Real time embedded assessments 8 8-13


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  • Poll Title: What is the largest factor determining the use of technology in a school?

  • Poll Title: Why?

  • What is the most important reason for public schools in Michigan?
  • Real time embedded assessments 8 8-13

    1. 1. Learning-Centered Leadership Development Program for Practicing and Aspiring Principals August 8-10
    2. 2. 2 Real Time Embedded Assessments Goals: 1. To understand the different types of assessments. 2. To understand the impact formative assessments have on student achievement. 3. To understand the how teacher evaluations, both formative and summative impact student achievement.
    3. 3. Real Time Embedded Assessments What are assessments? What is the purpose of these assessments? Do these assessments provide the data we need? Do grades motivate students? Should teachers take responsibility for student learning? 3
    4. 4. Real Time Embedded Assessments Kellough (1999) lists the purposes of assessments • To assist student learning • To identify students’ strengths and weaknesses • To assess the effectiveness of a particular instructional strategy • To assess and improve the effectiveness of curriculum programs • To assess and improve teaching effectiveness • To provide data that assist in decision making • To communicate with and involve parents 4
    5. 5. Real Time Embedded Assessments Kellough also suggests that students need the answers to the following questions: • Where am I going? • Where am I now? • How do I get where I am going? • How will I know when I get there? • Am I on the right track for getting there? 5
    6. 6. Types of Assessments Marzano (2010) suggests that there are three types of assessments 1. Obtrusive – interrupts the normal flow of activity in the classroom 2. Unobtrusive – do not interrupt the flow of instruction 3. Student generated – students generate ideas about the manner in which they will demonstrate their current status on a given topic 6
    7. 7. Types of Assessments (cont.) • Normed Referenced (look actual data)%tiles vs standard – a designated standard of average performance of people of a given age, background, etc • Criterion Referenced – one that provides for translating test scores into a statement about the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter 7
    8. 8. Types of Assessments (cont.) • Authentic - A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills • Portfolios - A portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that exhibits the student's efforts, progress, and achievements in one or more areas of the curriculum • Observation - teachers observe whether students achieve the learning goals 8
    9. 9. Types of Assessments (cont.) • Formative - Information gathered and reported for use in the development of knowledge and skills • Summative - Information gathered and reported for use in judging the outcome of student knowledge and skills 9
    10. 10. Summative Assessments • State tests (MEAP, MME, etc) • District benchmark • Chapter tests • Unit tests • Final exams • All are graded in some form • Typical grades often provide false information • How do we turn these scores into usable grades 10
    11. 11. Formative Assessments - definitions Bell and Cowie (2001) ―the process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to learning in order to enhance that learning, during the learning.‖ Popham (2008) as a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students’ status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics. 11
    12. 12. Formative Assessments - definitions Garrison and Ehringhaus (2011) view formative assessments as providing the information necessary to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening. 12
    13. 13. Formative Assessments Research has shown the formative assessments implemented properly provide dramatic gains in learning. The work of Black and William (1998) found that the gains in learning by using formative assessments were ―amongst the largest ever reported for educational interventions.‖ Formative assessment works and there is no particular formula to follow and it appears to work very well for slow learners (Popham, 2008) 13
    14. 14. Formative Assessment Marzano (2010) explains the elements of formative assessment • Formative assessment is a process, not any particular test • It is used not just by teachers, but by both teachers and students • Formative assessment takes place during instruction 14
    15. 15. Marzano’s Elements (cont.) • It provides assessment-based feedback to teachers and students • The function of this feedback is to help teachers and students make adjustments that will improve students’ achievement of intended curricular aims 15
    16. 16. Formative Assessment Please take a few minutes and discuss the following term and be ready to provide the results. • Polynomials 16
    17. 17. Formative Assessment • Polynomials Literal meaning is many numbers An expression consisting of the sum of two or more terms each of which is the product of a constant and a variable raised to an integral power: ax 2 + bx + c similar expression in more than one variable, as 4 x 2 y 3 − 3 xy + 5 x + 7 17
    18. 18. Formative Assessments Please take a few minutes and discuss the following term and be ready to provide the results. • Quadratic Equations 18
    19. 19. Formative Assessments • Quadratic Equations An equation containing a single variable of degree 2. Its general form is ax 2 + bx + c = 0, where x is the variable and a, b, and c are constants ( a ≠ 0). 19
    20. 20. Feedback Effective feedback is critical in the formative assessment process. Students need to know what skills and knowledge they are to gain, how close are they to achieving those skills, and what do they need to do next in order to be a successful learner. Provides motivation for students. 20
    21. 21. Feedback Hattie and Timperley (2007) model for feedback • Feedback about the task – whether answers are right or wrong or directions to get more information. • Feedback about the processing of the task – strategies used or strategies that could be used. • Feedback about self-regulation – feedback about student self evaluation or self confidence. • Feedback about the student as a person. 21
