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Unit 6 - Preparation and Presentation of Information


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Unit 6 - Preparation and Presentation of Information

  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Importance of preparing and presenting information </li></ul><ul><li>Methods used to prepare and present information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pie Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowchart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Itinerary </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Report </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Report </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Importance of Preparing and Presenting Information <ul><li>In her role as Administration Assistant, </li></ul><ul><li>Heather now feels confident that she can </li></ul><ul><li>FIND information efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>She now needs to develop her </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTATION skills. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for information to be valuable it </li></ul><ul><li>must be prepared and presented in a way that </li></ul><ul><li>is easy to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many ways in which information can </li></ul><ul><li>be prepared and presented …………… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Methods used to Prepare and Present Information <ul><li>GRAPHS and CHARTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line Graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pie Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ITINERARY </li></ul><ul><li>MEMORANDUM </li></ul><ul><li>REPORTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Heather decides to find out what methods are currently used at Caledonian Health & Fitness <ul><li>Heather has spoken to many employees </li></ul><ul><li>involved in preparing and presenting </li></ul><ul><li>information and now realises why it is so </li></ul><ul><li>important to make sure that the information </li></ul><ul><li>is easy to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>People usually find it easier to understand facts and figures if they are presented in the form of a graph </li></ul><ul><li>Organisations are required to show how well they are performing compared to previous years and also how they are performing in comparison with their competitors </li></ul>
  6. 6. Activities <ul><li>Complete the following tasks in your activities booklet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 1: Why is it important to prepare and present information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 2: The Rules!! </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Graphs and Charts <ul><li>It can be very difficult to understand </li></ul><ul><li>a list of raw data and numbers. In </li></ul><ul><li>order to give the information MEANING, </li></ul><ul><li>graphs and charts can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting information in this way makes it </li></ul><ul><li>easy to understand and comparisons can be </li></ul><ul><li>made at a glance. </li></ul><ul><li>Heather discovers how the Sales/Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Department and the Personnel Department </li></ul><ul><li>use graphs and charts to present their </li></ul><ul><li>information ……………………… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Graphs and Charts <ul><li>Mrs MacDonald explains to Heather </li></ul><ul><li>that there are ‘ rules ’ which </li></ul><ul><li>must be followed when using graphs </li></ul><ul><li>and charts …………… </li></ul><ul><li>All graphs must have a TITLE – this tells the user what information they are looking at </li></ul><ul><li>All graphs must be LABELLED correctly – this shows the user what TYPE of information is being presented </li></ul><ul><li>All graphs must be of an APPROPRIATE SIZE so that all the information is displayed and it is easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>If necessary, all graphs must show a LEGEND – this acts as a key telling the user what information is being presented </li></ul>
  9. 9. The LINE Graph <ul><li>Mr Smart was asked to find out if the </li></ul><ul><li>new classes introduced in the gyms </li></ul><ul><li>were successful and if so which one in </li></ul><ul><li>particular. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to find this out </li></ul><ul><li>he took a random sample </li></ul><ul><li>from the Edinburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Gym............. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The LINE Graph
  11. 11. The LINE Graph <ul><li>Heather asks why the LINE graph was used to present this </li></ul><ul><li>information. Mr Smart explains: </li></ul><ul><li>It is very easy to see a TREND which may develop over a period of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The graph shows that Pilates is a very popular course as it is attracting the most members and is always increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is very easy to see if any CHANGES occur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The graph shows clearly that in the summer months more members are choosing Pilates and Yoga compared with the Spin class </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The BAR Chart <ul><li>Mrs R Ambleon explains to Heather that she </li></ul><ul><li>has been asked to report, to Senior </li></ul><ul><li>Management next week, on the current sales </li></ul><ul><li>figures in Caledonian Health & Fitness’ 3 key </li></ul><ul><li>Locations over the last 5 years: </li></ul><ul><li>Edinburgh, Glasgow and Perth. </li></ul><ul><li>The following graph shows Mrs Ambleon’s </li></ul><ul><li>findings: </li></ul>
  13. 13. The BAR Chart
  14. 14. The BAR Chart <ul><li>Heather asks why the BAR chart was used to </li></ul><ul><li>present this information. Mrs MacDonald </li></ul><ul><li>explains: </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful for showing comparisons of data </li></ul><ul><li>It is very easy to understand as more detailed information can be presented </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Pictogram Mr Smart explains to Heather that he is attending a meeting with one of his suppliers, ‘PowerBar plc’. He wants to show the supplier how demand for their energy bar varies from month to month. In order to illustrate this simply and effectively, Mr Smart uses a Pictogram using images of ‘PowerBar’s to represent the sales recorded for each of the last 12 months.
