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BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
       STRATEGY
            Developing a
  Functional Search Strategy for an
           Effective Ba...
COURSE OVERVIEW
• Course Objectives

• What is troubleshooting?

• Troubleshooter Styles

• Basic Troubleshooting
  Search...
COURSE OBJECTIVES
This course is designed to present to
the participant a Basic Troubleshooting
Search Strategy that can b...
COURSE OBJECTIVES
Upon completion of this course, the participants
will be able to;

• Apply basic troubleshooting search ...
COURSE OBJECTIVES
    Upon completion of this course
     the participant will be able to:

• Identify the various trouble...
COURSE OBJECTIVES
• Demonstrate the how to utilize
   WD machine drawings
  to obtain data.

• Demonstrate the how to util...
Housekeeping
• Start / Stop Time

• Breaks

• Lunch Break

• Safety Concerns
  Adhere to all Plant Safety rules
  Evacuati...
TROUBLESHOOTING DEFINED
The Definition of TROUBLESHOOTING is
   “To operate or serve as a troubleshooter”




           B...
TROUBLESHOOTING DEFINED
The Definition TROUBLESHOOTER is;

        •   A person skilled at solving or
            anticipa...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES

     GAMBLERS

      TESTERS

     THINKERS


       BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
      GAMBLERS

       • WANDERERS

       • RISK TAKERS

       • ODDSMAKERS

       • SWAPPERS


...
BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                   WANDERER
•   Relies completely on random chance to
    find the problem!

•   Log...
BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
        WANDERER
    •   Conducts exhaustive search by checking
        everything in the system!

 ...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
              RISK TAKERS
• Reconfigures the system to
  provide new information!

• Very dangerous...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                 ODDSMAKERS
•   Rely on knowledge of
    common fault occurrences!

•   Bet on what...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                        SWAPPER
•   Most encouraged form of gambling!

•   Can be very efficient!

...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
     SWAPPER


         •    Can damage good parts!

         •    Limited to supply of spare parts...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
      TESTERS

      • SENSORS

      • TRACERS

      • SPLITTERS




       BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                      SENSORS
• Likes to look, listen, touch, and smell!

• Valuable strategy for o...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                       TRACERS
• Generally use
  schematics/prints!

• Performs voltage checks,
  c...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                    TRACERS
• Start from a faulty symptom
  and
  search backward to the
  error’s
...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                   SPLITTERS
• Divide & Conquer!

• Half split method!
• Successive approximation!
...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
     SPLITTERS
      • Disconnect portions of a system
        or circuit!

      • May contribute ...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
     THINKERS

      • READERS

      • RECALLERS

      • DESIGNERS

      • ANALYZERS




       ...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                     READER
• Least skilled form of the
  “Thinking” approach!

• Highly recommende...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                    RECALLERS
• Rely more on their memory of
  symptoms and solutions from
  many y...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                      DESIGNERS

• Use theoretical knowledge to
  evaluate faults!

• Rarely effici...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
                  ANALYZERS
• Highly skilled troubleshooters!

• Use system knowledge and
  observa...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
     ANALYZERS

     • Requires a detailed understanding
       of the system!

     • Think before...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
        What is your Troubleshooting style?
• GAMBLER
  Wanderer, Risk Taker,
  Oddsmaker, Swapper
...
TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES
• List any advantages to being a SWAPPER.

• List the disadvantage to being a SPLITTER.

• Of all o...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                 STRATEGY
    SENSORY INPUT                FILTERING           ACTION




      ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                  STRATEGY
• SENSORY INPUT
  Comprehension of the elements of observation

• FIL...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                STRATEGY
• REPAIR
  Show examples of necessary items
  and information needed to...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                   STRATEGY
SENSORY INPUT
What is Sensory Input?
• Using your senses to gather d...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                STRATEGY
SENSORY INPUT
Examples of sensory input:

• Visual Inspection of Machin...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                 STRATEGY
SENSORY INPUT
How do you Improve Sensory Acuity?

