Chapter 8
Metamorphism: A Process of Change

LECTURE OUTLINE

earth

Portrait of a Planet

Third Edition
©2008 W. W. Norto...
Metamorphism: A Process of Change

Prepared by

Ron Parker
Earlham College Department of Geosciences
Richmond, Indiana
Introduction


Metamorphic – Changed from an original “parent.”
Meta = Change.
 Morph = Form or shape.


Parent rocks a...
Introduction


Protoliths undergo pronounced changes in…
Texture.
 Mineralogy.




Due to change in physical or chemic...
Metamorphism
Metamorphism occurs in the solid state.
 It doesn’t include weathering, diagenesis, melting.
 Metamorphics ...
Metamorphic Character


Metamorphic rocks have distinctive properties.
Unique texture – Intergrown and interlocking grain...
Metamorphic Processes
Metamorphic change is slow and in the solid state.
 Several processes are at work.




Recrystall...
Metamorphic Processes


Several processes may operate at the same time.


Neocrystallization – New minerals with P-T cha...
Metamorphic Processes


Several processes may operate at the same time.


Pressure solution – Mineral grains partially d...
Causes of Metamorphism


The agents of metamorphism are…
Heat (Temperature – T).
 Pressure (P).
 Differential stress.
...
Heat (Temperature)


Metamorphism occurs as the result of heat.


Temperature (T) ranges between 200oC and 850oC.

The u...
Pressure (P)


P increases with depth in the crust.
270 to 300 bars per km (1 bar is almost 1 atm = 14.7 psi).
 Metamorp...
Differential Stress
Pressure that is greater in one orientation.
 A common place result of tectonic forces.
 Two kinds o...
Differential Stress


Two kinds of differential stress: Normal and shear.


Shear stress – Operates sideways across a su...
Differential Stress


At higher T and P, differential stress deforms rock.


Rocks change shape slowly without breaking....
Differential Stress


Deformation acts on minerals with specific shapes.
Equant – Roughly equal in all dimensions.
 Ineq...
Differential Stress


Preferred platy mineral alignment is called foliation.
Foliation imparts a layered or banded appear...
Hydrothermal Fluids
Hot water with dissolved ions and volatiles.
 Hydrothermal fluids facilitate metamorphism.


Acceler...
Metamorphic Rock Types


Two major subdivisions of metamorphic rocks.


Foliated – Has a through-going planar fabric.
S...
Metamorphic Rocks


Non-foliated rocks lack a planar fabric.


Absence of foliation possible for several reasons.
Rock ...
Metamorphic Rocks


Quartzite – Almost pure quartz in composition.
Forms by alteration of quartz sandstone.
 Sand grains...
Metamorphic Rocks


Marble - Coarsely crystalline calcite or dolomite.
Forms from a limestone or dolostone protolith.
 E...
Metamorphic Rocks


Type depends on protolith.
Minerals contribute elements.
 Some protoliths yield specific rocks.


...
Metamorphic Classes


Pelitic – Shale protoliths.
Al-rich clay minerals yield micas.
 Rock type depends on grade.


Sl...
Metamorphic Classes


Mafic – Basalt or gabbro protolith.
Rich in Fe and Mg and poor in Si, Al, Na, and K.
 Turn into bi...
Metamorphic Classes


Calcareous – Carbonate protolith.
Rich in Ca (limestones) and Ca and Mg (dolostones).
 Recrystalli...
Metamorphic Grade


Example: Pelitic rock.


Low grade – Shale protolith.
Clays recrystallize into larger, aligned clay...
Metamorphic Environments


The types (and settings) of metamorphism are...
Thermal – Heating by a plutonic intrusion.
 B...
Contact Metamorphism
Due to heat from magma invading host rock.
 Creates zoned bands of alteration in host rock.


Calle...
Burial Metamorphism


As sediments are buried in a sedimentary basin…
P increases because of the weight of the overburden...
Regional Metamorphism
Tectonic collisions deform huge “mobile belts.”
 Directed compression thickens mountains.




Roc...
Regional Metamorphism
Regional metamorphism creates foliated rocks.
 This type of metamorphism is, by far, the most
impor...
Hydrothermal Metamorphism
Alteration by hot, chemically aggressive water.
 A dominant process near mid-ocean ridge magma....
Subduction Metamorphism


Trenches and accretionary prisms have…
A low geothermal gradient – low temperature.
 High pres...
This concludes the
Chapter 8
Metamorphism: A Process of Change

LECTURE OUTLINE

earth

Portrait of a Planet

Third Editio...
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A metamorphic facies is a set of metamorphic mineral assemblages that were formed under similar pressures and temperatures. The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram at right).Rocks which contain certain minerals can therefore be linked to certain tectonic settings, times and places in geological history of the area. The boundaries between facies (and corresponding areas on the temperature v. pressure graph), are wide, because they are gradational and approximate

