Frontline Waste's Detailed Concept Presentation April 2017


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Introducing our Production-Ready, Small-Scale and Mobile Combustor

For developing countries, our combustor enables the cost-effective creation of small-scale waste processing, recycling and disposal facilities in small cities (when compared to the modern waste infrastructure alternatives) that we call SMRFs.

For the U.S. and Europe, each unit can provide clean on-site waste disposal to avoid the tipping fees and transportation costs of sending the same waste to landfill.

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Frontline Waste's Detailed Concept Presentation April 2017

  3. 3. PRESENTING A NEW PARADIGM FOR WASTE PROCESSING FOR AREAS <200,000 PEOPLE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD & ISLAND NATIONS The Big Picture Saving Billions! Modern Cell technology, connecting via decentralized yet organized mobile phone towers, enabled developing countries to be connected without having to build an antiquated and overcomplicated fixed line network. The result spurred countries, rural areas and poor to connect, and have access to more and better information
  4. 4. PRESENTING A NEW PARADIGM FOR WASTE PROCESSING FOR AREAS <200,000 PEOPLE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD & ISLAND NATIONS In the developed world waste disposal, similar to the “fixed” telecom structure, is structured in an integrated centralized collection and disposal process built over hundreds of years. Current waste structures have been build using massive infrastructure investments and government subsidies – It is often not suited for developing countries, and island situations. The Big Picture
  5. 5. 5 PRESENTING A NEW PARADIGM FOR WASTE PROCESSING FOR AREAS <200,000 PEOPLE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD & ISLAND NATIONS . The Big Picture The developing world is struggling with adopting this massive- investment, high infrastructure, inflexible model for its largest and fast-growing cities. In its smaller cities and rural areas, this structure has no chance of working as there is not sufficient amount of waste per capita. Given the high investment requirement and risks involved, by using the traditional approach, it is impossible to make a business case
  6. 6. 6 PRESENTING A NEW PARADIGM FOR WASTE PROCESSING FOR AREAS <200,000 PEOPLE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD & ISLAND NATIONS Introducing Frontline’s Starter MRF (or “SMRF”), anchored by our revolutionary mobile and small-scale combustor. It transforms the way waste in smaller cities, islands and rural areas is being processed. Like the mobile phone network, we see the positive impact on surroundings where open burning or sending trash into unsanitary garbage dumps is and has been the rule, not the exception. The Big Picture Our SMRFs create a distributed network of small-scale waste processing, recycling and disposal facilities that can deliver waste reduction, high recycling results, healthier environments and offer real productivity impact – and at little upfront investment and maintenance cost
  8. 8. 8 THE PROBLEM
  10. 10. Island Nations are Struggling With Too Much Tourism Waste & Pristine Environment Expectations 10
  11. 11. Major Developing Cities Should Eventually Solve Their Massive Waste Problems-It Just Takes Money- We Already Know How to Do It 11
  12. 12. But What About the 62% (3-4 Billion People) Who Live in Small Cities, Rural Areas & Islands? 12 These areas need a fresh and different approach
  14. 14. <20 tons/day systems Composting, AD 20-60 tons/day Systems Waste to Energy Mumbai 24,000 tons/day Lagos 22,000 tons/day New York 10,000 tons/day Our Markets: Small-Scale and Very-Small-Scale Local Waste Processing 60-2000 tons/day Systems Main aim: waste destruction, WtE Small- Scale Very-Small-Scale (Local Area or On-Site ) Our Target Markets 14 We are not in the waste collection business. We are focused on waste processing/recycling/disposal Main aim; waste destruction Large – Medium Scale
  15. 15. Types of Waste We Can Combust  Bagasse/Sugar Cane  Corn Husks  Hops  Soy  Leftover “Non-Recyclable” waste from recycling sorting facilities (“Fluff”)  Paper & Plastics  Dried cow feces  Dried chicken feces  Glass  Metals  eWaste  Wet or Dirty Materials (without pre-treatment) 15 Agricultural Waste MSW Residual Waste What We Can’t Combust Marine Debris Animal Waste “Toxic” Treated Wood Non-Metal Hospital Waste  Creosote Railroad Ties  C&D Materials  Utility Poles  Disaster Debris (with pre-treatment: shredding, chopping, sorting, drying)
