Population growth and expansion of settlement footprint arising from the existing population base, migration from other regions and changes in settlement patterns within coastal nodes, which has an impact on coastal resources;Development and changes in industry and land use including the expansion of existing industries (goods and services) such as harbours and port facilities and the development and expansion of new industries (for example, Information Technology, hospitality and tourism), which has an impact on coastal resources; andNatural or human induced changes to the coastal ecosystems and the natural capital base, including from climate change and climate variability.
Kyle et al (2007) argue that understanding the meanings people associate with a particular place provides insight on why individuals and groups value particular resources’. In other words, ‘recreationists’ themselves play a crucial role in the process of constructing experience.
Consistent with Government policy options across a range of areas:InformationDirect investmentIncentivesCoercion / regulationBut who’s responsibility is it?There are some classic examples of each of these 3 strategies and many of you are the architects of these successful activities. My intention here is to give you an idea of the scope and shape of these initiatives because you’re going to hear directly from many of the sources here at this conference.Then I’ll briefly describe some aspects of a couple of processes I was involved in. The strong message is that we very rarely employ just one technique and are most successful when we engage on multiple fronts / agendas
However, it was only in 1996 that officers from the SCS and the Bells Beach Advisory Committee began developing the vision for Bells Beach Surfing Reserve. The Vision Statement for the Bells Beach Surfing Recreation Reserve states that: Bells Beach is unlike anywhere else in the world, it is a unique part of the Australian coastline and has a special place in surfing culture. The Surf Coast community acknowledges the importance of Bells Beach and seeks to protect and enhance the reserve’s natural assets and those of the
Education, information, direct action, lobbying
Threats to Waves and Protection Strategies - Neil LAZAROW
Threats to surfingInternational Symposium on the Protection of Waves Biarritz, France and San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain October 24-25, 2011 Dr Neil Lazarow Visitor, Fenner School of Environment and Society Australian National University
Scope of presentation• The contested coast – Key coastal management challenges• Surfing Capital and key threats• Recreation – Preferences and specialisation – Surfing Capital and Recreation Management• Threats and management strategies• Discussion and opportunities• Framework to manage Surfing Capital
Pressures on the coast• Population - growth and expansion of settlement footprint• Development – changes and expansion in industry and land use types• Natural Capital – changes in the natural resource base, including from climate change and climate variability (local to global scale)
¿Cómo se enfrentan los problemas?Utilizando la metodología NISDES• NEGANDO lo que existe• IMPROVISANDO soluciones• SUBESTIMANDO el problema• DESAUTORIZANDO a los expertos• EQUIVOCANDOSE en la aplicación• SORPRENDIENDOSE de los resultadosDr Eduardo A. Vallarino, UMDP, 2010
Case study locations /country of origin GFTP surveys
Surfers society and culture Motivation for Surfing (n=800 - 830) 80% 70% 60%Percentage of respondents 50% Srongly Disagree Disagree 40% Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 30% 20% 10% 0% Relax Outdoors Solitude Family Sport Competition Fitness Bond with (N=828) (N=831) (N=821) (N=824) (N=818) (N=800) (N=824) Nature (N=821) Multiple response options mean that values add up to more than 100%
Key surfing and ICM issues South Bastion Palm Kirra Asbury Bells Port Capes Issue / Locati o n Stradbroke Trestles Chile Point Beach Point Park Beach Campbell region Island Infrastructure & engineering issues a Wave quality ü ü ü ü - ü - ü - - Wave frequency ü ü ü ü - ü - ü - - Environmental issues Reef health - ü ü ü - - - - - - Water quality ü ü - - ü - - ü - - Ecosystem health - ü ü ü ü - - ü - - Legislative and management issues Public access ü ü - - ü - ü - - ü Local knowledge ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Community involvement ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Attachment to place ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Stewardship ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Recreation ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Tourism ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Culture Surf culture ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Aesthetics ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Significance ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Economics Economic impact ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Non-market value ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Rating /10 (Surfline b e c d h g i f ranking, unless otherwise 8 6 5-6 10 4 7-9 9 8-9 8 7-9 noted)a b c Debated issue, Refers to wave at southern end of island, Authors own rating. Variety of beach breaks over a 4km stretch d e fof coast, Rating pre-1995, Author’s own rating, Variety of surf breaks over an 80km stretch of coast, including a number of g h iworld class surf breaks, Variety of surf breaks over a 2km stretch of coast, Author’s own rating, Refers to Punta de Lobos.