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  • Kyanite is a member of the aluminosilicate series, which also includes the polymorph andalusite and the polymorph sillimanite.
  • Analogy to firing of potter’s clay
    The scientific value of metamorphic rocks is in what it tells you about ancient plate boundaries and history of mountain building
    Metamorphosis of limestones (a process similar to the production of cement and concrete) produces CO2 that eventually comes out volcanoes and can impact our climate.
    TRANSPARENCY: Shields composed of metamorphic rocks.
  • Op ch08 lecture_earth3, metamorphic minerals

    1. 1. Chapter 8 Metamorphism: A Process of Change LECTURE OUTLINE earth Portrait of a Planet Third Edition ©2008 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    2. 2. Metamorphism: A Process of Change Prepared by Ron Parker Earlham College Department of Geosciences Richmond, Indiana
    3. 3. Introduction  Metamorphic – Changed from an original “parent.” Meta = Change.  Morph = Form or shape.  Parent rocks are called “protoliths.”  Metamorphism can occur to any protolith.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    4. 4. Introduction  Protoliths undergo pronounced changes in… Texture.  Mineralogy.   Due to change in physical or chemical conditions. Burial.  Tectonic stresses.  Heating by magma.  Fluid alteration.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    5. 5. Metamorphism Metamorphism occurs in the solid state.  It doesn’t include weathering, diagenesis, melting.  Metamorphics often look totally unlike protoliths.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    6. 6. Metamorphic Character  Metamorphic rocks have distinctive properties. Unique texture – Intergrown and interlocking grains.  Unique minerals – Some that are only metamorphic.  Staurolite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, etc.   Unique foliation – A planar fabric from aligned minerals. These transformations can change the rock utterly. Fossiliferous limestone Fossiliferous limestone Red mudstone Red mudstone Garnet gneiss Garnet gneiss Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Marble Marble Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    7. 7. Metamorphic Processes Metamorphic change is slow and in the solid state.  Several processes are at work.   Recrystallization – Minerals change size and shape.  Phase change – New minerals form with… Same chemical formula. Different crystal structure. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Kyanite Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    8. 8. Metamorphic Processes  Several processes may operate at the same time.  Neocrystallization – New minerals with P-T changes. Initial minerals become unstable; change to new minerals. Decomposition of the original minerals in the protolith. Chemical reaction of the elements to form new minerals. In this way, a shale can transform into a garnet mica schist. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    9. 9. Metamorphic Processes  Several processes may operate at the same time.  Pressure solution – Mineral grains partially dissolve.  Plastic deformation – Mineral grains soften and deform. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    10. 10. Causes of Metamorphism  The agents of metamorphism are… Heat (Temperature – T).  Pressure (P).  Differential stress.  Hydrothermal fluids.  Not all agents are required; they often do co-occur.  Rocks may be overprinted by multiple events.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    11. 11. Heat (Temperature)  Metamorphism occurs as the result of heat.  Temperature (T) ranges between 200oC and 850oC. The upper T limit is…melting. It varies based upon rock mineral composition and water content.  Heat energy breaks and reforms atomic bonds.  Sources of heat.  The geothermal gradient.  Magmatic intrusions.  Compression.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    12. 12. Pressure (P)  P increases with depth in the crust. 270 to 300 bars per km (1 bar is almost 1 atm = 14.7 psi).  Metamorphism occurs mostly in 2 to 12 kbar range.  T and P both change with depth.  Mineral stability is highly dependent upon T and P.  This stability can be graphed on a “phase diagram.”  Changes in T and P lead to changes in minerals.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    13. 13. Differential Stress Pressure that is greater in one orientation.  A common place result of tectonic forces.  Two kinds of differential stress: Normal and shear.   Normal stress – Operates perpendicular to a surface. Tension – Pull-apart normal stress. Compression – Push-together normal stress. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    14. 14. Differential Stress  Two kinds of differential stress: Normal and shear.  Shear stress – Operates sideways across a surface. Causes material to be “smeared out.” Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    15. 15. Differential Stress  At higher T and P, differential stress deforms rock.  Rocks change shape slowly without breaking. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    16. 16. Differential Stress  Deformation acts on minerals with specific shapes. Equant – Roughly equal in all dimensions.  Inequant – Dimensions not the same.  Platy (pancake-like) – 1 dimension shorter. Elongate (cigar-shaped) – 1 dimension longer. Differential stress causes these minerals to align.  Alignment fabric records stress trajectory.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    17. 17. Differential Stress  Preferred platy mineral alignment is called foliation. Foliation imparts a layered or banded appearance.  Rocks commonly break parallel to foliation planes.   Foliation develops perpendicular to compression.   Minerals flatten, recrystallize, and rotate. Inequant grains align by rotation and new growth. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    18. 18. Hydrothermal Fluids Hot water with dissolved ions and volatiles.  Hydrothermal fluids facilitate metamorphism.  Accelerate chemical reactions.  Alter rocks by adding or subtracting elements.   Hydrothermal alteration is called metasomatism. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    19. 19. Metamorphic Rock Types  Two major subdivisions of metamorphic rocks.  Foliated – Has a through-going planar fabric. Subjected to differential stress. Has a significant component of platy minerals. Classified by composition, grain size, and foliation type. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    20. 20. Metamorphic Rocks  Non-foliated rocks lack a planar fabric.  Absence of foliation possible for several reasons. Rock not subjected to differential stress. Dominance of equant minerals. Absence of platy minerals. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    21. 21. Metamorphic Rocks  Quartzite – Almost pure quartz in composition. Forms by alteration of quartz sandstone.  Sand grains in the protolith recrystallize and fuse.  Like quartz, it is hard, glassy, and resistant.  Metamorphic Alteration Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    22. 22. Metamorphic Rocks  Marble - Coarsely crystalline calcite or dolomite. Forms from a limestone or dolostone protolith.  Extensive recrystallization completely changes the rock.  Original textures and fossils in the parent are obliterated.  Used as a decorative and monument stone.  Exhibits a variety of colors.  Metamorphic Alteration Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    23. 23. Metamorphic Rocks  Type depends on protolith. Minerals contribute elements.  Some protoliths yield specific rocks.   Broad compositional classes. Pelitic.  Basic (or Mafic).  Calcareous.  Quartzo-feldspathic.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    24. 24. Metamorphic Classes  Pelitic – Shale protoliths. Al-rich clay minerals yield micas.  Rock type depends on grade.  Slate. Phyllite. Schist. Gneiss. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    25. 25. Metamorphic Classes  Mafic – Basalt or gabbro protolith. Rich in Fe and Mg and poor in Si, Al, Na, and K.  Turn into biotite- and amphibole-dominated rocks.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    26. 26. Metamorphic Classes  Calcareous – Carbonate protolith. Rich in Ca (limestones) and Ca and Mg (dolostones).  Recrystallize into calcite and dolomite marbles.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    27. 27. Metamorphic Grade  Example: Pelitic rock.  Low grade – Shale protolith. Clays recrystallize into larger, aligned clays to yield a slate. Clays neocrystallize into tiny, aligned micas in a phyllite.  Intermediate grade – Micas recrystallize and grow large to form a schist. New minerals grow in the schist.  High grade – Micas decompose; elements recombine into new minerals. Neocrystallization yields quartz and feldspars in a gneiss. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    28. 28. Metamorphic Environments  The types (and settings) of metamorphism are... Thermal – Heating by a plutonic intrusion.  Burial – Increases in P and T by deep burial in a basin.  Dynamic – Shearing in a fault zone.  Regional – P and T alteration due to orogenesis.  Hydrothermal – Alteration by hot water leaching.  Subduction – High P–Low T alteration.  Shock – Extreme high P attending a bolide impact.  Mantle – Extreme high mantle P causes phase changes.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    29. 29. Contact Metamorphism Due to heat from magma invading host rock.  Creates zoned bands of alteration in host rock.  Called a contact (or metamorphic) aureole.  The aureole surrounds the plutonic intrusion.  Zoned from high (near pluton) to low grade (far from pluton). Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    30. 30. Burial Metamorphism  As sediments are buried in a sedimentary basin… P increases because of the weight of the overburden.  T increases because of the geothermal gradient.   Requires burial below diagenetic effects.  This is ~ 8–15 km depending on the geothermal gradient. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    31. 31. Regional Metamorphism Tectonic collisions deform huge “mobile belts.”  Directed compression thickens mountains.   Rocks caught up in mountain building are… Heated via the geothermal gradient and plutonic intrusions. Squeezed and heated by deep burial. Smashed and sheared by differential stresses. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    32. 32. Regional Metamorphism Regional metamorphism creates foliated rocks.  This type of metamorphism is, by far, the most important in terms of the amount of rock altered.   Collisional belts are often… 1000s of km long. 100s of km wide. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    33. 33. Hydrothermal Metamorphism Alteration by hot, chemically aggressive water.  A dominant process near mid-ocean ridge magma.  Cold ocean water seeps into fractured crust.  Heated by magma, this water then reacts with mafic rock.  The hot water rises and is ejected via black smokers.  Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    34. 34. Subduction Metamorphism  Trenches and accretionary prisms have… A low geothermal gradient – low temperature.  High pressures.   High P – Low T favor glaucophane, a blue amphibole mineral. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change
    35. 35. This concludes the Chapter 8 Metamorphism: A Process of Change LECTURE OUTLINE earth Portrait of a Planet Third Edition ©2008 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Earth: Portrait of a Planet, 3rd edition, by Stephen Marshak Chapter 8: Metamorphism: A Process of Change

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