    22. 22. Feedback Marzano’s (2003) best ways to use feedback • Feedback should be ―corrective‖ in nature – provide students with an explanation of what they did right and wrong. • Feedback should be timely – immediately following an assessment 22
    23. 23. Marzano Feedback (cont.) • Feedback should be specific to a criterion – it should reference a specific level or skill or knowledge. • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback – students keeping track of their performance as learning occurs. 23
    24. 24. Feedback Marzano indicates that feedback must be based on criterion or goals. • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on. • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals. 24
    25. 25. Goals Brookhart (2008) states that teachers must be sure to do the following with each assignment: • Require student work to demonstrate the content knowledge or skills specified in the learning target. • Require students to demonstrate the cognitive process specified in the learning target. 25
    26. 26. Brookhart (cont.) • Provide students with complete and clear directions. • Specify the criteria for good work (which will be the criteria for both feedback and final evaluation). 26
    27. 27. Feedback (Brookhart) Criterion Referenced: Comparing student work to a learning target Self Referenced: Comparing a student’s work today with his or her own previous past performance 27
    28. 28. Feedback Strateties Timing • Provide immediate feedback for knowledge of facts • Delay feedback slightly for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing • Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students • Provide feedback as often as is practical, for all major assignments 28
    29. 29. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Amount • Prioritize – pick the most important points • Choose points that relate to major learning goals • Consider the student’s developmental level 29
    30. 30. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Mode • Select the best mode for the message. Would a comment in passing the student’s desk suffice? Is a conference needed? • Interactive feedback is best • Give written feedback on written work • Use demonstration if how to do something is an issue 30
    31. 31. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Audience • Individual feedback makes the student feel the teacher values their learning • Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the concept – re-teaching opportunity 31
    32. 32. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Focus • When possible, describe both the work and the process • Comment on the student’s self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy • Avoid personal comments 32
    33. 33. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Function • Describe – don’t judge Valence • Use positive comments that describe what was done well • Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement 33
    34. 34. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Clarity • Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand • Tailor the amount and content of feedback to the student’s developmental level 34
    35. 35. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Specificity • Make the degree of specificity to the student and the task • Make feedback specific enough that they know what to do, but not so specific that it is done for them • Identify errors or types of errors, but do not correct everyone – leave some for the student to correct 35
    36. 36. Feedback Strategies (cont.) Tone • Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work • Choose words that position the student as the agent • Choose words that cause students to think or wonder 36
    37. 37. Types of Learners Successful Students • Successful students are typically interested in school and learning and want to do well on assignments. • They also greatly benefit from constructive feedback on their skills and knowledge. • These students do self-assessments spontaneously whether or not the teacher provides opportunities for this activity. 37
    38. 38. Types of Learners Successful Students (cont.) • Teachers may often neglect to provide feedback to these successful students to spend more time with slower learners. • Successful students will achieve even more with proper feedback. • No student should be neglected by the teacher even though they are perceived as successful. 38
    39. 39. Types of Learners Struggling Students • Struggling students are those who have fallen behind in school or haven’t had positive learning experiences. • These students struggle when they view the large gap in their knowledge based on criterion. • Therefore, criterion-referenced feedback is not the best choice for these students. 39
    40. 40. Types of Learners Struggling Students (cont.) • Self-referenced is much more applicable – comparing their current work to previous work. • It is important to make suggestions for improvement in small steps for struggling students. • Gradual and small improvements are better for the students than being overwhelmed and not improving at all. 40
    41. 41. Types of Learners Reluctant Students • These are students who perceive themselves as failures are accustomed to viewing any kind of feedback as confirmation that they are stupid. • All they hear is what they did wrong. • The natural tendency for teachers is to do just that, tell the students what they did wrong. 41
    42. 42. Types of Learners Reluctant Students (cont.) • Reluctant students will benefit from self-referenced assessments. • This may take more time, but when students see success and progress, they become more willing to put forth effort into the learning process. 42
    43. 43. How Technology Can Help • Provide feed back to students in ways that enable the students to learn better. • Eliminated the drudgery of assessment. 43
    44. 44. How Technology Can Help • Assessing students more accurately, efficiently, and quickly. • Make evaluating student skills unobtrusive and easy. 44
    45. 45. 45 Does your school allow Mobile Phone in the Classroom?