How does any brillia...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                STRATEGY
SENSORY INPUT
• When is the best time to do troubleshooting
  on a mach...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                 STRATEGY
FILTERING
Root Cause Concept

• Filtering through the different
  sens...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                 STRATEGY
FILTERING
Root Cause Concept

• Assumption is the enemy of deduction.
...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
         STRATEGY
            FILTERING
            • As you learn and gain
              experi...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
         STRATEGY
     ACTION
     From Thought to Action

     • After a likely root cause is f...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                  STRATEGY
ACTION
Examples of typical action skills are:

•   PLC Logic Tracing
...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                  STRATEGY
FILTERING THE FILTER
The “Other Root Cause”

• Sometimes, first impre...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
              STRATEGY
FURTHER ACTION
Re-Action on the Filter

• After an alternate root cause i...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
              STRATEGY
REPAIR
FIX IT!!!

• Once a definite root cause is
  discovered, steps nee...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
               STRATEGY
DOCUMENTATION
Words for the Ages

• Something often overlooked in the
  ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
         STRATEGY
    The Basic Troubleshooting Strategy will:

    • Make your troubleshooting ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
         STRATEGY
      • List three examples of Sensory Input

      • Filtering input is a way...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                  DRAWINGS
The work area drawing depicts a dedicated area
of the plant com...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                     DRAWINGS
Depending on the process, this
machinery may consist of
vari...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                  DRAWINGS
Area Drawings can be
used to Locate equipment
and controls.

Su...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                   DRAWINGS

Drawings can also indicate the
various control devices,
assoc...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                 DRAWINGS

Device Drawings can provide
The following data;

• Tag Name

• ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
           SEQUENCE OF OPERATION   Station 25W Widget Assembler
• Details the sequence of ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                 HMI SCREENS
The Human Machine Interface (HMI)
is used to communicate with...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
          HMI SCREENS
             The Human Machine Interface (HMI)
             is used ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                      HMI SCREENS
Typical HMI Screen
• Display a system
  status.

• A for...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                  HMI SCREENS
• Displays are
  typically color
  coded (red and
  Green) t...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                   HMI SCREENS
An example of an Alarm
Display to view system
faults.

• Ev...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
             TRACING LADDER LOGIC
ONLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SHOULD
 ACCESS THE LADDER LOGIC...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
             TRACING LADDER LOGIC
A trained individual can
use a Controller Work       Rem...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
             TRACING LADDER LOGIC
An example of a Rung of
  Ladder Logic.

• An input sign...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
              TRACING LADDER LOGIC
• Tracing a signal in the
  logic requires good
  docum...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
     CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
• Controller Systems
  usually have Status
  Indicators ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
• Controller Systems usually have
Status indicators located o...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
       CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
Example :      1756-L55 Controller Module
            ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
      CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
I/O - Indicates status of configured input and output
 ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
      CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
FORCE - Indicates the presence and status of
          ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
      CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
OK – Status of Controller module:
  Green – Controller ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
          MANUFACTURER MANUALS

• Equipment manufacturers often
  times include a troubles...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
         MANUFACTURER MANUALS

• All have different styles.
  (See this example) Excellent...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
          MANUFACTURER MANUALS
                           Type Code                 Fault ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
            MAINTENANCE LOGS

• Maintaining accurate records of System performance
  param...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
          MAINTENANCE LOGS
• Early detection can be achieved by recording a
  “baseline” o...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
              MAINTENANCE LOGS
• Once the baseline data is established, periodic
  checks ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
     MAINTENANCE LOGS




           BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
Troubleshooting Worksheet
                                                          MAINTE...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS
                                     MAINTENANCE LOGS
REPAIR Fix the problem and verify th...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
         STRATEGY
      • What would you check to determine
        the next step in an operatio...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                       Review
                       GAMBLERS
•   Relies completely on random ch...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                        Review
                        GAMBLERS
•   Rely on knowledge of common ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
                      TESTERS
• Likes to look, listen, touch, and s...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                        Review
                        TESTERS
•   Divide & Conquer!
•   Half sp...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
                      THINKERS
• Least skilled form of the “Thinkin...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
                      THINKERS
• Use theoretical knowledge to evalu...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
                    DRAWINGS
• The work area drawing depicts a dedi...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
               SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
• Details the sequence of a gi...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                     Review
                    HMI SCREENS
• The Human Machine Interface (HMI) ...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                       Review
                  Trace Ladder Logic
ONLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SHOU...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                      Review
           CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS
• Controller Systems usuall...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
                       Review
              MANUFACTURER MANUALS
• Equipment manufacturers often...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
        Conclusion Module One
Using the Basic Troubleshooting Strategy improve
Your troubleshoot...
THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
       Conclusion Module One
Thank you for your attention.