  16. 16. The PICTOGRAM <ul><li>Heather asks why the PICTOGRAM was used </li></ul><ul><li>to present this information. Mr Smart </li></ul><ul><li>explains: </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to give a simple impression of the information held. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to present statistical information when detailed and precise data is not required. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Activities <ul><li>Complete the following tasks in your activities booklet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 3: The Nougat Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 4: Bill’s Music Store </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The PIE Chart <ul><li>Mrs MacDonald was interested to </li></ul><ul><li>find out what types of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>were most commonly used at the </li></ul><ul><li>gyms. She used the Edinburgh Gym as </li></ul><ul><li>her target sample. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to analyse </li></ul><ul><li>her findings she decided </li></ul><ul><li>to create a pie chart: </li></ul>
  19. 19. The PIE Chart
  20. 20. The PIE Chart <ul><li>Heather asks why the PIE chart was used to present </li></ul><ul><li>this information. Mrs MacDonald explains: </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful for showing information ‘ at a glance ’ </li></ul><ul><li>It is very easy for comparisons to be made </li></ul><ul><li>Useful when exact numbers are not required to communicate the information </li></ul><ul><li>It is very easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>The LEGEND clearly indicates what type of information is being presented </li></ul>
  21. 21. The FLOW Chart <ul><li>Heather is fully aware that PROCEDURES are used to </li></ul><ul><li>guide people through certain tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Heather has been asked to create a FLOWCHART </li></ul><ul><li>to demonstrate the security process regarding </li></ul><ul><li>members entry to the gym </li></ul><ul><li>She wants to find out the best way to present such </li></ul><ul><li>information so that people clearly know how to </li></ul><ul><li>complete a task. </li></ul>
  22. 22. FLOW CHART YES NO START Member entering gym Do you have membership card? Speak to receptionist to confirm membership Swipe card on entry Enter gym FINISH
  23. 23. The FLOW Chart <ul><li>Heather asks why the FLOW chart was used </li></ul><ul><li>to present this information. Mr Millar </li></ul><ul><li>explains that a flow chart is: </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to illustrate or explain the steps in a procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to reinforce a complex procedure to staff. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Activities <ul><li>Complete the following tasks in your activities booklet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 5: Fashion Designs plc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 6: Sport Maniacs Ltd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 7: Pictogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 8: The Flowchart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 9: What information does the chart show? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 10: Why a pie chart? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. An Itinerary <ul><li>As an Administration Assistant Heather is </li></ul><ul><li>responsible for organising business trips ( you </li></ul><ul><li>will find out more about this role in Unit 7: </li></ul><ul><li>Travel ). </li></ul><ul><li>An Itinerary is the document which presents </li></ul><ul><li>all the information required for the employee </li></ul><ul><li>travelling. </li></ul><ul><li>This document will be looked at in greater detail in </li></ul><ul><li>Unit 7. </li></ul>
  26. 26. A MEMORANDUM <ul><li>Heather is required to write memos all the time!! </li></ul><ul><li>This method of presenting information is ideal for </li></ul><ul><li>communicating within the organisation. Information is </li></ul><ul><li>presented in an informal manner as it is effectively a </li></ul><ul><li>‘ note’ between colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Heather recently had to send the following memos: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Wallace wanted details of when Heather would like to take her summer holiday </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs McKenna wanted to find out what equipment Heather planned to order for the new Admin area </li></ul>
  27. 27. MEMORANDUM (memo) MEMORANDUM TO All Staff FROM Heather Munro, Admin Assistant DATE 25 March 2005 SUBJECT New Canteen Menu All staff have been sent a revised copy of the new canteen menu. There is now more choice and value for money!! The new opening times are ................... TITLE IN CAPS INFORMATION SHOULD BE PRESENTED IN THIS ORDER