  16. 16. WHERE WE PLAY Current Options for Very Small-Scale & Small-Scale Residual Waste Disposal for Local Areas Solution Annual Cost ¹ Operation Ease Environment Impact Scalability Disadvantages for disposal of “residual waste” Other Mobile Incinerators • Uneconomical. Additional fuel required: Operating cost high = 20 gallons diesel/hour • Large amounts of ash produced Gasification Unreliable. Hard to operate consistently to produce syngas. Can not be scaled to micro size. Not mobile. Best for organics. Pyrolysis Unproven technology Prototypes emerging but not suited for all waste . Not suited for very small scale or in areas not supported. Open Burning/ Garbage Dump High societal costs. Negative impact for air quality, water tables, people’s health. In most countries forbidden due to uncontrolled risks. Free to people. Landfill & Incineration Landfill done everywhere. More and more difficult to identify new sites. Incineration: huge upfront investment and planning. Only very large scale – All other “solutions” are sub-optimal and have not gotten significant market traction 16 ¹ Annual cost includes capital equipment leasing or amortized capital costs + operating costs
  17. 17. Frontline’s Small-Scale Waste Solutions 1 A STANDALONE, SMALL-SCALE & MOBILE COMBUSTOR 5,000 tons/year  (Optional) Waste to Energy module  Anchored by our combustor 2 A STARTER MRF (“SMRF”): A SMALL-SCALE, DISTRIBUTED WASTE PROCESSING, RECYCLING & DISPOSAL SYSTEM 25,000 tons/year For Very-Small Scale <20 tons/day systems For Small-Scale 20-60 tons/day systems 17
  18. 18. Introducing Our Standalone Small-Scale Combustor: a Revolutionary Combustor Mobile with small footprint (not “fixed” – can be easily moved by truck, barge, railcar) Uses “smaller” fluidized bubbling bed than currently in market. Recognized, 60 year old effective combustion technology Intake: Anything that can burn (moisture <35%) Disposes/Destroys 5000 -7000 tons/year Built-in pollution scrubbers Byproduct: “Clean” hot exhaust air 1 6 2 3 5 4 18 A standalone small-scale & mobile combustor: Used to “cleanly” dispose of waste normally openly burned or sent to garbage dumps Picture of prior prototype 1 Key Differentiating Features
  19. 19. Self-Fueling: Low operating costs with NO supplemental fuel required 2 Minimizes ash Easy to operate & maintain 1 3 5 Potential for Net 75 kW/h with power generator (with R&D) 4 Best for disposal of “residual waste” (inorganic non-recyclable waste) 19 Our Small-Scale Combustor: Advantages1 Advantages
  20. 20. Introducing The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) for Small Cities <200,000 Populations 20 A small-scale, cost-effective waste processing, recycling & disposal system 2
  21. 21. The bounded collection area is where the local waste operator picks up the waste to be sent to the SMRF A SMRF Can Handle About 25,000 Tons of Waste from a Bounded Collection Area • A Starter MRF (“SMRF”) is a central facility where collected waste (by a 3rd party) is processed on-site, sorted out (organics, metals, plastics) for maximum profit and recycling, while minimizing negative environmental impact • This facility is anchored by our combustor –which can destroy the leftover residual waste – after sorting - that normally is sent to an unsanitary garbage dump or is openly burned within the community • A SMRF can handle about 25,000 tons of waste. It can expand to handle more waste to be processed by adding a more modular (and mobile) combustors -1 combustor will allow a SMRF to process an additional 25,000 tons of waste – of which 5,000 tons (20% leftover) is handled by the combustor • A city of 200,000 could eventually have a large facility with 3-6 combustors, depending on amount/type of waste produced by its residents and businesses 21 2
  22. 22. 80% of waste is composted, recycled. 20% is sent into our combustor = ~100% never leaves! The Combustor is the SMRF’s Secret Sauce 22 2 Without the combustor, what would we do with all the leftover valueless waste? Send it to modern landfill: No! There is none. Too expensive to build. Bring it to the unsanitary dump: Yes, that’s an option! Openly Burn it: Yes, that’s an option Or most likely, never collect it in the first place – which is what happens in these Small cities today. As waste is everywhere, status quo wins!
