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Disease Disease frequency. 
frequency. 
Distribution 
Distribution. 
determinants. 
Determinants.
 Mortality. 
 Morbidity. 
 Disability. 
 Presence & absence or distribution of.. 
 Medical needs. 
 Utilization of health services. 
 Demographic variables.
Rate 
Ratio 
Proportion
 Measures the occurrence of an event or 
disease in a given population during a 
given period (one Year). 
(Birth rate, growth rate, accident rate) 
 Usually expressed per 100 or per1000 
population. 
 It has a time dimension, whereas a 
PROPORTION does not.
 A fraction is made up of 2 numbers. 
 The top number is called the 
NUMERATOR 
 and the bottom number is called the 
DENOMINATOR. 
 In the fraction ¾ the 3 is the numerator 
and the 4 is the denominator.
No of death in one year 
 Death rate= -------------------- X 1000 
Total mid year population 
Numerator 
Denominator. 
Time specification 
Multiplier 
(Numerator is part of denominator )
 The value obtained by dividing one 
quantity by another- X/Y. 
 Male to female ratio. 
 A ratio often compares two rates, 
death rates for women and men at a 
given age.
 Ratio also expresses relation of size 
between the two quantities. 
 Numerator is not part of Denominator. 
 Expressed as X / Y. 
Doctor : Population ratio. 
Male : Female ratio. 
WBC : RBC ratio
 A part/share or number considered in 
comparative relation to a whole. 
 "the proportion of greenhouse gases 
in the atmosphere is rising” 
 Usually expressed as a percentage %
 This is also relation /magnitude between 
two quantities, And numerator is always 
part of denominator. 
 And expressed as percentage 
-Proportion of female students . 
-Proportion of anemic mothers 
(60% mothers are anemic)
Incidence 
Occurrence of new cases 
• 
Prevalence 
Existence of all new & old cases.
 Prevalence:- how many people in 
a population currently have the 
disease (Photograph) 
 Incidence:- how many people are 
diagnosed each year (Film)
Cure rate
New cases
• The rate at which acute 
disease is spreading -- 
used during epidemics 
& expressed in %. 
Attack rate 
• % of exposed persons 
developing disease after 
primary case exposure 
Secondary 
attack rate
•Prevalence at any 
given point of time. 
• 4% TB cases on 1st April 
Point 
prevalence 
•Prevalence at a given 
period of time. 
•Period will be 1year. 
Period 
prevalence
 Longer duration of the disease. 
 Prolongation of life, with treatment. 
 If incidence increases. 
 Immigration of new cases. 
 Better reporting of cases. 
 Emigration of healthy people.
Longer 
duration of 
disease 
Incidence 
increases. 
Prolongation 
of life 
without 
cure. 
20
 Shorter duration of diseases. 
 Improved cure rate. 
 Incidence decreases. 
 Emigration of new cases. 
 Under reporting of cases. 
 Immigration of healthy people.
Improved cure rate. 
Short duration of 
disease. 
Incidence decreases
 Crude Death Rate. 
 Specific death rate. 
 Case fatality rate. 
 Proportional mortality rate. 
 Survival rate. 
 Standardized death rate.
 Number of deaths from all causes, per 
1000 estimated mid year population in 
one year in a given place. 
No deaths during one year 
CDR = _________________________ X 1000 
Mid year population
 Cause Specific death rate like 
disease death rate, Road accident… 
 Age specific-IMR, Child Mortality rate 
 Sex specific death rate – MMR/female 
 Period specific death rate–Death in May
 Percentage of particular cases dying 
during particular disease epidemic. 
 Killing power of disease particularly 
acute diseases 
No of deaths due to cholera 
 CFR= ----------------------- X 100 
Total No of cholera cases
 Proportion or % of deaths due to 
particular cause out of total deaths. 
 It measures the disease burden. 
 Under 5, No of deaths below 5 years 
proportional = -------------------- X 100 
mortality rate Total No all of deaths
 Percentage of the treated patients remaining 
alive at the end of 5 years treatment. 
 Yard stick for assessing the standard of 
therapy in cancer. 
 Survival pts alive at the end of 5 yrs 
Rate = ---------------------- X 100 
Total No of pts treated
 CDR can not be useful for comparison. 