Keep this process in mind
during the...
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Basic Troubleshooting Pwr Pt

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Module One of a troubleshooting Presentation

  • For last commenter: Michael, WD stands for Wiring diagram. Bob: great job on the slide. As most who deliver 'PLC training' do not teach troubleshooters using PLC this, I would recommend you add to slide 64... "WARNING: anything to do with PLC "Forces" is dangerous and a safety risk" and should be treated as such. When one 'forces' a real world input or output, there are forcing the machine to operate other than it was designed to. that is what http:bin95.com teaches.
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  • Slide 6 says 'WD machine drawings' What is a WD machine drawing?
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Basic Troubleshooting Pwr Pt

  1. 1. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY Developing a Functional Search Strategy for an Effective Basic Troubleshooting Process Developed and presented by Bob Lonzo BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  2. 2. COURSE OVERVIEW • Course Objectives • What is troubleshooting? • Troubleshooter Styles • Basic Troubleshooting Search Strategy • Using the Troubleshooting Tools • Review and Evaluation BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  3. 3. COURSE OBJECTIVES This course is designed to present to the participant a Basic Troubleshooting Search Strategy that can be used to troubleshoot and identify malfunctions in any type of industrial process environment. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  4. 4. COURSE OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this course, the participants will be able to; • Apply basic troubleshooting search strategies to several different process problem scenarios and effectively identify a malfunction. • Identify the components and documentation associated with troubleshooting plant floor systems and their work areas. • Use the identified components and documentation to identify the root cause of a malfunction. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  5. 5. COURSE OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this course the participant will be able to: • Identify the various troubleshooting styles and list the advantages and disadvantages for each. • List the elements in the Basic Troubleshooting Strategy. • Demonstrate the how to utilize machine HMI screen to obtain data. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  6. 6. COURSE OBJECTIVES • Demonstrate the how to utilize WD machine drawings to obtain data. • Demonstrate the how to utilize control system indicators to obtain data. • Demonstrate the how to utilize machine manuals to obtain data. • Prepare a maintenance repair document for use in their daily activities. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  7. 7. Housekeeping • Start / Stop Time • Breaks • Lunch Break • Safety Concerns Adhere to all Plant Safety rules Evacuation Route BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  8. 8. TROUBLESHOOTING DEFINED The Definition of TROUBLESHOOTING is “To operate or serve as a troubleshooter” BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  9. 9. TROUBLESHOOTING DEFINED The Definition TROUBLESHOOTER is; • A person skilled at solving or anticipating problems or difficulties. • A skilled worker employed to locate trouble and make repairs in machinery and technical equipment. • An expert in resolving diplomatic or political disputes a mediator of disputes that are at an impasse. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  10. 10. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES GAMBLERS TESTERS THINKERS BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  11. 11. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES GAMBLERS • WANDERERS • RISK TAKERS • ODDSMAKERS • SWAPPERS BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  12. 12. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING WANDERER • Relies completely on random chance to find the problem! • Logical sequence not followed! • Requires little knowledge of troubleshooting strategy! • Forgets what already has been tested! • Tends to waste time and effort! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  13. 13. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING WANDERER • Conducts exhaustive search by checking everything in the system! • Gets lost in the search! • Lack schematic interpretation and component diagnostic skills! • Limited system understanding! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  14. 14. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES RISK TAKERS • Reconfigures the system to provide new information! • Very dangerous to both equipment and personnel! • Likes to experiment with components within a system! • Must use extreme care not to introduce new faults! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  15. 15. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES ODDSMAKERS • Rely on knowledge of common fault occurrences! • Bet on what they think is the correct solution based on symptoms they recognize! • Troubleshooting requires an increasing level of skill! • Quickly become Wanderers! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  16. 16. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES SWAPPER • Most encouraged form of gambling! • Can be very efficient! • Can quickly get the equipment functioning! • Exhibits risk-taking behavior! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  17. 17. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES SWAPPER • Can damage good parts! • Limited to supply of spare parts! • Limited to easily substituted or modular parts! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  18. 18. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES TESTERS • SENSORS • TRACERS • SPLITTERS BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  19. 19. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES SENSORS • Likes to look, listen, touch, and smell! • Valuable strategy for obtaining important information! • Rarely a stand-alone problem solving method! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  20. 20. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES TRACERS • Generally use schematics/prints! • Performs voltage checks, continuity checks, or signal tracing! • Start at a known good point in the system and work toward the fault! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  21. 21. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES TRACERS • Start from a faulty symptom and search backward to the error’s source! • Depends heavily on good test equipment and schematic/print reading skills! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  22. 22. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES SPLITTERS • Divide & Conquer! • Half split method! • Successive approximation! • Divide a system or circuit in half and check for proper readings, then continue to divide and check! • Use jumper wires BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  23. 23. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES SPLITTERS • Disconnect portions of a system or circuit! • May contribute to confusion because of the induced interaction of components! • Potential for damage to equipment or injury to personnel! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  24. 24. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES THINKERS • READERS • RECALLERS • DESIGNERS • ANALYZERS BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  25. 25. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES READER • Least skilled form of the “Thinking” approach! • Highly recommended in many situations! • Instances still arise to troubleshoot manually! • Must be able to switch to another style of troubleshooting! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  26. 26. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES RECALLERS • Rely more on their memory of symptoms and solutions from many years of experience! • Troubleshooting needs continual practice! • Tend to lose troubleshooting skills! • Solve common problems in familiar systems! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  27. 27. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES DESIGNERS • Use theoretical knowledge to evaluate faults! • Rarely efficient! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  28. 28. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES ANALYZERS • Highly skilled troubleshooters! • Use system knowledge and observations (sight) of symptoms to eliminate portions of a system in a logical way! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  29. 29. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES ANALYZERS • Requires a detailed understanding of the system! • Think before you approach! • Relies on FUNCTIONAL SEARCH STRATEGIES BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  30. 30. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES What is your Troubleshooting style? • GAMBLER Wanderer, Risk Taker, Oddsmaker, Swapper • TESTER Sensor, Tracer, splitter • THINKER Reader, Re-caller, Designer, Analyzer BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  31. 31. TROUBLESHOOTING STYLES • List any advantages to being a SWAPPER. • List the disadvantage to being a SPLITTER. • Of all of the Troubleshooting Styles presented, which Style is the least efficient? • Which Style is most efficient? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  32. 32. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY SENSORY INPUT FILTERING ACTION FILTER THE FILTER RE-ACTION NO YES PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION SOLVED REPAIR BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  33. 33. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY • SENSORY INPUT Comprehension of the elements of observation • FILTERING Skill set for determining root cause of problems • ACTION Introduction to elements of hardware/software/documentation to implement root cause analysis BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  34. 34. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY • REPAIR Show examples of necessary items and information needed to affect repair • DOCUMENTATION Importance of documenting repairs BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  35. 35. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY SENSORY INPUT What is Sensory Input? • Using your senses to gather data on the problem. • Every malfunction leaves certain clues as to where the problem occurred and what is needed to start the troubleshooting process. • The more adept a you are at recognizing the clues, the more information you will have to accurately determine root cause BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  36. 36. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY SENSORY INPUT Examples of sensory input: • Visual Inspection of Machine • Reference HMI device • Listening to the Operator • Checking Visual Indicators on Modules and Components BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  37. 37. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY SENSORY INPUT How do you Improve Sensory Acuity? How does any brilliant idea ever come to people? • A person takes something he already knows and thinks about it in a different way. • Questions like “What if-“ and “Imagine if” spark different avenues of thought. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  38. 38. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY SENSORY INPUT • When is the best time to do troubleshooting on a machine? When it is operating correctly. • What if you could see the machine from a slightly different perspective every time you look or listen or smell it? • How much intuitive knowledge would you have about its processes or its sequencing? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  39. 39. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY FILTERING Root Cause Concept • Filtering through the different sensory input should give you a prioritized list of possible root causes. • This process is done mentally with deduction or, sometimes, induction. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  40. 40. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY FILTERING Root Cause Concept • Assumption is the enemy of deduction. Sometimes, problems that occur may have the same symptoms but be an entirely different cause. • How many times have you found yourself inventing obscure reasons to justify a cause that you just KNOW it has to be and find that it was Something else entirely? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  41. 41. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY FILTERING • As you learn and gain experience from a certain machine line, your filtering becomes more acute and your first root cause possibility will tend to be the right one. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  42. 42. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY ACTION From Thought to Action • After a likely root cause is formulated, some type of action will be required to prove the supposition out. • We will make suggestions of the actions that need to be taken to trace, diagnose, and/or reference information in the Control system. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  43. 43. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY ACTION Examples of typical action skills are: • PLC Logic Tracing • Searching and Cross-Referencing • Referencing WD Prints • Physical Inspection of Machine Components • Trend Data Monitoring BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  44. 44. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY FILTERING THE FILTER The “Other Root Cause” • Sometimes, first impressions can be incorrect. • If root cause is not found from the current action, the subsequent possibilities must be explored until a root cause is found. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  45. 45. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY FURTHER ACTION Re-Action on the Filter • After an alternate root cause is determined, all steps listed in the ACTION step listed above can be re-used to prove out a possible root cause. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  46. 46. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY REPAIR FIX IT!!! • Once a definite root cause is discovered, steps need to be taken to temporarily or permanently repair the machine. • WD prints can be re-referenced to locate specific sensors or valves. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  47. 47. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY DOCUMENTATION Words for the Ages • Something often overlooked in the troubleshooting process is documentation. • Not only does this help other personnel who may also be troubleshooting that piece of equipment, it will also help YOU when two years have gone by and you completely forget about a problem. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  48. 48. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY The Basic Troubleshooting Strategy will: • Make your troubleshooting more effective. • Eliminate duplicate troubleshooting (Same problem appearing on different shifts) • Reduce Downtime due to more effective repair of malfunctions. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  49. 49. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY • List three examples of Sensory Input • Filtering input is a way for you to discover the _______ _______ of the problem. • What is the final step in the Basic Troubleshooting Strategy? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  50. 50. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS DRAWINGS The work area drawing depicts a dedicated area of the plant comprised of; • machinery • control equipment • personnel This area implements the manufacturing process of a specific Component(s) BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  51. 51. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS DRAWINGS Depending on the process, this machinery may consist of various pieces of equipment. Each executes a programmed sequence of operation that puts the part(s) through various stages of the production Process. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  52. 52. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS DRAWINGS Area Drawings can be used to Locate equipment and controls. Suggestions; • Make notes on drawings for reference. • Identify control device locations BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  53. 53. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS DRAWINGS Drawings can also indicate the various control devices, associated sensor devices, and their tag names. These tag names can be searched and cross referenced in the working drawings, tag database, the ladder logic, and the HMI I/O status display. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  54. 54. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS DRAWINGS Device Drawings can provide The following data; • Tag Name • Node Address • Wire Labels / Numbers • Contact Data (NO or NC) BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  55. 55. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Station 25W Widget Assembler • Details the sequence of a • • Operator places Widget Part W21 on conveyor Widget Part W21 moves into assemble position, pin clamps open. given machine or process. • Widget Part W21 part present #1 and #2 detected. • Widget Part W24 travels to Assemble position above Widget Part W21 • Can be used to identify the • • Pin Clamps close on Robot Widget Part W21 The assemble process starts • The W-frame press starts down over Widget area of malfunction. Part W21 and Widget Part W24 • W-Frame (Press) continues down and stops (dwell time). • Problem is usually in the step • • The clamps extend. W-Welder Robot spot welds Widget Part W21 and Widget Part W24 just before the uncompleted • The W-frame press starts up from Widget Part W21 and Widget Part W24 step. • The clamps retract • Widget Part W-25 ( combined W21 & W24) moves on to conveyor • Widget Part W-25 clears fixture • Next sequence begins BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  56. 56. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS HMI SCREENS The Human Machine Interface (HMI) is used to communicate with the control system of the machines. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  57. 57. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS HMI SCREENS The Human Machine Interface (HMI) is used to communicate with the control system of the machines. HMI devices are used to; • Check the operation status of a Machine. • Permit operator to modify operation. • Provide alarms and warnings BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  58. 58. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS HMI SCREENS Typical HMI Screen • Display a system status. • A form of this screen is located on almost all machine HMI’s. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  59. 59. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS HMI SCREENS • Displays are typically color coded (red and Green) to indicate normal or fault / alarm status. • Notice how the Man/Auto Ready indicator shows Auto not ready, along with the system local message. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  60. 60. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS HMI SCREENS An example of an Alarm Display to view system faults. • Every message has a event number that is related to a Message Event in the controller logic. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  61. 61. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TRACING LADDER LOGIC ONLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SHOULD ACCESS THE LADDER LOGIC. • Tracing Ladder logic in the controller requires specialized training in the particular software used by the controller unit. • Possible machine damage and personnel injury can result from un-authorized modification to the controller logic. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  62. 62. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TRACING LADDER LOGIC A trained individual can use a Controller Work Remote Run station or a computer loaded with specific software to; • View the ladder logic program executing in the controller. • Modify logic • Override some signals for diagnostics BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  63. 63. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TRACING LADDER LOGIC An example of a Rung of Ladder Logic. • An input signal or output signal can be viewed in real time by accessing the ladder logic of the controller unit. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  64. 64. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS TRACING LADDER LOGIC • Tracing a signal in the logic requires good documentation of the various controller logic elements. • An input signal or output signal can be viewed in real time. • Specific Signals can be modified (forced) to aid in diagnostics. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  65. 65. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS • Controller Systems usually have Status Indicators located on the Controller and modules. • Using the indicator LEDs and the Manufacturer manual one can get a clue as to the malfunction BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  66. 66. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS • Controller Systems usually have Status indicators located on the Controller and modules. • Using the indicator LEDs and the Manufacturer manual one can Get a clue as to the malfunction BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  67. 67. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS Example : 1756-L55 Controller Module Status Indicator Descriptions RUN - Indicates mode of operation: Solid Green – Processor is running (reading inputs, executing logic, and writing output data to enabled output modules) Off – Processor is not controlling outputs (processor could be in program mode, test mode, or no power) BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  68. 68. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS I/O - Indicates status of configured input and output modules communication: Solid Green – Processor is communicating to its configured input and output modules Flashing Green – One or more, but not all, configured I/O modules is not communicating Flashing Red – No I/O modules are communicating or the processor has faulted Off – No configured modules BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  69. 69. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS FORCE - Indicates the presence and status of forced I/O: Off – No forces exist in controller Flashing Yellow – Forces installed, but not active Solid Yellow – Forces installed and active RS232 – Communications activity of serial port Flashing Green – Data is being sent or received through the serial port BAT – Status of memory backup battery: Solid Red – Battery Level low and needs to be replaced Off – Battery is OK, or no power BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  70. 70. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS OK – Status of Controller module: Green – Controller is OK Off – No power applied Flashing Red – Minor or major recoverable fault Solid Red – Major non-recoverable controller fault; must be corrected and reset BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  71. 71. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MANUFACTURER MANUALS • Equipment manufacturers often times include a troubleshooting section in the machine manuals. • Check the manuals for hints on detecting and preventing malfunctions BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  72. 72. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MANUFACTURER MANUALS • All have different styles. (See this example) Excellent source of information specific to the machine. • Some provide flowchart style data BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  73. 73. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MANUFACTURER MANUALS Type Code Fault Description Recovery 1 1 The controller pow ered on in Run mode. Execute the pow er-loss handler. 