  23. 23. 80% of waste is composted, recycled. 20% is sent into our combustor = ~100% never leaves! Each SMRF (With Combustor) Creates A Waste-Free Impact Zone 23 2 The Impact Zone This Impact Zone, by definition, should stay Waste-Free as all waste, within these boundaries, is continuously picked up and sent to the SMRF 100% of waste in the Impact Zone enters the SMRF and potentially only a small amount leaves the facility, i.e. can’t be combusted and sent to landfill Impact Zone In Small City Waste Brought To SMRF Facility For Processing XX Square Miles: About 25,000 Tons of Waste/Year Collected
  24. 24. Small Cities; Rural Areas; Islands With limited or no formal waste processing, and where transportation costs to sanitary landfill, if even available, can be massive Way Too Much Waste: Not Our Target Market Mumbai 24,000 tons/day Lagos 22,000 tons/day New York 10,000 tons/day Where We Play: Processing 25,000 tons/year For Small-Cities Under 200K, Rural Areas & Islands Cities 200K-1M populations Most likely these larger cities are already processing waste. Other competitive solutions available. Potential opportunities in future once our SMRF process proven 2016 Average Waste Per Capita/day Projected 2025 Average Waste Per Capita/day 2025: # of People Served For Each SMRF* Lower Income (343Million) .60/kg .86/kg 74,000 Lower Middle Income (1.3B) .78/kg 1.3/kg 48,000 Sub-Sahara .65/kg .85/kg 66,000 Latin America 1.1/kg 1.6/kg 39,000 Middle East 1.1/kg 1.43/kg 44,000 East Asia .95/kg 1.5/kg 42,000 *1 SMRF has 1 combustor and a capacity of 25,000 tons processed per year. A small city of 200,000 in Sub- Sahara could have 1 SMRF with 3 combustors to handle estimated 75,000 tons of waste its people produce 2 24
  25. 25. • Waste firm must be hired to collect waste and scale to reach minimum capacity of 25,000 Tons/yr (up to 500 tons/week) • Local municipality/government must be supportive • Waste collected in public areas (daily) – an absolute must! • Waste collected from residences (at least weekly) • Waste collected from businesses (as often as needed) • These collection areas become “waste- free” due to disciplined removal efforts How The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) Works [1] Collect Waste [2] Sort Waste [3] Compost Organics [4] Recycle Valuable Materials [5] Combust Residual Waste Collect Waste (by 3rd Party firm) 25 2
  26. 26. • Organics separated from inorganic waste • Inorganic waste divided out (glass, metals, plastics, eWaste, miscellaneous) • In most cases, up to 80% of the waste is organic waste and valuable recyclable waste Sort Waste Within SMRF How The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) Works [1] Collect Waste [2] Sort Waste [3] Compost Organics [4] Recycle Valuable Materials [5] Combust Residual Waste 26 2
  27. 27. • Once organic waste separated, the SMRF waste operator will find best ways to process it. •Ideally, most of the organics are composted within the SMRF plot of land itself • The composted waste can be repackaged and sold for profit either to wholesalers or as internal retail product • In certain local markets, composting won’t be profitable if scaled up. Other cost-effective methods to process organics profitably, using other small-scale technologies, will be deployed, including anaerobic digestion. Compost Organics How The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) Works [1] Collect Waste [2] Sort Waste [3] Compost Organics [4] Recycle Valuable Materials [5] Combust Residual Waste 27 2
  28. 28. • SMRF pre-identifies types of metals, and plastics that can command payment by buyers in market (net of transportation costs) • These materials are further separated out within the piles of inorganic waste • Material sent to be packaged into bales that are profitably sold by the ton in nearby marketplace (net of transportation costs) Valuable Waste Recycled How The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) Works [1] Collect Waste [2] Sort Waste [3] Compost Organics [4] Recycle Valuable Materials [5] Combust Residual Waste 28 2
  29. 29. • The remaining residual waste (about 20%) is, for all intent and purpose “valueless” waste •It is further separated into what can be combusted and what has to go to landfill (which should be minimal) • The combustible waste is prepped (cut into small pieces) and sent into our combustor -which will be operated 20 hours/day – where the waste is destroyed • Any waste ill-suited for our small-scale combustor will be sent, if possible, to cement facilities, and any remainders may be sent to nearby sanitary landfills Combust Residual Waste How The Starter MRF (“SMRF”) Works [1] Collect Waste [2] Sort Waste [3] Compost Organics [4] Recycle Valuable Materials [5] Combust Residual Waste 29 2
