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Ga 13 05


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Ga 13 05

  1. 1. Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars
  2. 2. Evidence for Liquid Water on Mars (in remote past) • Valley networks • Outflow channels • “Northern Ocean”
  3. 3. Controversial suggestion: northern Mars ocean is an ancient seabed
  4. 4. And the “Face on Mars” prove ancient aliens were on Mars
  5. 5. Mineralogy: Key to hydrological history of Mars • Magnetite: Fe3O4 • Hematite: Fe2O3 • Olivine: Fe2SiO4 • Pyroxine: CaFeSi2O6 Minerals tell about hydrological history, what chemical reactions were occurring
  6. 6. Landing Sites for “Spirit” and “Opportunity” • Spirit: Gusev crater, crater with water flows • Opportunity: Meridianum Plani: reflectance spectra of hematite
  7. 7. Gusev Crater: A Noachian Site with Evidence of Flowing Water
  8. 8. Spirit on Mars
  9. 9. Opportunity Landing…Bedrock
  10. 10. Rocks at Opportunity Landing Site Show Evidence of Water
  11. 11. Opportunity at Endurance Crater…old bedrock formations
  12. 12. More Mossbauer spectra from Mars
  13. 13. Results from MER spacecraft • Evidence of water at Meridiani from the outset: haematite chondrules, sedimentary rocks with chemically weathered compositions: “there are other possible scenarios; they all require liquid water and acidic conditions”. • Early results from Gusev seemed to argue against water; high abundance of pristine olivine. “the ubiquitous presence of olivine in the soil suggests that physical rather than chemical weathering processes…”
  14. 14. Recent results from MER (cont) • More recent results from Gusev, coatings on rock with 2-5 times high S & Cl concentrations than interior, crystalline haematite. • “The physical and chemical characteristics provide evidence for limited by unequivocal interaction between water and the volcanic rocks of the Gusev plains”
  15. 15. Current status of results from surface of Mars. There probably was standing water on the surface of Mars for extended periods of time in the Noachian period. The highly acidity of the water apparently generated sulfur- dominated chemistry rather than carbonate- dominated chemistry. Time (and future missions) will tell. Stay tuned.
  16. 16. The Jovian planets…where are they?
  17. 17. Expanding the scale…the domain of the Jovian planets
  18. 18. Sizes of the Jovian planets
  19. 19. What do they look like? -Jupiter Band structures visible in small telescopes
  20. 20. Jupiter: closeup of cloud structures
  21. 21. Saturn Cloud bands and the ring
  22. 22. Saturn up close…atmosphere and rings Picture from the Cassini spacecraft…more about the ring later
  23. 23. The atmosphere of Saturn Also evidence of cloud bands…. We see the top of the atmosphere…but what kind of atmosphere?
  24. 24. The spectrum of Jupiter…clue to its composition