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Gary ppt june 24, 2013 3


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The PowerPoint from Dr. Gary Wegenke's presentation on Cultural Expectations.

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Gary ppt june 24, 2013 3

  1. 1. Learning-Centered Leadership Development Program for Practicing and Aspiring Principals June 24 - 26 Dimension 3: High, Cohesive, and Culturally Relevant Expectations for Students
  2. 2. Introduction The 2012 – 2013 school year is history! 2 We took pride at _________ school this school year by accomplishing ____________________________.
  3. 3. What Lies Within…. • What lies behind us, and what lies ahead of us are tiny matter compared to what lies within us…as principals and aspiring principals. • The assumption that all students can learn and achieve academically at high levels starts with school leaders understanding themselves…as well as the principal’s role. 3
  4. 4. 4 Wheel of Learning (Individuals and Groups) Reflecting Connecting Doing Deciding More Concrete More Abstract More Action More Reflection Human beings need time to reflect, co nnect, det ermine priorities, and take action K/RESA May 1, 2002 Reflection and Connection
  5. 5. You are Your Experiences and Beliefs 5 Principal’s Role Over a 30 year period, the principal’s role evolved from Program Manager  Institutional Leader - Schedules - Curriculum - Facilities - Instruction - Discipline - Assessment (Hallenger and Heck, 1998)
  6. 6. You are Your Experiences and Beliefs 6 Principal’s Role Currently the “principalship” is being reinvented to meet 21st century societal challenges… • More diverse student bodies • Technology as an instructional tool • Academic achievement/professional accountability • Expectations to lead/constant change
  7. 7. You are Your Experiences and Beliefs 7 Principal’s Role Research has demonstrated an “undeniable correlation” between effective school leadership and student achievement. (Shen, 1998); (McNulty and Waters, 2004) Conclusion: create “process/strategies” uniting teachers/staff/parents to pursue “higher goals” related to student achievement. Write student achievement goals in schools renewal plans by stating with: • In 2013-14, our students “will”… rather than • In 2013-14, our students “may”…
  8. 8. Reflection and Connection 8 School Leadership in Thinking: Join together the dots without picking up your writing instrument.
  9. 9. High Expectations: Beliefs and Will 9 Principal’s Role Schools that establish high expectations for all students – and provide the necessary support to achieve these expectations – have high rates of success. (Edmonds, 1986); (Brookover, 1989); (Quinn, 2002) Successful schools: academic emphasis, clear expectations, high levels of student participation, alternative support systems. (Cotton, 2003); (Luthwood, Riehl, 2003); (Gamage, 2006).
  10. 10. High Expectations: Beliefs and Will 10 Principal’s Role Successful programs: preventing youth at risk of academic failure and dropping out of school have demonstrated: • A student’s relationships with significant people (ie., principals, teachers and parents) having “high expectations” makes a difference. All students need someone who is their advocate and believes in the student’s ability to succeed. Convey “high expectations” and “hope” by: • Expressing: “I won’t give up on you” • Respecting: a student’s strengths • Building: on a student’s interests
  11. 11. Cohesiveness: Challenge for 21st Century Leaders 11 Cohesiveness Defined The human band that ties groups of people together as they attempt to achieve the groups purpose or reason to exist. Group cohesiveness is focused on: • group members need to feel their participation is valued • group members perceive they can make an important contribution to the group’s effectiveness • compatibility between our individual personal goals and the groups goals • extent a leader and group members can work cooperatively between and among themselves. (Forsyth, 1986)
  12. 12. Cohesiveness: School Culture 12 School Culture – The interwoven pattern of beliefs, values, practices and artifacts of the professional learning community. Who “they” are and How “they” are to function (Bohlman & Deal 1997) School culture take on life through peoples actions: In schools; • Collaborative collegiality • High expectations • Trust & expectations
  13. 13. Cohesiveness: Shaping School Culture 13 Principal’s Role Question: What shapes school culture? Response: A school culture conducive to effective teaching and learning accounts for the “underground stream” of norms, values, beliefs and tradition of school stakeholders as they work together… (Peterson and Deal, 1994) Influence: Shape the culture by: • Creating a shared leadership • Collaborating where possible • Risk-taking to address complex student needs
  14. 14. Cohesiveness: Building Trust 14 Principal’s Role Keys to Success: The key to developing cooperative interaction and cohesiveness in a group is the development and maintenance of a high level of trust among group members. Johnson & Johnson (2003) Gragin & Johnson (1995) suggest: • Practice two-way communication • Giving information is not the end, receiving feedback is • Utilize face-to-face communication as often as possible • Examine each statement for clarity and understanding • Learn to listen: Ask questions to demonstrate interest and respect for others • Trust and credibility go together
  15. 15. Cohesiveness: Mission and Vision 15 Question: Why spend organizational time and energy to develop a school system mission and vision statement? Reason 1. Helen Keller: What would be worse than being born blind? …To have sight without vision. Reason 2. “Alice in Wonderland": “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there.” Reason 3. A teacher: “People as a result of our school’s vision statement are beginning to speak the same language, they have the same kinds of expectations for one another, and our students.”