  30. 30. SMRF Advantages • Incorporates understood, proven composting/recycling MRF methodologies that capture about 70- 80% of the processed waste • Enables low cost “just in time” investment by local municipality compared to big waste processing centers and modern landfills that require far more waste than what is generated. A SMRF can grow and process waste as fast as waste is collected • Expect less need for permitting, due to size, however we will share our monitoring reports as required with local authorities. • Collected waste is treated “just in time” which reduces risk of fire, smell, and other environmental hazards • Once proven in one location, authorities can distribute these waste processing centers throughout a local region to effectively collect, recycle and process waste as a region grows • Operating a SMRF and corresponding waste collection efforts require many people -- a major job creator 30 2
  31. 31. THE SMRF BENEFITS 31
  32. 32. Benefit #1: Each SMRF Creates a “Waste-Free Area” & De-facto “Recycling” Program WASTE FREE AREA We partner with a local waste collection firm and waste disappears in areas where it is collected In “Local Area A” in Developing World (Currently) “Leftover” Residual Waste Waste Burned and/or Sent to Unsanitary Dump Public perception: No Difference: Waste “still everywhere” in local community (if) Waste Collected MRF: Recycled (small %’s) Waste Prepped & Sent into Combustor & Destroyed In “Local Area A” In Developing World (With SMRF) “Leftover” Residual Waste Public perception: Waste disappears where collected Clean streets, clean air, cleared beaches =Waste-Free Area 25,000 Tons Waste Collected In SMRF: Recycle & Compost (70%-80%) A A 32
  33. 33. Benefit #2: Before/After When Waste is Collected All Year Long and Disappears (Via the SMRF) 33 The public will DAILY (visually) see the differences in where they live.
  34. 34. CLEANER STREETS BETTER HEALTH & AIR QUALITY MORE TOURISM $$’S (CAN’T SEE WASTE) IMPROVED DRINKABLE WATER HAPPIER PEOPLE TO GOVERN Benefit #3: The Positive Environmental & Social Impact Of Waste-Free Areas The SMRF eliminates residual waste from being put back into the community. Waste isn’t openly burned or sent to unsanitary garbage dumps AIR LESS “SMELLY” CLEANER NEIGHORHOODS: LESS CRIME
  35. 35. Benefit #4: SMRFs will be profitable, recover capital investment costs and be economically sustainable 35 • Assume fair “tipping fees” for taking in and treating collected waste. • Composting creates fertilizer to sell back to community at profitable, yet below-market rates • Valuable recyclables (metals, plastics) will also be packaged for sale and sold at profit • Set up costs are small, outside of combustor. Plus, smaller plots of land required. Ability to create temporary SMRFs for events or place in industrial facilities. • Each combustor estimated to last for 20 years and subject to minimal maintenance costs. Combustor requires 1 to 2 people to run. Low operational costs and easy to maintain/operate Bottom line: The SMRF should be operationally sustainable each year after salaries paid to workers
  36. 36. A WASTE FREE AREAS Benefit #5: When Waste-Free Areas become the norm, Local residents will “demand” them! D C B 36 “Where I live, the streets are now always clean” says Villager in Local Area A “and the air seems fresher.” Villagers in Local Area B take notice and want the same positive changes to their environment. Local authorities in Local Area B see benefits…as do Area C and D We focus on getting “buy-in” from adjacent areas to create an area “tipping point” – and so on.. In most small cities everywhere residents expect government to provide waste collection, now! Local government can look good by embracing SMRFs and working with the public as partner
  37. 37. Benefit #6: Result: No Need to Build Modern Landfills for Smaller Cities, Islands and Rural Areas  The cost to build modern landfill areas and waste equipment infrastructure (plants, trucks, etc) is costly -- in the $ multi-millions. There needs to be huge quantities of waste to justify the investment ROI  On the other hand, a SMRF starts small and can expand to meet full waste collecting capacity over time. One can add a combustor to a SMRF to increase the amount of residual waste that can be destroyed  Thus, as more and more waste is collected, the SMRF processes the waste and by adding more combustors, the waste is still “disappearing” from the community in a “just in time” way 37
  38. 38. OUR BIG VISION 38
  39. 39. • Building a SMRF is economically affordable and achievable as there is no need to pay for costly modern landfill and fixed volume-heavy waste equipment • Waste collection becomes easier in participating small cities & rural areas as it becomes clear that housing values appreciate better where SMRFs operate, overall health of residents improves, and business productivity increases • Operating a SMRF is scalable, profitable and sustainable Assumptions Result: Big demand for building a SMRF and for our combustor 39 The SRMF Becomes THE Cost- Effective Waste Processing Solution for the Developing World’s Small Cities, Islands & Rural Areas.
