Writing Strategies Chapter1


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Writting Strategies Chapter1

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Writing Strategies Chapter1

  1. 1. Writing Up You University Assignments and Research Projects ROBERT BRUNET SOLÉ Department of Chemical Engineering, URV, Tarragona Sustainable Computer Aided Process Engineering GroupRobert Brunet Page 1 of 17
  2. 2. 1. What are the key functions in academic writing? 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Defining terms and ideas 1.3. Describing 1.4. Comparing and contrasting 1.5. Classifying 1.6. Explaning causes and effects 1.7. Developing an argumentRobert Brunet Page 2 of 17
  3. 3. 1.1. Introduction • Academic writing • Essay • Journal Article • Dissertation • Thesis • Book • ...Robert Brunet Page 3 of 17
  4. 4. 1.2. Defining terms and ideas • When defining a term, a useful strategy is to fit the term you are describing into a category followed by its distinguishing characteristics. Term Category Characteristics fminsearch Mathematical algorithm - Find minimum of a function - Use free-derivative method • fminsearch (term) is a mathematical algorithm in Matlab(category), that finds the minimum of unconstrained multivariable function wuisng the free- derivative method (characteristics) • As well a definition uses often elements of comparison and contrast and classificationRobert Brunet Page 4 of 17
  5. 5. 1.2. Defining terms and ideas 1.2.1. Words and phrases assocaited with definitions • By X is meant ... • I am taking X to mean ... • ..., namely, ... • In the present study, X refers to ... • The term as used here refers not to ... But instead/ rather to ... • This term refers to ... • In other words, • In this respect, ... • In this sense, ...Robert Brunet Page 5 of 17
  6. 6. 1.3. Describing 1.3.1. Describing processes • Description can takes many forms in academic writing. In a technical writing it usually involves explaning how to do or make something. In a research report, it will be used to describe a methodology employed in the course of your project. • First(ly),... • Second(ly),... • Third(ly),... • Next,... • Then,... • After this,... • Finally/ Lastly,... • Prior to ... • Following... • While... • Simultaneously... • Before...Robert Brunet Page 6 of 17
  7. 7. 1.3. Describing 1.3.2. Describing component parts • Description can sometimes involve explaning the different elements of which something is composed. 1.3.3. Describing a sequence of events • Another form of description commonly used in academic writing is chronological description.• from...to• by ...• until ...• during ...• when ...• by the time ...• between...and...•Before, after, next, in parallel, respectively, subsequently, prior to, simultaneously, Xpreceded Y, later on, previously, later (than), followed (by), X succeded Y, at thesame time, earlier (than), preceded, concurrently,....Robert Brunet Page 7 of 17
  8. 8. 1.4. Comparing and contrasting • Comparison and contrast involves consideration of the similarities and differences between two or more things. 1.4.1. Method 1: Point-by-point comparison 1.4.2. Method 2: Similarities and differences comparison1.4.3. Method 3: Item-by-item comparison1.4.4. Words and phrases associated with comparison and contrast Showing similarity • Similary,... • In the same way,... • Likewise,... • Correspondingly,... • X is similar to Y in that both demonstrate... • X is very much like Y in that both display... • X shows similar characterisitcs to Y in that they both... • There are several similarities between X and Y • Both X and Y are... • Neither X nor Y is/are... • Both..., but neither...Robert Brunet Page 8 of 17
  9. 9. 1.4. Comparing and contrasting Showing dissimilarity • In contrast (to) • There are marked differences between... • What clearly distinguishes X from Y is... • ...comparing like with like... • ..of greater/ lesser significance than ... • Whilst/ altough X is ..., Y is... Indicating limitations of a comparison • Any comparison between X and Y must necessarily be of limited value... • This comparison must be viewed with a degree of caution... • Comparisons between X and Y are possible only as far as... Is/are concerned • The extent to which X and Y can be compared (very much) depends on... • The extent to which a comparison can be made between X and Y is dependent upon...Robert Brunet Page 9 of 17
