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CSAM Poster


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My poster presentation on Collaborative Situated Active Mobile Learning from the Mobile Learning: Gulf Perspectives symposium, April 25, 2013, at Zayed University in Abu Dhabi, UAE

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CSAM Poster

  1. 1. 1. IntroductionEffective instructional design is not a haphazard affair.Careful attention must be paid to the selection ofinstructional strategies that fit with the objectives of thelearning activities, and with the needs of the learners.This principle holds true in the case of mobile learning(mLearning). Mobile devices should not be used for theirown sake. Rather, they should be drawn upon as aresource to facilitate a desired learning strategy such asCollaborative Situated Active mLearning. The selection ofsuch a learning strategy must not simply feel like a gooddesign choice. Strategic decision making must be basedupon sound learning theory and evidence of efficacy fromeducational research. Collaborative Situated ActivemLearning (CSAM) is just one of many learning strategiesthat employ mobile devices. It is grounded in suchfoundational work as Activity Theory, Flow theory, andTransactional Distance Theory. Guidance for strategicdesign decisions and the evaluation of instructional designcan be found in the FRAME model (Koole, 2009), whichdraws upon these theories in a mLearning context.Overview of QR CacheThe QR Cache research project was carried out at College ofthe North Atlantic-Qatar. Learners used mobile RLOsdesigned with CSAM principles to access information onEnglish-language terminology and basic facts aboutcomputer hardware devices and components.The aims of the QR Cache project were to determine theimpact of the RLO designs on learning, as well as learnerperceptions of using QR codes to access learning objects insituated contexts.3. CSAM Research in the Gulf Region: QR CacheFindings from QR Cache2. Theoretical GroundingFigure 4: The FRAME model(Koole, 2009, reproduced with permission)Transactional Distance Theory (Moore, 1989, 1991)5. Recommendations for Research andPracticeMobile Learning Research in the Gulf Region to answer the following questions:• How do Gulf students respond to SCAM strategies? Are they more appealing than othertraditional or technology-augmented classroom approaches?• Does the use of CSAM strategies have a positive impact upon student achievement? Do theysuccessfully impart soft skills not directly related to the overt curriculum?• Are CSAM strategies more effective in some subject areas than others?• Are CSAM strategies an appropriate approach in workplace learning contexts?Recommendations for Practice:• Heed the lessons learned from previous mLearning research and practice.• Apply the principles of Activity Theory, the zone of proximal development, Flow theory, andTransactional Distance Theory.• Accommodate the three domains of the FRAME model.• Use CSAM strategies to ensure a focus on proven theoretical grounding and effective practice.Activity TheoryZone of Proximal DevelopmentFlow TheoryReferencesAlly, M. (Ed). (2009). Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training. Edmonton, AB: AU Press. Retrieved from, M., Samaka, M. & Abu Dayya, A. (2012, October). Use of emerging mobile computer technology to train the Qatar workforce. Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings, 2012(CSP6). DOI: 10.5339/qfarf.2012.CSP6. Retrieved from reality: A different view of learning (2012). Access pathways. Retrieved from, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. Retrieved from, J. (2006). Flow theory. Flow in games. Retrieved from:, R.E. (1994a). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-30.Clark, R.E. (1994b). Media and method. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(3), 7-10.Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: Creativity and optimum functioning. Excerpt from the book ‘Finding Flow.’ Psychology Today, 46(5). Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.comElias, T. (2010). Universal instructional design principles for mobile learning. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 12(2), 143-156. Retrieved from, N., & Tracey, M. (2005). Does media affect learning: Where are we now? TechTrends, 49(2), 28-30.Impedovo M. A. (2011), Mobile learning and Activity Theory. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, English Edition, 7(2), 103-109. Retrieved fromärvilehto, L. (2012, October). Learning as fun: Introducing gaming pedagogy. Keynote presentation at the 11th Annual World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012), Helsinki, Finland. Retrieved from, V. & Nardi, B. (2006). Acting with technology: Activity theory and interaction design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Koole, M. L., (2009). A model for framing mobile learning. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training, 25-47. Edmonton, AB: AU Press. Retrieved from, R. (1994a). Will media influence learning? Reframing the debate. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 7 - 19.Kozma, R. (1994b). A reply: Media and methods. (1994). Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(3), 11 - 14.Moore, M., (1989). Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.Moore, M., (1991). Editorial: Distance education theory. The American Journal of Distance Education, 5(3), 1-6. Retrieved from, L. & Smith, M. P. (2009). Using mobile technologies for multimedia tours in a traditional museum setting. In M. Ally (Ed.), Mobile learning: Transforming the delivery of education and training, 248-264. Edmonton, AB: AU Press. Retrievedfrom, Y. (2011). A pedagogical framework for mobile learning: Categorizing educational applications of mobile technologies into four types. The International Review of Open and Distance Learning, 12(2), 78-102. Retrieved from, R. (2012a). QR Cache: Connecting mLearning practice with theory. In M. Specht, M. Sharples, & J. Multisilta (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Annual World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012) held in Helsinki, Finland,16-18 October 2012 (pp. 346-349). Retrieved from, R. (2012b, October). QR Cache: Linking mLearning theory to practice in Qatar. Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings, 2012(CSP31). DOI: 10.5339/qfarf.2012.CPS31. Retrieved from, B., Specht, M. & Klemke, R. (2012, October). An analysis of the educational potential of augmented reality games for learning. Paper presented at the 11th Annual World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2012),Helsinki, Finland.Sharples, M., Taylor, J. & Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a theory of mobile learning. Paper presented at the 4th Annual World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (mLearn 2005), Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved from, J. & Wishart, J., (2011). Making mobile learning work: Case studies of practice. Bristol: UK: ESCalate. Retrieved from Shaik, C. & Burkart, J. (2011). Social learning and evolution: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366(1567), 1008-1016. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0304. Retrieved from, D., Fraser, D. & Martin, S., (2011). Bringing school science to life: Personification, contextualization and reflection of self-collected data with mobile sensing technologies. In Traxler, J. & Wishart, J. (Eds), Making mobile learning work:Case studies of practice, 23-28. Bristol: UK: ESCalate. Retrieved from strategies create Flow.An ideal mLearning strategy will providejust enough interest and challenge to keepthe learner engaged, but not so muchchallenge that the learner will becomeoverwhelmed (and give up)Figure 2: The flow zone in Flowtheory (Chen, 2006)Figure 1: Using CSAM strategies has a positive effect upon the zone of proximal developmentThe FRAME ModelCSAM strategies arecomply with FRAMEThe Framework for the Rational Analysisof Mobile Education (Koole, 2009)focuses mLearning design on threecritical domains:1. Device Aspect2. Learner Aspect3. Social AspectCSAM strategies aim to reduce the distance between:Learner ↔ ContentLearner ↔ LearnerLearner ↔ InstructorSubjects (learners) Interact with Objects(physical items, tasks, goals…)To produce Artefacts(knowledge, products, etc…)Try it Yourself!How much do you know aboutthese items?• What are they called?• What do they do?Scan this QR Code to learnmore about these items usingan actual CSAM RLO from theQR Cache Project! this QR Code to access the QR Cache Research Project Wiki(or go to this QR Code to learnmore about these items usingan actual CSAM RLO from theQR Cache Project! Create Your Own MobileRLOs site is an example of aCSAM compliant mobile RLOdesigned to help instructorsstart integrating effectivemLearning resources intotheir teaching and learningpractice4. Getting Starting Building Your Own CSAM RLOsResources Include:• An overview of mLearning• CSAM design principles• Step-by-step guide to build simpleRLOs• Questions for self-reflection onyour mobile RLO designs• A forum for connecting and sharingmobile RLO experiencesScan this QR Code to learnmore about the theoreticalfoundations of CSAM! Rob