  16. 16. Cohesiveness: Mission and Vision 16 Principal’s role To understand and convey to the school community the difference between a “mission statement” and “vision statement.” Both statements can inspire positive action, however… A Mission statement defines the fundamental purpose of a school system providing a “snapshot” of where the system desires to be in the future. Vision statements focus on conveying the direction a school system is moving through clearly stated goals
  17. 17. Cohesiveness: Mission and Vision 17 Principal’s role A mission statement can be further refined into a vision statement that becomes a source of inspiration. The vision statement leads toward specific goals. Example 1) The mission of the …public schools is to provide educational opportunities which enable students of all aspirations and abilities to grow and learn. Example 2) A statement of vision…elementary school will by the end of the 2013-14 academic year increase academic achievement of 4th grade students by 2-5%. The goal will compare a student’s 3rd grade test results on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills with cohorts in the 4th grade.
  18. 18. Cohesiveness: Mission and Vision 18 Principal’s role A principal’s “visionary leadership” makes a difference in his/her ability to inspire and influence internal processes linked to student learning. These internal processes include: • Establishing a school mission (or “responsibility statement”) • Setting academic expectations with clear stated goals • Identifying student learning opportunities • Protecting instructional time
  19. 19. Cohesiveness: Mission and Vision 19 Question(s): Does your school system have a mission statement? Vision statements? In summary: Mission – Directs our attention towards a future state of affairs. Must be clear, concise, trusted as real, shared and believed to be doable (Terry, 1993). Vision – An inspiring declaration of a compelling dream, accompanied by a clear scenario of how it will be accomplished. (Whitaker & Moses, 1994). High Expectations – Setting academic goals had an effect size of 0.55 standard deviations higher than the achievement scores for classes where clear learning goals were not established, Marzano (2003)…translates into a 21% percentage difference in achievement.
  20. 20. I Have a Dream: Exercise 20 Visionary Leadership Martin Luther King Jrs. – “I Have a Dream Speech” to be adapted to a school vision statement. (Handout)
  21. 21. Reflection and Connection 21 School-Based Leadership: It takes a school system to develop, implement, and monitor… high cohesive… expectations for all students. However, it takes a school to be the achievement and performance center.
  22. 22. Reflection and Connection 22 “Schools are managerially tight, but culturally loose” – T. Sergiovinni (1995)
  23. 23. Reflection and Connection 23 Focal Points for “Effective” Schools: • Students come in all sizes and shapes • Success keys: Effectiveness, Equity, and Efficiency • Educational tools • “Building Responsibility Statement” • School-Based Councils
  24. 24. Reflection and Connection: Effectiveness 24 School-Based Leadership: Students respond to teacher’s self fulfilling prophecies when it comes to classroom learning (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968) Encourage teachers to focus on setting their expectations by aligning with: • A building’s Database -Demographic - Graduation Rates -State/National Tests - Attendance -Dropout - Suspension • Results of Data Use -Create expectations - Set Goals -Moral Assurances - Shape Culture
  25. 25. Reflection and Connection: Effectiveness 25 School-Based Leadership School-Based Councils: • Establishing Relationships (Purpose) - Common Understandings - Communication Links - Partnerships - Collective Commitment • Investing in Their School - Teachers (beliefs, instructional expertise) - Parents (home cultures, expectations) - Support Staff (local communications) - Students (hopes, perspectives)
  26. 26. Collaboration: Definition 26 Collaboration is a process to create: Interpersonal relationship based on people working together to develop processes of exploration, discovery and understanding. Successful schools: focus on the natural condition of all children to perform at high levels; where performance is based on facilitating conditions that deliver learning experiences in a way that “fits” the child…but is not punishing (Butler, 1997).
  27. 27. Collaboration: Parent Involvement 27 Research Studies • Involving parents in school planning and decision making is critical in establishing “effective schools” wherein all students are expected to academically achieve. • Leithwood and Jantze (1999) studied predictors of school achievement …a predictor was the families educational culture. • Pounders, (1995) studied the functions of school effectiveness related to student achievement and found parent commitment was positively associated with student achievement. • Bronstead-Burns (1998) found the higher the congruence between parents’ and childrens’ expectations, the higher the childrens’ achievement.