3 16 A required I/O module connection failed. Check that the I/O module is in the chassis. • Others provide error Check electronic keying requirements. View the controller properties Major Fault tab and the module properties Connection tab for code data. 3 3 20 23 Possible problem w ith the ControlBus chassis. At least one required connection w as not more information about the fault. Not recoverable - replace the chassis. Wait for the controller I/O light to turn green (See AB Controller 4 16 established before going to Run mode. Unknow n instruction encountered. before changing to Run mode. Remove the unknow n instruction. This probably happened due to a program conversion example) 4 20 Array subscript too big, control structure .POS or process. Adjust the value to be w ithin the valid range. .LEN is invalid. Don’t exceed the array size or go beyond dimensions defined. 4 21 Control structure .LEN or .POS < 0. Adjust the value so it is > 0. • Use the manuals to 4 31 The parameters of the JSR instruction do not Pass the appropriate number of parameters. If match those of the associated SBR or RET too many parameters are passed, the extra instruction. ones are ignored w ithout any error. 4 34 A timer instruction has a negative preset or Fix the program to not load a negative value into interrupt sensory 4 42 accumulated value. JMP to a label that did not exist or w as deleted. timer preset or accumulated value. Correct the JMP target or add the missing label. data. 4 82 A sequential function chart (SFC) called a subroutine and the subroutine tried to jump back to the calling SFC. Occurs w hen the SFC uses either Remove the jump back to the calling SFC. a JSR or FOR instruction to call the subroutine. 4 83 The data tested w as not inside the required limits. Modify value to be w ithin limits. 4 84 Stack overflow . Reduce the subroutine nesting levels or the number of parameters passed. 4 89 In a SFR instruction, the target routine does not Correct the SFR target or add the missing step. contain the target step. 6 1 Task w atchdog expired. User task has not Increase the task w atchdog, shorten the completed in specified period of time. execution time, make the priority of this task “higher,” simplify higher priority tasks, or move some code to another controller. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  74. 74. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MAINTENANCE LOGS • Maintaining accurate records of System performance parameters of each machine will make problem Identification and malfunction troubleshooting much easier. • The sooner you identify potential problems will result reduced downtime. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  75. 75. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MAINTENANCE LOGS • Early detection can be achieved by recording a “baseline” of selective parameters such as voltages and average readings for each major device and periodically checking for deterioration. • The baseline data would ideally be collected at the installation of the system once all of the bugs have been worked out. In the event that this data was not collected at installation time, data collected when the system is functioning correctly can be used for the baseline information. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  76. 76. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MAINTENANCE LOGS • Once the baseline data is established, periodic checks of the actual network data can be compared to the baseline and potential malfunctions addressed prior to becoming shutdown situations. • The next slide an example of a Baseline data form. This is only an example. You may wish to develop your own based on; • Your experience with the network • Operation of particular systems • Certain types of devices BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  77. 77. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MAINTENANCE LOGS BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  78. 78. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS Troubleshooting Worksheet MAINTENANCE LOGS Fill in the form to help you keep track of your troubleshooting effort. Exercise # Check ‘Yes’ in each box if it applies. Team # Another example of a Log Start with observation. Questions Yes No Findings Is power on? Is the machine cycling? Does the cell appear to have stopped mid-cycle? Is there a fault message on the ‘Bingo’ board? Notice that this example Are there any fault lights, a fault message, or horn? Follows the Basic Is it a hardware fault or operational fault? Are there any unusual sounds? Has the operator offered any information? Troubleshooting Strategy Are there any other unusual things happening? • Sensory Input Determine where to find the cause. Narrowing your focus. Questions What area are you going to focus on? Are you going to review more PV+ screens? Yes No Findings • Filter Are you going to look at more indicator lights? Examine the tooling / fixture? Are you going to view the teach pendant screens? Are you going to look at weld controller screens? • Action Are you going to try to cycle in manual? Are you going to look at the ladder logic? Do you need a multi-meter or net-meter? Other (specify): BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING ACTION I understand what happened. Now I determine what to do about it.
  79. 79. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING TOOLS MAINTENANCE LOGS REPAIR Fix the problem and verify that it works. Yes No Findings Basic Troubleshooting Questions Were you able to fix the problem? Strategy Is the line now in Automatic and ready to run? • Repair Do you feel that the root cause was fixed? • Documentation DOCUMENTATION Finishing the effort by documenting your findings for others • Adds Section for Yes No Findings Questions Is there a logbook to fill out on this line? your Comments and Was it necessary to update files after the suggestions repair? Were the prints updated and valid? Did you find logic rungs that should be commented better? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  80. 80. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING STRATEGY • What would you check to determine the next step in an operation or process? • What should you check to determine the Controller Systems is functioning Correctly? • What would you use to determine if the malfunction had occurred previously? • What would you put on a Log for the machine you are responsible to maintain? BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  81. 81. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review GAMBLERS • Relies completely on random chance to find the problem! • Logical sequence not followed! • Forgets what already has been tested! • Tends to waste time and effort! • Checks everything in the system! • Lack schematic interpretation and component diagnostic skills! • Reconfigures the system to provide new information! • Very dangerous to both equipment and personnel! • Likes to experiment with components within a system! • Must use extreme care not to introduce new faults! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  82. 82. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review GAMBLERS • Rely on knowledge of common fault occurrences! • Bet on what they think is the correct solution based on symptoms they recognize! • Troubleshooting requires an increasing level of skill! • Can be very efficient! • Can quickly get the equipment functioning! • Exhibits risk-taking behavior! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  83. 83. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review TESTERS • Likes to look, listen, touch, and smell! • Valuable strategy for obtaining important information! • Rarely a stand-alone problem solving method! • Generally use schematics/prints! • Performs voltage checks, continuity checks, or signal tracing! • Start at a known good point in the system and work toward the fault! • Start from a faulty symptom and search backward to the error’s source! • Depends heavily on good test equipment and schematic/print reading skills! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  84. 84. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review TESTERS • Divide & Conquer! • Half split method! • Successive approximation! • Divide a system or circuit in half and check for proper readings, then continue to divide and check! • Use jumper wires • Disconnect portions of a system or circuit! • May contribute to confusion because of the induced interaction of components! • Potential for damage to equipment or injury to personnel! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  85. 85. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review THINKERS • Least skilled form of the “Thinking” approach! • Highly recommended in many situations! • Instances still arise to troubleshoot manually! • Must be able to switch to another style of troubleshooting! • Rely more on their memory of symptoms and solutions from many years of experience! • Troubleshooting needs continual practice! • Tend to lose troubleshooting skills! • Solve common problems in familiar systems! BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  86. 86. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review THINKERS • Use theoretical knowledge to evaluate faults! • Rarely efficient! • Highly skilled troubleshooters! • Use system knowledge and observations (sight) of symptoms to eliminate portions of a system in a logical way! • Requires a detailed understanding of the system! • Think before you approach! • Relies on FUNCTIONAL SEARCH STRATEGIES BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  87. 87. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review DRAWINGS • The work area drawing depicts a dedicated area of the plant comprised of; machinery , control equipment, and Personnel • Area Drawings can be used to Locate equipment and controls. • Drawings can also indicate the various control devices, associated sensor devices, and their tag names BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  88. 88. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review SEQUENCE OF OPERATION • Details the sequence of a given machine or process. • Can be used to identify the area of malfunction. • Problem is usually in the step just before the uncompleted step. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  89. 89. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review HMI SCREENS • The Human Machine Interface (HMI) is used to communicate with the control system of the machines. • HMI devices are used to; Check the operation status of a Machine, Permit operator to modify operation, and Provide alarms and warnings • Displays are typically color coded (red and Green) to indicate normal or fault / alarm status. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  90. 90. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review Trace Ladder Logic ONLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SHOULD ACCESS THE LADDER LOGIC. • Tracing Ladder logic in the controller requires specialized training in the particular software used by the controller unit. • Possible machine damage and personnel injury can result from un-authorized modification to the controller logic. • Use a Controller Work station or a computer loaded with specific software to; View the ladder logic program, modify logic, or Override some signals for diagnostics BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  91. 91. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review CONTROLLER SYSTEM INDICATORS • Controller Systems usually have Status indicators located on the Controller and modules. • Using the indicator LEDs and the Manufacturer manual one can Get a clue as to the malfunction BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  92. 92. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Review MANUFACTURER MANUALS • Equipment manufacturers often times include a troubleshooting section in the machine manuals. • Check the manuals for hints on detecting and preventing malfunctions • Manuals provide error code data. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  93. 93. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Conclusion Module One Using the Basic Troubleshooting Strategy improve Your troubleshooting ability and result in: • Increased production • Reduced down • Confident Workforce BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING
  94. 94. THE BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING Conclusion Module One Thank you for your attention. Keep this process in mind during the second Module When we will address specific Machines on your plant floor. BASIC TROUBLESHOOTING

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