Avoid Surprises with New FEMA Flood Maps Gary Raasch, PE, CFM Cindi DeBruine, PE, CFM
Topics to be Covered <ul><li>Floodplains 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Ha...
Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Parts of a floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>How floodplain boundaries are determined </li></ul><ul><li...
Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains   are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during...
Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during s...
Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during s...
Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Flood elevations   vary along a stream, but always decrease downstream. Bridges often cause extra ...
Floodplain Boundaries <ul><li>Floodplain limits are determined by engineering study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrology – eval...
Regulatory Floodplains <ul><li>NFIP Special Flood Hazard Areas: floodplains for the  1% Annual Chance Flood   -has a 1% ch...
NFIP Floodplain Mapping <ul><li>Printed maps began in 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 20 year update cycle </li></ul><ul><l...
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)
Old FIRM and New Digital FIRM Old FIRM New FIRM
Old FIRM Components Stream Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Floodway Boundary Cross Section Floodplain Boundary Community Limits
Digital FIRM Components Stream Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Floodway Boundary Cross Section Floodplain Boundary (Flood Hazar...
Flood Hazard Zones <ul><li>Determines the Cost of Flood Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>High Flood Risk (Special Flood Hazard)...
High Flood Risk Zones  (Flood Insurance Required) <ul><li>1% Chance  Riverine  Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Zone A – deter...
High Flood Risk Zones  (Flood Insurance Required) <ul><li>1% Chance  Coastal  Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Zone V – Coasta...
Low & Moderate Risk Zones   (Flood Insurance Not Required) <ul><li>Zone X (shaded)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.2% annual chan...
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) <ul><li>Participation by community </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Insurance sold through ...
NFIP Community Participation <ul><li>Communities decide to participate in NFIP and agree to manage flood hazard areas. </l...
NFIP Community Participation <ul><li>If Community chooses not to join NFIP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property owners are not ...
NFIP Coverage <ul><li>Residential Coverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $250,000 per single family building or condominium...
My property is shown in the new floodplain.   Now what? <ul><li>If you have good reason to believe that a property or stru...
<ul><ul><li>Was the site filled?  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fill is defined as material  placed to raise the grade  t...
<ul><li>2. Contact a licensed land surveyor, professional engineer, or architect authorized by law to certify elevation in...
<ul><li>3. Determine What to Submit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of Map Change (LOMC)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter ...
<ul><ul><li>Letter of Map Revision Based on Fill (LOMR-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letter from FEMA stating that an ...
Special Situations <ul><li>Multi-unit condominium buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove building(s) “inclusive of all uni...
Proposed Developments <ul><li>WI DNR Requirements to remove area from floodplain (Local requirements may be more strict th...
Proposed Developments (cont.) <ul><li>Property in Zone A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic/hydraulic engineering study requ...
Proposed Developments (cont.) <ul><li>Property in Zone AE with Floodway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in the flood fri...
State & Local Regulations <ul><li>Wisconsin Admin. Code NR116 – requires floodplain zoning at local level </li></ul><ul><l...
FIRM “Inaccuracies”? <ul><li>Elevation data supersedes suspicious mapped floodplain boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base ...
Accessing FEMA Maps <ul><li>www.msc.fema.gov   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map Service Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro...
NFIP Website <ul><li>www.floodsmart.gov   </li></ul><ul><li>Agent Locator </li></ul><ul><li>File Your Claim </li></ul><ul>...