    46. 46. How Technology Can Help • Individualized assessment • Immediate nature of the assessment 49
    47. 47. Real Time Assessment • Create virtual real- time picture of which students need help, where they need it, and how the teachers can help them best. 50
    48. 48. How Technology Can Help • Enhancing formative assessment with technology enables teachers to embed assessment into instruction and provide immediate feedback. • It has become cheaper (sometimes free) and easier to use. 51
    49. 49. Technology Quiz • The largest factor in determining use of technology in a school? 1. Technology budget 2. Amount of professional development 3. Teachers interest 4. Principal interest 52
    50. 50. Quiz Answer The largest factor in determining use of technology in a school is the Principal’s interest that it be used 53
    51. 51. What Type of Technology? • Differential Instruction • Rubrics • White Boards and Clickers • Problem Based Learning • Infographics • ePortfolios • Digital Storytelling • Students as Teachers • Commercial Tools and Games • Free Internet Tools 54
    52. 52. Free Internet Tools • Socrative • Quizlet • Infographics • ASSISTments • Star Fall • ePals • Twitter in Education 55
    53. 53. Socrative Demo 56
    54. 54. • A free public service to teach children to read with phonics. • 57
    55. 55. Grand Prize for a Grand Idea • One school will receive a one year Adobe Creative Cloud membership to have complete access to all Adobe products on the Creative Cloud. 58
    56. 56. Acrobat Demo Create your own ePortfolio with Acrobat XI Pro 59
    57. 57. What’s Next? • Learning Analytics - enable teachers and schools to tailor educational opportunities to each student's level of need and ability. 60
    58. 58. Personal Learning Environments • PLEs- allow students and teachers to direct their own learning by themselves or in groups. They generally involve a number of tools that learners choose to use as they learn. 61
    59. 59. 62
    60. 60. Assessing Teacher Performance Real Example from a Texas school • Pat Davenport’s reform efforts in Brazosport, Texas – where she served as Assistant Superintendent of Curriculum and Instruction—were chronicled in the best- selling book: Closing the Achievement Gap: No Excuses (2002) 63
    61. 61. Assessing Teacher Performance 1. Pre-test (data disaggregation) 2. Create time lines (instructional calendars) 3. Direct instruction (instructional focus) 4. Regular assessment 1 to 3 weeks or less 5. Re-teach (tutorials) 6. Enrichment 7. Maintenance 8. Monitor 64
    62. 62. Assessing Teacher Performance The 8 Step Process By Patricia Davenport and Peggy Hinkley • ng_piece.169194314.pd... 65
    63. 63. Assessing Performance Linking Student Assessment With Teacher and Administrator Performance Evaluations Pat Reeves 66
    64. 64. Real Time Embedded Assessment And Determining and Supporting Teacher/Administrator Growth • Real-time, embedded assessments provide information about performance and growth as learning or performance improvement is taking place (versus after the fact or ex post facto) • They also provides real-time feedback to learners and performers so they can use that feedback to guide future improvement or learning efforts 67
    65. 65. Assessing Teacher/Administrator Performance What role do you think Real-Time, Embedded Assessments will/should play in Educator Evaluations? 68
    66. 66. Assessing Teacher/Administrator Performance Let’s Examine the new and final Report and Recommendations from the Michigan Council for Educator Effectiveness for clues and implications 69
    67. 67. Assessing Teacher/Administrator Performance The Michigan Council On Educator Effectiveness (MCEE) July 23 Report and Recommendations to the Michigan State Legislature 70
    68. 68. Assessing Teacher/Administrator Performance • What is in the report and recommendations? • How will the recommendations affect teachers and principals? • How do the recommendations link with Real Time, Embedded Assessment? 71
    69. 69. The MCEE Recommendations • Four Options for Teacher Evaluation • Two Options for Administrator Evaluation • Funding Recommendations • Growth and Value Added Components • Timelines • Training and Support • Other Considerations 72
    70. 70. Teacher Evaluation Options 1. Danielson’s Framework for Teaching 2. Marzano’s Teacher Evaluation Model 3. Silver and Stronge’s Thoughtful Classroom 4. Five Dimensions of Teaching and Learning – One will become the ―State Tool based on a competitive RFP process‖ – State will provide base funding – May use one of the other three, but pay any cost differential – Must apply for a waiver to use any other tool/system 73
    71. 71. Administrator Evaluation Options 1. D. Reeves’ Leadership Performance Rubric 2. P. Reeves’ and P. McNeill’s School ADvance Administrator Evaluation System (through MASA/MI-ASCD) – One will become the ―State tool based on a competitive RFP process‖ – State will provide base funding – May use either, but pay any cost differential – Must apply for a waiver to use any other tool/system 74
    72. 72. Teacher Effectiveness Factors 75 Teacher Evaluation Factors Observ/Eval Tool Data Other Practice Measures Building-Level VAMs Teacher Level VAMs Other Student Growth Data 40% 10%5% 25%