Free-riderRomanticised notions of the sea rarely engage with, relate to or ‘genuinelyrecognise the economic, social or cultural issues that threaten it (Stocker,2009) ’.The ecosystem services provided by the ocean have for many years absorbedour waste and our pollution (how many times have coastal managers heard the phrases‘out of sight out of mind’ or ‘dilution is the solution to pollution’).On the one hand, the ocean has been used as a dumping ground for toxicwaste, sewage and munitions and on the other hand we rely on the ocean forfood, recreation and open-space, the ocean drives climatic conditions and thesea is the source of dreams and inspirations for so many.Nowhere is the principle of the ‘free-rider’ better exemplified (andencouraged through poor policy and laws) than in our relationship with theocean.
Typology of Surfing CapitalItem Description Natural or human impactWave quality Dominant local view of • Construction of coastal protection/amenity structures (for example, how the wave breaks. groynes, seawalls, piers, seawalls, riverwalls, breakwaters, artificial Both beauty and physical reefs) form become assessable. • Sand management (for example, beach fill, dredging, sandbarWave ‘Surfable’ waves grooming)frequency measured against an accepted standard.Environmental Environmental or Biological impacts (for example, water quality or nutrient loading) biophysical conditions Climate change/variability (for example, temperature change, sea level that may mitigate against rise, less or more storms less or more often) a surfers’ physical health. Amenity of the surrounding built and natural environment Marine predators (for example, sharks)Experiential Societal conditions Legislation/regulation that might grant, restrict or control access (for surrounding the surfing example, community title, private property, payment strategies, craft experience. registration, proficiency requirement, policing) Code of ethics i.e. road rules for the surf Signage & education strategies Surf rage, aggression, intimidation Self-regulation/localism/lore Mentoring, sharing, physical activity, challenge, joy and laughter, well- being, community spirit, Self-fulfilment Local aesthetic Risk, safety
Preferences and specialisation• The importance of preferences• Ritual potential of surfing – Personal relevance – Scenes / collective expression• Serious leisure• Specialisation• Subculture seduction
Surfers society and culture What would stop you from going surfing (n=663 - 666) 50% 45% 40% Percentage of respondents 35% 30% 25% If I have to 20% walk a long way 15% If there is a 10% chance my vehicle may be 5% vandalised What would stop you from going surfing (n=663 - 666) 0% If there is No way Im going Ill think about it Neutral Some hesitation Definitely going likely to be 35% surfing but probably not but Ill probably surfing aggression in go the line-up 30%Percentage of respondents 25% 20% I may contract gastroentiritis 15% I may contract an ear 10% infection I may contract 5% a skin rash 0% No way Im going Ill think about it Neutral Some hesitation Definitely going surfing but probably not but Ill probably surfing go
SurfbreaksSurf break type Bastion Point, AustraliaHeadland or Pointbreak • Independent review sought by communityBeach break finds that the preferred option “will place the groyne across the end of the outerRiver mouth or estuary bar break, imposing an additional hazard toReef break surfers as well as destroying part of theLedges (including Bomboras) break.”Sea mount • EES states that there are “opposing viewsTidal bore about the impact that the breakwater walls will have on surf further out..… The ‘region then becomes a more attractive place for the type of visitor who is family orientated and with young children, or teenagers who are interested in taking up surfing as a sport.”
Degradation of surf break – community health consequences• Decrease in trust in government and loss of local sovereignty.• Increased negative social impacts on other already crowded surf breaks.• Increase in criminal behaviour with bored youths.• People may turn away from surfing and aspects of a healthy lifestyle, which would mean increased longer –term health costs for the community.• Surfing provides a significant mentoring and intergenerational co-learning experience.• Changes in personal relevance, loss of self-worth and potential opportunities (for example, Kyle, et al., 2007a).• Negative impact on local and visitor perceptions.• A local surf break may be the only recreational amenity facility that youth can access quickly and safely.• Beaches and surf breaks often present the only access to ‘public space’ in highly urbanised areas.• Increased potential for crowding and conflict at remaining venues (Manning, 1999).• Potential displacement of certain users (Manning, 1999).• Change or loss to the natural character of a location.