  40. 40. A B C D N 2030 SDG Goals2017 All small cities, Islands, & rural areas <200,000 people A SMRF’s Operations Will Be Profitable, Scalable, and Replicatable To Serve Growing Populations And Their Waste Result: Big demand for building a SMRF and for our combustor 40 Eventually SMRFs (Anchored by our Combustor) Will Be Ubiquitous in all Small Cities in the Developing World as “Waste Free Areas” Proliferate See Exhibit 1 for our stepped strategy
  41. 41. By 2020 “Waste-Free” Tourism Areas (Due to SMRFs) Outperform Areas With “Waste Everywhere” Assumptions • Tourism areas that support a SMRF and have “waste-free designation” will attract more tourists. Work with Sustainable travel industry. • In remote tourism areas, the cost of electricity (delivery of diesel) is high. A SMRF can deliver power, too (adding our power module). This makes an even better ROI use case for them. • More tourists express disappointment in locations with visible waste, especially when compared to “waste-free tourist destinations.” This negatively affects people who want to go to these locations on their vacations. Result: Hotels & Resorts (with buy-in from Island tourism boards) see the value of deploying SMRFs and commit to drive local waste firms to not just participate, but successfully operate them with local government and tourism-focused business financial support 41
  43. 43. ABOUT 1000 HOURS OF DEMO TESTING  Proven concept – technology works. Built on 60 year old technology. Not re-inventing the wheel, but improving it (with IP)  $5M prior venture – Transportable Power Plant (’04-’08)  Tested using wood chips & pellets/ engineering reports Frontline’s Current Situation: Seeking Seed Capital NEW IP & KNOW-HOW  Short-lead time: build unit in 4-5 months  Management Team ready to build and drive sales  Core combustor technology hasn’t changed since ’08  California manufacturer ready to go  “Know How” embedded in software controller logic per waste stream  IP patents to be filed upon funding PRODUCTION-READY FOR SALE UNIT 1 3 2 43 o Cold start of fluidized bubbling bed combustor using in-line heater o Wheel mounted combustor assembly Seed Round: Minimum $1,000,000 o Retrofit connection from combustor to Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power generator
  44. 44. SELLING COMBUSTORS SEPARATELY OR SELLING SMRF SYSTEMS Our Business Model SMRF CONSULTING & OPEARTIONAL FEES  Initial Feasibility Studies  Business Plans, Finding Strategic Partners, Funding Sources  Set up SMRF site and operational advisory oversight (over first X years)  Hands-on operational management (if contracted) for period of time LICENSING FEES, JOINT VENTURES, BOTs 1 4 3 44  Looking for strategic partners for exclusive country licenses to manufacture combustor and/or run SMRFs  Open to Build Own Transfer arrangements;  Open to Joint Ventures  Open to exclusive and non-exclusive country licensing fees to sell and/or operate combustor and SMRFs OPERATING ON-SITE COMBUSTORS IN U.S. FOR MRFS & INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES 2  Save them $ by charging less than their transportation and landfill tipping fees  We employ workers, handle all aspects of business. Create annuity stream
  45. 45. UNITED STATES First Target Markets DEVELOPING WORLD  52 Small Island Nations  Developing cities <200,000 people  Refugee Camps o Focus on SMRF o Inadequate or no scalable waste management system o Partner with established waste collector o Priority focus on tourism areas or where active local government support  Paper MRFs (on site disposal)  Companies and Cities Zero-Waste Initiatives SALES VISION: Potential 5,000-10,000 units; $4B-10B Sales 45
  46. 46. WHERE WE PLAY Growth Capital Stages (1) Finance Build & Sell Unit 001 For “Demonstration Pilot” (2) Expand With 3-5 Pilots Focus on tourism areas & target market opportunity buyers (3) Rapid Expansion Via Partnering (Series B, if needed) $1M Pre-Series A $3M - 5M Series A Breakeven Month 30 Months 1-8 Months 9-20 Months 21+ Use of Funds: Parts/Labor/Salaries to build Unit 001 Establish manufacturing process & scalability, IP patenting R&D for handling plastics disposal, ORC energy retrofit, Use of Funds: •Establish ability to successfully deploy (with results) SMRFs and scale in target markets • Scaling sales 46