    73. 73. Administrator Evaluation Factors 76 Administrator Evaluation FactorsPractice Measures (based on evaluation tool and parent, student, and teacher feedback) Student Growth Measures (including attendance, and other SIP measures)
    74. 74. Practice Observations • All persons contributing observations to an educator’s practice rating must be trained by the tool vendor on observations using the evaluation tool and undergo supervised practice • Principal must conduct, at least, one of the required multiple observations (no less than three) which are factored into the practice rating. At least one observation must be unscheduled • Observers should provide useful developmental (specific and focused on development) feedback on the practice of the person being observed • Practice evidence can include student and parent feedback (plus teacher for administrators) and portfolio documentation but not count for more than 20 % of the practice rating. 77
    75. 75. Growth and Value Added Components • State will continue to develop, select, support assessments aligned to state=adopted content standards in all core curriculum areas (English, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies) • Also for assessments in high-volume, non-core areas where state-adopted standards exist (Arts, Health, Physical Education, Career and Technical Education and many high school electives) 78
    76. 76. Growth and Value Added Components Continued • State will provide guidelines for evaluating 3rd party and locally developed assessments and training on rigor in the development and measurement of student learning objectives • State will provide (where possible and professionally responsible) Value-Added Modeling (VAM) scores for educators on state assessments in core areas. • For non-core areas LEAs can use either State VAM scores or local Growth Scores 79
    77. 77. Growth and Value Added Components Continued • VAM scores can be used for a teacher’s evaluation even if that teacher does not directly teach that subject if there is a reasonable connection to what the teacher does teach or the support that teacher provides • Collective school-wide VAM scores can be used as a 10% factor in teachers’ evaluations as long as there is a reasonable connection between the score area and the teacher • Where no State VAM score exists, teachers can be evaluated based on alternative Growth measures 80
    78. 78. Growth and Value Added Components Continued • The Growth portion of Administrators’ evaluations will be based on progress made on school or district level improvement plans and will include: – School or District Level State VAM Scores with Reading and Match scores rated equally – Other Local Growth Measures (e.g. student learning objectives, graduation rates, local common assessments, State provided assessments in non-VAM score areas, vendor provided assessments in any content areas, pass/fail rates, % of students on track to graduate on-time, etc. – Student Attendance rates 81
    79. 79. Performance Rating Categories • Professional (includes effective and highly effective or their equivalents from evaluation instruments • Provisional (equates to minimally effective or its equivalent from evaluation instruments) • Ineffective (equates to ineffective or its equivalent from evaluation instruments) 82
    80. 80. Implications of Educator Effectiveness Ratings • All educators (including those rated Professional) must have a professional growth plan) • After 3 consecutive years of Professional Ratings, can be placed on alternating year evaluation and growth plan cycle • After 3 consecutive years of Provisional Ratings, the educator should be ―counseled out of current role‖ • After 2 consecutive years of Ineffective Ratings, the educator should be terminated from employment in current LEA • 3 consecutive years of Professional Ratings required to move from Provisional to Professional Certificate • Provisional renewal after 3 years based on progress toward Professional Ratings and district recommendations • Lay-off , recall, and compensation all tied to Effectiveness Ratings 83
    81. 81. Implications for the Use of REAL- TIME, EMBEDDED Assessments • Summative Assessment Results now extremely high stakes • Educators will not want to wait for Summative Results to know where they stand • Real-Time Embedded Assessments provide means to monitor progress and make adjustments before the high stakes assessments occur • Educators can include student work samples and other formative and benchmark assessments in their evidence portfolios and may need the additional evidence • Educators can use classroom assessments to check curriculum alignment with high stakes summative assessments 84
    82. 82. How Will these Recommendations Affect Educators in Your School? • How will you communicate what you know? • How will you and your staff engage in district decision making? • How are you using Real-Time Embedded Assessments Now; and • How might that need to change? 85
    83. 83. Some Broader Considerations • How will you work with your staff to make sense of the connections between the following : – The mission of serving all students well; – The importance of building of a culture of collaboration and professionalism in the school; and – The desire of each educator for personal success? • How can Real-Time, Embedded Assessments serve all three goals? 86
    84. 84. Follow Developments 87