Gender issues and bushmeat

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Gender issues and bushmeat

  1. 1. Gender Issues and Bushmeat N. Van Vliet, R. Nasi IUFRO-FORNESSA Conference, Nairobi, June 2012
  2. 2. What are the roles and contributions of men and women in the use and trade of bushmeat, along the bushmeat trade chain? From hunting to consumption, passing through trade and food preparation, do they differ?
  3. 3. Bushmeat Basin Dense Forest (km2) Population (x1000) Consumption (tonne/meat/yr) Extracted (t/yr) Rural Urban Rural Urban 3,938,000 14,425 24,352 909,000 small 1,299,000 1,612,000 57,046 41,199 2,909,000 289,000 4,569,000 Amazon Congo If bushmeat consumption in the Congo Basin was to be replaced by locally produced beef, an area as large as 25 million hectares might have to be converted to pastures. Nasi, Van Vliet, Taber 2011
  4. 4. L TheA Bushmeat Market Chain Prey Hunters Final consumers in rural areas Final consumers in urban areas Retailers Transporters Wholesalers
  5. 5. Hunting Is generally considered a ”man” only activity
  6. 6. Hunting Women are sometimes directly involved in hunting….. • Romanoff (1983) describes Matses women in the Peruvian Amazon who accompany their husbands, helping to chase and kill animals • Hurtado et al. (1985) indicate that Ache women in Paraguay help men search for and transport captured animals, occasionally killing animals themselves. • Biesele and Barcaly (2001) describe excellent Ju/'hoan women trackers of large game who accompany their husbands and contribute substantially to their hunting success.) © Kumpel N.
  7. 7. Hunting Women often push or encourage hunting "Women are the arms of the dibouka” [throw of the nets] (McCreedy, 1994:15) The Aka conducted a bobanda ritual when net-hunting was not successful. Men organized the ritual and pleaded with women to participate because women's enthusiasm and energy were viewed as crucial to the success of the ritual and future nethunting.
  8. 8. Hunting Women often push for hunting “If a certain man goes hunting but I don’t go, my wife might even start loving that man.” (Man, age 32) Tanzania, FZS: Asanterabi Lowassa (asante.kweka@gmail.com)
  9. 9. LA FILIÈRE VIANDE DE BROUSSE Chain The Bushmeat Market Prey Hunters Final consumers in rural areas Final consumers in urban areas Retailers Transporters Wholesalers
  10. 10. Transporting Men are mostly involved in transport from the source to urban areas but women are often involved in transport when buying in the forest to sell on the markets
  11. 11. LA FILIÈRE VIANDE DE BROUSSE Chain The Bushmeat Market Prey Hunters Final consumers in rural areas Final consumers in urban areas Retailers Transporters Wholesalers
  12. 12. Wholesalers and retailers Women are invloved in the trade from retailers, wholesalers, restaurants, prepared bushmeat meals sold in markets or in the street
  13. 13. Income Purchasing: the income generated by women is invested in food In urban areas: “In Kisangani, protein and bushmeat consumption by children was not correlated with the father´s profession (Correspondence Factor Analysis, Wilks Lambda test, protein: p=0,96; bushmeat: p=0,7) nor with the mother’s profession (protein: p=0,1; bushmeat: p=0,3) (Table 5). However, children whose mother had an income generating activity, ate more proteins and significantly more bushmeat than the others (protein: p=0,14; bushmeat: p=0,05).” van Vliet et al., submitted
  14. 14. Income Purchasing: the income generated by women is invested in food In rural areas: ”Over half of the money spent by men in the village shop was on alcohol and cigarettes, and the amount and proportion of income spent on these items increased substantially with increases in individual hunting offtake. By contrast, the majority of purchases made by women were of food, but their food purchases decreased actually and proportionally with increased household hunting offtake”.
  15. 15. LA FILIÈRE VIANDE DE BROUSSE Chain The Bushmeat Market Prey Hunters Final consumers in rural areas Final consumers in urban areas Retailers Transporters Wholesalers
  16. 16. Consumption Bushmeat preferences by gender South west Cameroun, van Vliet and Nasi, unpublished) (N=345) women preferences monkey 10% men preferences cane rat 5% monkey 6% pangolin 6% pangolin 11% cane rat 11% red duikers 5% blue duiker 3% porcupine 61% red duikers 9% blue duiker 2% porcupine 46% Bats, nile monitor, fox and gorilla were only mentioned by men; elephants were clearly prefered by women (78% of the votes were from women)
  17. 17. Consumption Bushmeat consumption patterns by gender Uganda: Oluput et al., 2009
  18. 18. Consumption Bushmeat consumption patterns by gender Vietnam: Drury, 2011 ”Men were significantly more likely to report having eaten wildmeat in the last 12 months (p<0,01). However, gender played no significant role in consumption wild animal derived medicinal products. Both men and women consider wildmeat as a male food, typically associated with male activities. Most female consumers interviewed had been invited to eat wildmeat by male colleagues, friends or family members and were generally less enthousiastic and less knowledgeble about wildmeat than male consumers”
  19. 19. Consumption Bushmeat consumption patterns by gender ”Results indicated that age and sex of the respondent did not affect consumption, but ethnic group was statistically significant for the three study species.”
  20. 20. Consumption Consumption taboos for men and women Women that eat bay duiker could have periods for ever (Kota, Gabon)
  21. 21. Consumption Consumption taboos for men and women Women that eat Neotragus while pregnant will have epileptic children (Kota, Gabon)
  22. 22. Consumption Consumption taboos for men and women Young men and women that eat yellow back duiker will never marry, only elder people consume it (Kota, Gabon)
  23. 23. Conclusions • The overall trade chain is gender balanced • Differences in the contribution of bushmeat to income: In Urban areas, bushmeat contributes to income for women, whereas in rural areas it contributes to the income of men. • Women invest more on food, whereas men tend to spend more money on non necessities • There are gender differences in bushmeat consumption patterns • Knowledge on these relative gender roles is key to the development of alternatives to ensure that measures target the right audienc
  24. 24. Thank you

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