  47. 47. LAUNCH TEAM Our Management Team ADVISORS Rob Steir Perry Mclain, Chief Product Engineer Bernie Podberesky Randy Wolf Frank Raschke Frank is a finance-focused waste executive for 30 years, mostly in the U.K. Currently he resides in Myanmar where he is developing different types of waste solutions for Myanmar and similar developing countries (including hazardous waste and sludge) as he believes not one solution fits all. He is an expert in project financing. Rob has 25 years of business innovation expertise, strategy & business development. Kellogg MBA. Perry has 30+ yrs in product manufacturing of industrial & agricultural equipment and has invented multiple products (with patents). Bernie spent 25 years at GE in senior procurement positions within the nuclear energy business. Randy has done it all within the waste management industry for 40 years. For the past 14 years his focus has been working with Fortune 500 companies to maximize the value of waste generated & minimize the amount of waste to landfill. Works for MRF in PA . He is an expert about the MRF world and what works and doesn’t work. 47
  50. 50. In U.S. & Europe (currently) In Small Cities in Developing World (Currently) “Leftover” Residual Waste Sent to Sanitary Landfill Public perception: Waste always “disappears” Waste Collected MRF: Recycled (30%-50%) “Leftover” Residual Waste Waste Burned and/or Sent to Unsanitary Dump Public perception: No Difference: Waste “still everywhere” (if) Waste Collected MRF: Recycled (small %’s) In “Local” Area In Developing World (With SMRF in Future) “Leftover” Residual Waste Waste Prepped & Sent into Combustor & Destroyed Public perception: Waste disappears where collected Direct cause/effect Creating 365/24/7 Waste-Free Area 25,000 Tons Waste Collected in Local Area SMRF: Recycle & Compost (70%-80%) 50
  51. 51. Please Contact: Rob Steir April 2017 51 THE END
  52. 52. Exhibit 1 STEP BY STEP IMPACT: HOW A REGION BECOMES “WASTE-FREE” A Region= a set geographic area with X population. It is strategically divided into SMRF-sized local areas base on its geography and population centers 52
  53. 53. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION 1 Establish 1 SMRF beachhead in a local area within a region. Preferably there is a local waste collector already operating and ready to rapidly expand its business 53 Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Step 1
  54. 54. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Get buy-in of “cluster” of 3 additional adjacent areas (preferably) to create one large “waste-free” area; or sign up 3 nearby small cities which commit to hosting a SMRF and to formalized waste collection 54 1 2 2 2 Step 2
  55. 55. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Start new “cluster” beachheads in different parts of the region. Business plans must support local operational sustainability. Find passionate waste collection firms in these small cities within region to further expand waste management reach 55 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 Step 3
  56. 56. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Local government will expand into “adjacent” areas at appropriate times for each beachhead area based on a local SMRF hitting certain milestones and attaining operational sustainability. If a local area fails , then move the SMRF facility to another regional location 56 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 44 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 Step 4
  57. 57. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION N Eventually SMRFs occupy an entire region. The region now has a sophisticated army of waste collectors, an effective recycling effort, and sustainable and profitable SMRFs. Each local area may even have more than 1 SMRF or 1 SMRF may have more than 1 combustor to meet residual waste disposal requirements to maintain “waste free areas” 57 Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Step 5
  58. 58. THE BEAUTY OF A SMRF-LED DISTRIBUTED WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR A REGION N At some point, new large-scale waste processing technology will be available for the entire region and with collection process in place, individual SMRF’s may turn into recycling-only MRFs (moving combustor out and used somewhere else) and a centralized “residual” waste-to-energy facility built to handle even more waste in each local area. 58 Each Square= 25,000 tons On average: 80% organic/recycle 20% residual waste Step 6 Waste To Energy Facility
  59. 59. EXAMPLE: KITUI COUNTY KENYA 59 1.1M Population (2009 Census) – 11,500 sq. miles of land. Compare, in theory, 1 landfill at 1000 tons/day (0.85 kg./day/capita) vs. est. 15 SMRFs placed throughout county Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 1st SMRF in major County city: Kitui City Population 160,000. Cost: $1.25M, incl. trucks & waste operator 3 years. City expected to grow to 250,000 by 2030. 3 more SMRFs added to cover city’s waste collections 3 Beachhead SMRFs started in the 3 other sub-regions Step 4 Step 5 More SMRFs added to each Sub-regions All 15 SMRFs operational. Most waste now collected in entire country!