  28. 28. Cohesiveness: Parent Involvement 28 Question: Does your school practice involving parents in school decision-making? Research: Bredeson (1985) found that one in five schools studied were parents highly involved in a formal sense. Parent involvement in most schools is viewed as: • supportive and tangential • rather than – a rich source of expertise and knowledge Challenge: To encourage parents to be actively involved in their children’s education pre-K through 12th grade
  29. 29. Reflection and Connection: 29 Parent Expectations of their Schools
  30. 30. Self Efficacy: Definition 30 A person’s belief in his or her own ability to succeed in a particular situation. Research says: “The most effective way of developing a strong sense of self efficacy is through mastery experiences” (Bandura, 1994)
  31. 31. Self Efficacy: Instructional Leaders 31 What should a principal and their teachers know about self efficacy? Response: Self efficacy is based of beliefs that • Form in early childhood and evolve through life; • Every child needs one (or more) significant adult(s) to assert in overcoming self doubt; • Every child needs an adult who can minimize stress and regulate mood.
  32. 32. Self Efficacy: Instructional Leaders 32 School revolves around instructional beliefs and work of teachers. Student achievement at high levels is possible when teachers collaborate and collectively nurture the self efficacy of all students. Research: Goodhard, Hay and Hay (2004) Studied perceptions of collective efficacy with relation to student learning. The findings were: • “Sense of self efficacy” is a significant predictor of productive teaching practices • The higher the “sense of efficacy the more likely a teacher will take and welcome different tasks
  33. 33. Self Efficacy: Instructional Leaders 33 Mental Models Mental models are “maps” of how an individual’s (principal teachers…) world is perceived and, therefore, often works. Issue: Our unconscious tendency to “select” evidence that supports our personal assumptions and often downplay (“a good idea”) contrary.
  34. 34. Collective Efficacy: Faculty Commitment 34 Public - Good Ideas - Vision Statement - Shared Goals - Learning Expectations - Teaching Capacity of Peers Private - Individual’s assumptions, needs, values, feelings, personal vision - Alliance (informal) …collective efficacy - Views on “ripe issues” - Importance of schools work - Feelings of trust and confidence - Feelings of cultural competence -Skills and Ability - Personal Values Mental Models
  35. 35. Cultural Competence: Instructional Leaders 35 Question: What is cultural competence? The ability to successfully teach students from cultures other than ones own. • Must be framed in the large context of “school renewal” or school change efforts. • Often discrepancies between what teachers report and what they actually do in school.
  36. 36. Cultural Competence: Instructional Leaders 36 Research: Boykin and Cunningham (2001) examined the effects on performance incorporating cultural factors into teacher presentation and content materials. Their findings indicated: • the facilitative effects of incorporating music and movement on African American children’s cognitive reasoning performance makes a difference. Castagneu and Bradboy (2005) examined literature on culturally responsive schooling and it’s affect on indigenous youth (ie. American Indian and Alaskan native students). Their findings indicated a firm grounding in heritage language is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of culturally healthy students…and their communities.
  37. 37. Cultural Competence: Instructional Leaders 37 Question: What is a culturally competent school? Culturally competent schools are schools that honor, respect and value diversity in theory and practice; and where teaching and learning are made relevant for students from different cultures.
  38. 38. Cultural Competence : Instructional Leaders 38 Much of the research linking cultural competence practices to student achievement is not definitive… Research: Ladson & Billings (1995) examined teaching practices of eight exemplary teachers of African American students… Findings indicated the: (a) importance of speech and language patterns in the interactions with students, (b) student achievement occurs in social structures outside of schools, and (c) Cultural congruence with school’s mainstream culture leads to mere accommodation of student’s culture within the classroom
  39. 39. Culturally Responsive : Instructional Leaders 39 Illustration: Henderson High School in Fairfax County, VA identified programs and strategies that contribute to being culturally responsive.  Elective courses to help students form diverse courses get along. (ie. Combating intolerance)  Peer mediation: allows students from diverse backgrounds to talk about potentially diverse issues  Parent Liaisons: Paid to work with families who would not otherwise have become involved with schools.  Openness to “clubs”: to reflect the cultural identities, and opportunities for student engagement with school  Telephone Trees: Designed to inform parents on school issues; sensitive to multiple languages  Effort Awards: For students who have overcome academic difficulties
  40. 40. Planning Matrix: School Renewal Activity 40 Focus on one dimension of the seven dimensions High, cohesive and culturally relevant expectations for students What: A brief description of a renewal activity beyond what exists in their school Participants will “brainstorm”/identify factors to be included in a vision statement for their school Who: A brief description identifying “stakeholders” or significant people/groups that need to be involved Participants will “brainstorm”/identify factors for creating a school mission statement that becomes school policy What: A brief description identifying the measures used to determine the renewal activity is successful Participants will “brainstorm” identifying (outline) 2 or 3 goals stemming from their vision statement that can be “measured” and thereby determining the “success” in terms of student academic growth
  41. 41. Thank You and Summation 41 Thank you for participating with me today on the topic of High, Cohesive, and Culturally Relevant Expectations for Students. I have prepared a document, “Hey, You’re the Principal”, which summarizes a few thoughts of what I believe will serve you well – as Instructional Leaders.