropriate opportunity arises (n = 18)
700 Other Barriers 1 22 23 Lack of institutional interest (n = 5)
800 Other Supports 6 25 31 Informal community of practitioners (n = 8)
Summary of Findings
• Participants enjoyed the professional development course.
• Participants expressed a perception that the CSAM framework
and the professional development course had increased their
understanding of, and confidence with, designing and using
mobile RLOs in their teaching practice.
• The mTSES results demonstrate increases in participants’
perceptions of self efficacy with the design and use of mobile
• Participants expressed increased interest in integrating mobile
RLOs into their teaching practice.
• Voluntary self-enrollment:
• Results may be limited to individuals with a pre-existing
interest in educational technology, mobile learning, and
• Four partner institutions:
• Results may not be generalizable beyond North American
• Participant demographics:
• Undergraduate education students and unemployed
teachers were not included in this study.
• Interview participation:
• Random or stratified-random sampling was not possible.
• Results may not be generalizable to the entire participant
Recommendations for the CSAM Course
• Longer duration.
• Incorporate a practicum.
• Incorporate a module or resource section on classroom
management considerations for mobile learning.
• Alternative development tools.
• Standalone mTSES tool.
• Multimedia tutorials.
• Community of practitioners.
Recommendations for Future Research
• First phase of a DBR project.
• Future phases should:
• Develop and seek feedback on recommended course refinements.
• Verify the findings from this study, and the applicability of those
findings to wider subsets of the teacher population.
• Redevelop survey instruments and interview questions to include
questions pertaining the reasons why participants perceived
changes in their perceptions of self-efficacy.
• Provide future offerings of the PD course in partnership with the
four collaborating institutions.
• Seek PD partnerships with additional institutions, and with a wider
range of participants.
Significance of This Research
• Demonstrated the utility of the CSAM framework.
• Explored the potential for CSAM-focused PD to increase teachers’ perceptions
• Development of an instrument to gauge teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy
with respect to designing and using mobile RLOs.
• mTSES can be used to compare effects of other training interventions on perceptions
of self-efficacy with mobile learning.
• Explored issues of instructional design competency and perceptions of self-
efficacy with the use of educational technologies that are becoming increasingly
pervasive in all sectors of education (F2F, blended, distance…).
• Contributed to the body of knowledge about how to better prepare teachers to
integrate mobile learning strategies and resources into instructional design at
any level of the education system.
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