 Death rate need to be standardized 
for comparisons. 
 Standardization can be done by- 
:adjusting death rate age wise, 
:also can be done sex/race wise

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Measurements in epidemiology

  • 1.
  • 2. Disease Disease frequency. frequency. Distribution Distribution. determinants. Determinants.
  • 3.  Mortality.  Morbidity.  Disability.  Presence & absence or distribution of..  Medical needs.  Utilization of health services.  Demographic variables.
  • 5.  Measures the occurrence of an event or disease in a given population during a given period (one Year). (Birth rate, growth rate, accident rate)  Usually expressed per 100 or per1000 population.  It has a time dimension, whereas a PROPORTION does not.
  • 6.  A fraction is made up of 2 numbers.  The top number is called the NUMERATOR  and the bottom number is called the DENOMINATOR.  In the fraction ¾ the 3 is the numerator and the 4 is the denominator.
  • 7. No of death in one year  Death rate= -------------------- X 1000 Total mid year population Numerator Denominator. Time specification Multiplier (Numerator is part of denominator )
  • 8.  The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another- X/Y.  Male to female ratio.  A ratio often compares two rates, death rates for women and men at a given age.
  • 9.  Ratio also expresses relation of size between the two quantities.  Numerator is not part of Denominator.  Expressed as X / Y. Doctor : Population ratio. Male : Female ratio. WBC : RBC ratio
  • 10.  A part/share or number considered in comparative relation to a whole.  "the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising”  Usually expressed as a percentage %
  • 11.  This is also relation /magnitude between two quantities, And numerator is always part of denominator.  And expressed as percentage -Proportion of female students . -Proportion of anemic mothers (60% mothers are anemic)
  • 12.
  • 13. Incidence Occurrence of new cases • Prevalence Existence of all new & old cases.
  • 14.  Prevalence:- how many people in a population currently have the disease (Photograph)  Incidence:- how many people are diagnosed each year (Film)
  • 17. • The rate at which acute disease is spreading -- used during epidemics & expressed in %. Attack rate • % of exposed persons developing disease after primary case exposure Secondary attack rate
  • 18. •Prevalence at any given point of time. • 4% TB cases on 1st April Point prevalence •Prevalence at a given period of time. •Period will be 1year. Period prevalence
  • 19.  Longer duration of the disease.  Prolongation of life, with treatment.  If incidence increases.  Immigration of new cases.  Better reporting of cases.  Emigration of healthy people.
  • 20. Longer duration of disease Incidence increases. Prolongation of life without cure. 20
  • 21.  Shorter duration of diseases.  Improved cure rate.  Incidence decreases.  Emigration of new cases.  Under reporting of cases.  Immigration of healthy people.
  • 22. Improved cure rate. Short duration of disease. Incidence decreases
  • 23.
  • 24.  Crude Death Rate.  Specific death rate.  Case fatality rate.  Proportional mortality rate.  Survival rate.  Standardized death rate.
  • 25.  Number of deaths from all causes, per 1000 estimated mid year population in one year in a given place. No deaths during one year CDR = _________________________ X 1000 Mid year population
  • 26.  Cause Specific death rate like disease death rate, Road accident…  Age specific-IMR, Child Mortality rate  Sex specific death rate – MMR/female  Period specific death rate–Death in May
  • 27.  Percentage of particular cases dying during particular disease epidemic.  Killing power of disease particularly acute diseases No of deaths due to cholera  CFR= ----------------------- X 100 Total No of cholera cases
  • 28.  Proportion or % of deaths due to particular cause out of total deaths.  It measures the disease burden.  Under 5, No of deaths below 5 years proportional = -------------------- X 100 mortality rate Total No all of deaths
  • 29.  Percentage of the treated patients remaining alive at the end of 5 years treatment.  Yard stick for assessing the standard of therapy in cancer.  Survival pts alive at the end of 5 yrs Rate = ---------------------- X 100 Total No of pts treated
  • 30.  CDR can not be useful for comparison.  Death rate need to be standardized for comparisons.  Standardization can be done by- :adjusting death rate age wise, :also can be done sex/race wise