Managing outdoor recreationModify supply or demand (Manning, in Buckley 2004)1. Increase supply2. Limit demandFixed supply or demand1. Modify the character of the recreational activity2. Improve the durability of the resource baseFive basic management strategies to ration and allocate use:reservation systems; lotteries; first-come, first-served orqueuing; pricing; and merit (Manning, in Buckley 2004)
Strategies to manage user impact and resource baseDo nothing Legislate/Regulate Modify the resource base Educate/advocate Do Restrict users through Groynes Code of ethics (that is, nothing strategies such as Seawalls road rules for the surf) payments, restricted Artificial reefs Signage access or parking, craft Sand bypass systems Education strategies registration, restricted Beach and nearshore Surf rage, aggression, time in the water sandbar grooming intimidation Modify user behaviour Nourishment Self- using legislation such as campaigns regulation/localism requiring proficiency to Break becomes Lore surf particular areas or unsurfable due to Declaration of surfing policing a surf break on water pollution reserves jetskis Direct action Community title (for Protests and example, Tavarua) demonstrations Declaration of surfing Lobbying and the reserves promotion of alternative strategies Provision of new information
Legislation / regulation• New Zealand – National Coastal Policy Statement• Australia – Exclusion zones in southwest Western Australia• USA – restricted access for surfing in New Jersey (up to 2003)• Australia – shared zoning for surfers, swimmers and boats at Bastion Point• Surfing Reserves and Sanctuaries – NSR – WSR – Bells
Bells Beach Surfing Recreation ReserveYear Action1971 Management responsibilities for land area handed to municipality1973 (6 June) Reserve gazetted under State Government public land act ‘permanently reserved for public purposes’ (land area only)1981 Tenure amended to be ‘permanently reserved for the protection of the coastline’1983 Reserve extended from high water 600m out to sea (seabed)2002 Marine Park declared (covers most of the offshore area of the Reserve (water column) ‘surfing has minimal impact on environmental values’2003 Reserve listed on the State Government Heritage Register for its social, recognising importance of cultural and natural landscape (terrestrial reserve and seabed out to 400m, but extent of state jurisdiction also relevant = 3nm)
Map of Bells Beach Surfing Recreation Reserve (Map layer courtesy of Surf Coast Shire, 2009)Note: The lines have been modified to practically reflect the land and sea areas of the Reserve. The Shire has no management responsibilities seaward of high water. Lines approximate.
Source: Moriarity & Nelsen, Surfrider Foundation
Modify the resource base Development (adapted from Scarfe, 2008)• Artificial nourishment • Port developments • Jetty construction or extensions• Breakwaters • Piers • Boat ramps• Seawalls • Dredging • Dumping of dredge spoil• Outfall pipelines • Marinas • Groynes• Water quality • Biological inputs • Climate change Surfing EIA input (adapted from Scarfe, 2008) Wave climate (inshore and offshore) Sediment grain sizes within littoral cell Surfer numbers and seasonal variations Precise location of surfing rides Wind patterns Surfer skill level Wave refraction/diffraction/shoaling Breaker intensity Peel angle Breaking wave height ration (H/d) Tidal patterns and long-term water level Surfable days per year trends Vector change projections Storm surge Wave and tide induced current patterns Water quality Biological inputs
Bilinga to Kirra, 1983. Source: Dept. Harbours and Marine Source: IslaSource: Vallarino Source: ICM
Overtures of a framework to manage Surfing Capital• Strategic use of legislation and regulations• Community health and sustainability• Appropriate knowledge e.g. identification of Surfing Capital, surf economics, strategies to incorporate local knowledge• Partnership approach• Multiple advocacy strategies (within and external to the surfing community)• Politicisation of surfing
Some useful references• Lazarow, N. 2010. Managing and Valuing Coastal Resources: An Examination of the Importance of Local Knowledge and Surf Breaks to Coastal Communities. Fenner School of Environment and Society. Canberra, Australian National University. PhD Thesis.• Lazarow, N., Miller, M. L., & Blackwell, B. 2008. The Value of Recreational Surfing to Society. Tourism in Marine Environments, 5(2-3), p.145-158.• Manning, R.E. (2004). Managing Impacts of Ecotourism Through Use Rationing and Allocation. In R. Buckley (Ed.), Environmental impacts of ecotourism (273-286). UK: CAB International.• Rosenblatt, B., Unger, B., & Mencinsky, A. (2005). How to Save a Surf Break? The Story of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. In G. Hening (Ed.), Groundswell Society: Surfing, Art, Science and Issues Conference, Conference. Groundswell Society. Location, 78-93.• Scarfe, B. (2008). The Value, Scarcity, and Fragility of Surfing Breaks. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Waikato, Hamilton.• Stebbins, R.A. (1979). Amateurs: On the Margin Between Work and Leisure. Beverley Hills: Sage Publications.• Stocker, L. (2009). Sea, Self and Sustainability. Life Writing, 6(1), 133-141.
Synthesis and implications for ICM and sustainability1. Relationship between NRM outcomes and community/place2. Public involvement processes3. Post-policy partnerships4. Access to knowledge through partnership approaches5. Capacity to review of develop meaningful policy6. Sustainability requires purposeful and sustained effort7. Effective engagement requires specialist skills8. Environmental policy experiments are rarely compatible with policy cycles9. Politicised nature of decision-making is often uneven10. Politicisation of coastal issues many improve the allocation of resources