Questions? Gary Raasch, PE, CFM 262-317-3369 [email_address]   Cindi DeBruine, PE, CFM 262-317-3254 [email_address]
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Fema Seminar At Ra Smith National

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Avoid Surprises with New FEMA Flood Maps

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  • Fema Seminar At Ra Smith National

    1. 1. Avoid Surprises with New FEMA Flood Maps Gary Raasch, PE, CFM Cindi DeBruine, PE, CFM
    2. 2. Topics to be Covered <ul><li>Floodplains 101 </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Hazard Zones </li></ul><ul><li>National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Site Specific Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with FIRM “inaccuracies” </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing FEMA maps </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Parts of a floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>How floodplain boundaries are determined </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory Floodplains </li></ul>
    4. 4. Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during severe storm events. </li></ul>Source: Walesh, Urban Surface Water Management
    5. 5. Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during severe storm events. </li></ul><ul><li>Floodway is the stream and the portion of the floodplain where flow velocity is highest and must be kept open to “convey” floodwaters without increasing flood height. </li></ul>Source: Walesh, Urban Surface Water Management FLOODWAY FLOODWAY
    6. 6. Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Floodplains are lands expected to be flooded by water from a creek, river, lake, or ocean during severe storm events. </li></ul><ul><li>Floodway is the stream and the portion of the floodplain where flow velocity is highest and must be kept open to “convey” floodwaters without increasing flood height. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Fringe is floodplain outside the floodway. </li></ul>Source: Walesh, Urban Surface Water Management FLOODWAY FLOOD FRINGE FLOOD FRINGE
    7. 7. Floodplains 101 <ul><li>Flood elevations vary along a stream, but always decrease downstream. Bridges often cause extra depth of water or “backwater”. </li></ul><ul><li>Flood elevations are calculated at cross sections of the stream and floodplain. </li></ul>Source: Walesh, Urban Surface Water Management
    8. 8. Floodplain Boundaries <ul><li>Floodplain limits are determined by engineering study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrology – evaluation of rainfall and runoff to determine how much flow is in the stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulics – evaluation of flows and stream/floodplain topography to determine flood elevations and extent of the floodplain along the stream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mapping – most floodplains in SE WI based on topographic terrain mapping with accuracy of +/- 0.5 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy – FEMA requires flood profile elevation reconciliation within 0.5 feet. Wisconsin regulations limit flood elevation increases to <0.01 feet </li></ul>
    9. 9. Regulatory Floodplains <ul><li>NFIP Special Flood Hazard Areas: floodplains for the 1% Annual Chance Flood -has a 1% chance of occurring or being exceeded each year </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as 100-year flood, Base Flood Elevation ( BFE ), or Regional Flood </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into hazard zones </li></ul>
    10. 10. NFIP Floodplain Mapping <ul><li>Printed maps began in 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 20 year update cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Map Modernization Initiative began in 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best available terrain data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some new engineering studies </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse some engineering study data </li></ul>
    11. 11. Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)
    12. 12. Old FIRM and New Digital FIRM Old FIRM New FIRM
    13. 13. Old FIRM Components Stream Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Floodway Boundary Cross Section Floodplain Boundary Community Limits
    14. 14. Digital FIRM Components Stream Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Floodway Boundary Cross Section Floodplain Boundary (Flood Hazard Zone AE) Community Limits
    15. 15. Flood Hazard Zones <ul><li>Determines the Cost of Flood Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>High Flood Risk (Special Flood Hazard): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1% annual chance of flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26% chance of flooding over the life of a 30-year mortgage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low or Moderate Risk (insurance not required): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred Risk Policies available at lower cost </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. High Flood Risk Zones (Flood Insurance Required) <ul><li>1% Chance Riverine Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Zone A – determined by approximate methods. No BFEs shown . </li></ul><ul><li>Zone AE – determined by detailed methods analysis. BFEs shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Zone AH – shallow flooding (ponding) at depths of 1-3 feet. BFEs shown. </li></ul><ul><li>Zone AO – Sheet flow at depths of 1-3 feet. No BFEs shown. </li></ul>
    17. 17. High Flood Risk Zones (Flood Insurance Required) <ul><li>1% Chance Coastal Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Zone V – Coastal area floodplain and wave action determined by approximate methods. No BFEs or depths shown . </li></ul><ul><li>Zone VE – Coastal floodplain where wave action and/or high-velocity water can cause structural damage. Divided into zones with BFEs assigned. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Low & Moderate Risk Zones (Flood Insurance Not Required) <ul><li>Zone X (shaded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.2% annual chance floodplain (500-year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>areas of 1% annual chance flooding with depths less than 1 foot or with drainage area of less than 1 square mile, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or areas protected by levees from the base flood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No BFEs or depths shown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zone X (unshaded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>areas outside of 0.2% annual chance floodplain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No BFEs or depths shown </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) <ul><li>Participation by community </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Insurance sold through private insurance companies and agents and backed by the federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Required for loans provided by federally regulated lenders for buildings in special flood hazard areas </li></ul>
    20. 20. NFIP Community Participation <ul><li>Communities decide to participate in NFIP and agree to manage flood hazard areas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floodplain zoning consistent with State requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood hazard mitigation plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public education </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. NFIP Community Participation <ul><li>If Community chooses not to join NFIP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property owners are not able to purchase federally backed flood insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal grants, loans, disaster assistance, and Federal mortgage insurance are unavailable for acquisition or construction of structures in the NFIP floodplain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property owners are not required by Federal regulations to purchase flood insurance, but lender may require flood insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenders are required to check NFIP maps and inform owner of hazards and risks </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. NFIP Coverage <ul><li>Residential Coverages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $250,000 per single family building or condominium unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $100,000 for contents (owners or renters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excludes basement improvements or personal belongings in basement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial Coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $500,000 for building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to $500,000 for contents (owners or renters) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum insurance limits may not exceed insurable property value </li></ul><ul><li>Covered Flooding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a general and temporary condition during which the surface of normally dry land is partially or completely inundated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two properties in the area or 2 or more acres must be affected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flooding may be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overflow of inland waters, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unusual or rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source, such as heavy rainfall, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mudflow, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collapse or subsidence of land along a body of water </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. My property is shown in the new floodplain. Now what? <ul><li>If you have good reason to believe that a property or structure is not in the floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gather available data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the BFE on the site, if readily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevations are available for AE, AH and VE zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate methods may be used for Zone A areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire elevation data (survey may be required) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest Adjacent Grade (LAG) to the structure is required to remove a structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest Lot Elevation required for property or portion thereof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation Certificate (if available) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Was the site filled? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fill is defined as material placed to raise the grade to or above the BFE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fill placed before the first NFIP map is considered natural grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the structure construction date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was it built before the date of the first National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) map showing the area in a SFHA? (approximately 1977 for Waukesha County) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy of property deed or plat map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy of effective FIRM panel </li></ul></ul>My property is shown in the new floodplain. Now what?