  28. 28. INFORMAL REPORTS <ul><li>Heather is unsure as to how to present an Informal report and asks Mr Millar for assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>He explains that Informal reports are very similar to the layout of a memorandum. The information presented is very concise and should not normally exceed one A4 page. The following information should be shown: </li></ul><ul><li>An Introduction – stating the purpose of the report </li></ul><ul><li>Description of your findings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  29. 29. FORMAL REPORTS <ul><li>Heather discovers that a formal report is a lot more complicated to prepare compared with an informal report. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Smart has been asked to present a formal report on the new gym that was introduced in the Edinburgh. </li></ul><ul><li>The following items are contained in a formal report: </li></ul><ul><li>TERMS OF REFERENCE – this section of the report details the nature of the report and for whom it is intended. Has the introduction of the new gym been successful? Investors and the management team will read the report as they are very interested in the results </li></ul>
  30. 30. FORMAL REPORTS <ul><li>PROCEDURE – this section tells the reader how the information has been gathered eg interviews that occurred; textbooks that were referred to etc 10 staff and 30 members were interviewed to find out their opinion </li></ul><ul><li>FINDINGS – this section of the report tells the reader the results of all the research that has been carried out. Mr Smart used a variety of charts and graphs to display the results and discussed the views of the staff and members </li></ul>
  31. 31. FORMAL REPORTS <ul><li>CONCLUSIONS – the aim of this section is to sum up the key points of the report. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Smart explains that the majority of staff and members were very impressed with the new gym and felt that it was a huge improvement. The new surroundings made the gym more welcoming and helped motivate members to work out! </li></ul><ul><li>RECOMMENDATIONS – this is the final section of the report. The aim of this section is for the authors of the report to recommend what the next steps should be. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Smart recommended that members be questioned on a regular basis what they liked most about the gym and what changes they would like to see to make sure that their needs were being met at all times. </li></ul>
  32. 32. FORMAL Reports <ul><li>Heather asks why a FORMAL report was used </li></ul><ul><li>to present this information. Mr Smart </li></ul><ul><li>explains that a formal report is: </li></ul><ul><li>Used to present information on a particular topic or to address a specific issue </li></ul><ul><li>Used by senior management to assist in the decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>Often sent outwith the organisation to other interested parties therefore it is essential that a high quality report is produced to enhance the reputation of the business </li></ul>
  33. 33. Activities <ul><li>Complete the following tasks in your activities booklet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 11: What is a memorandum? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 12: Memo to your teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 13: Head teacher's task! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 14: Why use a memorandum? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 15: Formal or Informal? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. PRESENTATION TASK! <ul><li>Working in groups of 3 – 4, you are required to carry </li></ul><ul><li>out a survey based on the topic of your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey will be carried out in your class therefore </li></ul><ul><li>the sample size will be ________ . </li></ul><ul><li>Your task is to complete the following: </li></ul><ul><li>In your groups decide on 3 or 4 appropriate questions that will enable you to find out the information you require </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have your information, present your findings using appropriate graphs/charts </li></ul><ul><li>Create an informal report detailing your findings and send it to your teacher </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present your findings to the rest of the class using appropriate presentation software </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. PRESENTATION TASK! <ul><li>Ideas for the group activity: </li></ul><ul><li>A MUSIC group finding out what their peers enjoy the </li></ul><ul><li>most in today’s music industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The following questions could be asked: </li></ul><ul><li>What is your favourite recent single? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is your favourite music artist? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your favourite type of music? </li></ul><ul><li>An excellent opportunity for the pupils would be to use a </li></ul><ul><li>multimedia projector and develop their presentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>and the use of presentation software </li></ul>