  10. 10. 1.5. Classifying • Because classification follows the kind of tree-like structure illustrated above, such diagrams can be a very useful way of creating an outline for your material before you begin writing. Industries served Biotechnology Pharmaceuticals Speciality Chemicals Consumer Goods1.5.1. Words and phrases associated with classification • X can be analysed/ broken down into three types • X can be categorised/ classidied/ grouped according to... • The first/ secod/ third/ next/ final or last type/ category/ division is made up of... • One type... • Another type... • Still/ yet another type is...Robert Brunet Page 10 of 17
  11. 11. 1.6. Explaning causes and effects • The discussion of casual relationships is commen in academic writing where it is often necessary to understand and explain the reasons why things happen, to justify why certain decisions have been take, or to interpret data. • Discuss all the causes first and then discuss the effects in the same order in as the following paragraphs • Mention each cause separately and then discss its effect(s) Group differen cuases/ effdects that share certain characteristics, then deal with each group in turn.Showing causes Showing effects• because/ since/ as/ due to... • accordingly• X is a/ the cause of... • hence/ thus/ therefore/ consequently...• X is a casual factor in... • for this reason• X determines whether... • X had an effect on/ led to...• As a result of X; because of X ... • X is a result/ consequence of... • Resulting from this ...Robert Brunet Page 11 of 17
  12. 12. 1.7. Developing an argument • Good argument requires at least the followin inter-realated elements: • a clear structure and focus; • sound logic; • the presentation of robust evidence; • the effective use of appropiate link words and phrases to introduce connect your ideas1.7.1. Making a claim • One way of making a claim is first to highlight a “problem“ or point of concentration to which your essay or research offers a new prespective or “solution“.Having a claim Having a identified problem• It has been claimed/ argued that... • It is here argued that...• Some writers have claimed that... • In what follows it is argued that...• It is the view of some researchers that...• The stance adopted in the following page• It is often argued/ said that ... is...Robert Brunet Page 12 of 17
  13. 13. 1.7. Developing an argument1.7.2. Structuring your argument • Your arguments need to be well structured. All argument in academic writing should make an appeal to reason rather than emotion. •Addresses others‘ shortcomings •Anticipates and deflects all potential criticisms as fara as possible •Is focused •Is clearly expressed •Is well supported1.7.3. Inductive and deductive reasoningRobert Brunet Page 13 of 17
  14. 14. 1.7. Developing an argument1.7.4. Words and phrases associated with argumentation Stating a viewpoint • X argues that... • X suggests that... • An argument often cited in the literature is... • X has proposed that... • Y develops this argumnet further by stating that... • P, on the other hand/in contrast, belives that ... • It is clear that ... • It must be accepted that... • The evidence indicates that/ would appear to suggest that ....Robert Brunet Page 14 of 17
  15. 15. 1.7. Developing an argument1.7.4. Words and phrases associated with argumentation Questioning or refuting a viewpoint • Conversely... • It is often stated/ said/ suggested that...However... • Some experts would argue that...However/Others... • It has long been assumend that... • ...whereas/ while... • On the one hand ...; on the other hand,... • ... yet/ but ... • Another aspect/ dimension which may have had a bearing on..., and which is/ was not taken into consideration/ account, is/was • If X were the case, then Y would be true. That this is not the case suggests that other factors/ determinants/ issues are involved/ are responssible for .... • It is an over-simplification to say/ state/ argue that... • X alone is not sufficient to explain/ is insufficient to explain...Robert Brunet Page 15 of 17
  16. 16. 1.7. Developing an argument1.7.4. Words and phrases associated with argumentation Refuting a viewpoint by first making a concession • This argument is partailly accurate; however,... • There is some credibility in the argument that... • With one or two exceptions, it would be wrong/ incorrect to claim that... • This argument has a certain superficial logic, but on closer examination... • It is, of course, possible that...; however/ on the other hand, it could be argued that ... • Even if this assumption holds true, it does not mean that ... • Altough it is possible to identify a number of factors that may contribute to..., in general their effect on...is marginal.Robert Brunet Page 16 of 17
  17. 17. Thanks for your attention! ROBERT BRUNET SOLÉ Department of Chemical Engineering, URV, Tarragona Sustainable Computer Aided Process Engineering GroupRobert Brunet Page 17 of 17