    25. 25. <ul><li>2. Contact a licensed land surveyor, professional engineer, or architect authorized by law to certify elevation information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They will determine or verify the BFE on the property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are required to certify the elevation data and sign the form </li></ul></ul>My property is shown in the new floodplain. Now what?
    26. 26. <ul><li>3. Determine What to Submit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of Map Change (LOMC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letter from FEMA stating that an existing structure or parcel of land that has not been elevated by fill ( natural grade ) would not be inundated by the base flood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to single or multiple structures or lots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove structures, entire property, or portion of property (with metes and bounds description) </li></ul></ul></ul>My property is in the new floodplain. Now what?
    27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Letter of Map Revision Based on Fill (LOMR-F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Letter from FEMA stating that an existing structure or parcel of land that has been elevated by fill would not be inundated by the base flood. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to single or multiple structures or lots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove structures, entire property, or portion of property (with metes and bounds description) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter of Map Change provides written documentation of approved floodplain revision, but does not change the FIRM panel </li></ul></ul>My property is in the new floodplain. Now what?
    28. 28. Special Situations <ul><li>Multi-unit condominium buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove building(s) “inclusive of all units” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if unit is on upper levels, it owns common areas that may be floodprone </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Proposed Developments <ul><li>WI DNR Requirements to remove area from floodplain (Local requirements may be more strict than WI DNR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building pads can be filled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest finished level ( excluding basement or crawlway) at or above the “ flood protection elevation ” (BFE plus 2 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowest level (basement or crawlway) at or above BFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill at least 1 foot above BFE shall extend at least 15 feet beyond structure limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dryland access – at or above BFE elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parking areas may be in the floodplain, but should not be flooded more than 2 feet deep or have velocities greater than 2 feet per second during the regional flood </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Proposed Developments (cont.) <ul><li>Property in Zone A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrologic/hydraulic engineering study required to determine BFE elevation, flood storage and floodway and flood fringe limits on property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate potential alternatives for altering floodway/floodplain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory floodplain storage may be required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community may require a Conditional Letter of Map Revision (CLOMR) to ensure FEMA will accept proposed changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOMR-F required after site is completed and as-built topography is prepared </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Proposed Developments (cont.) <ul><li>Property in Zone AE with Floodway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development in the flood fringe is allowed subject to local regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic engineering study required if any changes to floodway limits are proposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory floodplain storage may be required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community may require a Conditional Letter of Map Revision (CLOMR) to ensure FEMA will accept proposed changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOMR-F required after site is completed and as-built topography is prepared </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. State & Local Regulations <ul><li>Wisconsin Admin. Code NR116 – requires floodplain zoning at local level </li></ul><ul><li>Local Zoning – County, City, Village </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Elevation and Floodway Boundary changes need review and approval by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources at the request of the local unit of government </li></ul><ul><li>Official Floodplain Zoning Map is typically the FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to FIRM need to be approved by FEMA after LOMC submittal </li></ul>
    33. 33. FIRM “Inaccuracies”? <ul><li>Elevation data supersedes suspicious mapped floodplain boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base flood elevations from FIRM or Flood Profiles and Floodway Data Table in FIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property/structure elevations from survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit LOMA or LOMR-F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questionable base flood elevations require study update based on new information (topography, bridges, development, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Zone A boundaries are refined by detailed engineering study </li></ul>
    34. 34. Accessing FEMA Maps <ul><li>www.msc.fema.gov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map Service Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product Search by… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product – Flood Maps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Map Information – Click “View” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing FEMA map panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom into a location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Make a FIRMette” allows you to make an official excerpt from the FIRM that can be saved and printed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. NFIP Website <ul><li>www.floodsmart.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Agent Locator </li></ul><ul><li>File Your Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage Options </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently Asked Questions </li></ul>
    36. 36. Questions? Gary Raasch, PE, CFM 262-317-3369 [email_address] Cindi DeBruine, PE, CFM 262-317-3254 [email_address]

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