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Middle Ages


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This presentation provides an overview of the Middle Ages

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Middle Ages

  1. 1. Battle of Hastings October 14, 1066  Edward the Confessor dies, no heir  Recommends Harold as king  Duke William of Normandy says he was promised throne  Norman invasion becomes William I, the first king of the Middle Ages
  2. 2. The Bayeux Tapestry is a pictorial record of the Battle of Hastings. It is an artwork made with needle point that measures approximately 220 feet.
  3. 3. William I * Norman - brings his language to England *Orders the creation of the Domesday Book - an inventory and census of all of England’s wealth * Used for taxing purposes
  4. 4. The Normans placed great emphasis on religion. Starting with William I, large amounts of money were set aside for the building of cathedrals. The Normans built cathedrals in Ely (1083), Peterborough (1118) and Durham (1099)
  5. 5. Feudal System  King Rules entire country  Divides kingdom and gives to fifes (vassals)  Fifes rule own section (laws, taxes, protection)  Fifes pay king and provide army  System creates serfs farmed land but did not own it.
  6. 6. Women • Had few rights • Ruled by father, brother or husband • Not allowed to own land worked at home and raised children or became a nun • Marriages arranged for political reasons
  7. 7. Chivalry • Regulated the behavior of gentlemen according to fixed moral principles - A code of ethics for knights • 1. Loyal to feudal obligations • 2. Generous to church • 3. Respectful of church authority • 4. Do not break an oath
  8. 8. Courtly Love • Romantic idealization of love • Compensation for brutal existence • Lover, not husband, adored women • Believed there was no true love in marriage • Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
  9. 9. Crusades Religious wars that took place from 1095-1270 (7 major waves) Christians serving God waged war on Islamic countries Key is conversion Believed they had a better chance to get to heaven Richard I - held for ransom by Leopold of Austria Robin Hood
  10. 10. Eleanor of Aquitaine • Married to Louis VII (two daughters) and Henry II (four sons and two daughters • Helped her sons plot against their father • Spent ten years in prison • Perhaps the most powerful woman of the Middle Ages
  11. 11. Henry II vs. Thomas Becket • King of England best friend of Thomas • Husband to Eleanor of Aquitaine • Archbishop of Canterbury England’s highest religious office • Conflict with Henry II • Sons worked against him • Two (Richard and John) become kings • Murdered on the Steps of Canterbury Cathedral
  12. 12. Magna Carta • Signed by King John in 1215 (forced) • Took power away from pope and king • Gave nothing to common people only more power to the aristocrats • Basis for English constitutional law
  13. 13. The Black Death • Killed 1/3 of Europe (25 million) • Passed through fleas • Painful death • Helped surviving workers
  14. 14. Hundred Years War • First national war between England and France • English lose most of land held in France • Typical knight is replaced by landowners(yeomen) with longbows • Edward the Black Prince at Poitiers - Henry V at Agincourt - Joan of Arc at Orleans