Unit 7


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Unit 7

  1. 1. Unit 7: Foundations of Group Behaviour By: Sahina Afrin
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>A ‘group’ is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A group has common needs relating to task, group and individuals and each group develops its own “group personality”. (Adair 1986) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Groups <ul><li>Formal Groups: A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. A formal group is set up by the organization to carry out work in support of the organization’s goals. Examples include: a book-keeping department, an executive committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal groups may be subdivided as: </li></ul><ul><li>Command Group: A command group consists of a manager and the employees who report to him or her. Thus, it is defined in terms of the organization’s hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Task Group: A task group is made up of employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. </li></ul><ul><li>Committee: A group of people officially delegated to perform a function, such as investigating, considering, reporting, or acting on a matter. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Groups (cntd.) <ul><li>Informal Groups: An organization’s informal groups are groups that evolve to meet social or affiliation needs by bringing people together based on shared interests or friendship. Thus, informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Groups may be sub-divided as: </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship Groups: These groups develop because the individual members have one or more common characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest Groups: People who may or may not be aligned into common command or task groups may affiliate to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. This is an interest group. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cont… <ul><li>Reference Groups: Sometimes, people use a group as a basis for comparison in making decisions or forming opinions. When a group is used in this way, it is a reference group. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership Groups: When a person does belong to a group the group is called a membership group for that person. </li></ul><ul><li>Cliques: A relatively permanent informal group that involves friendship. The cliques serve as a system for sense making about organizational events . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of Group Development <ul><li>It is generally believed that groups pass through a standard sequence of five stages. The five Stage Model of group development was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>The five stages are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Forming: This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Storming: This stage is one of inter-group conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Norming: In this stage, close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Performing: The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Adjourning: In this stage high task performance is no longer the group’s top priority. Instead attention is directed towards wrapping up activities. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Group Structure <ul><li>Group Structure includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership: Almost every work group has a formal leader. This leader can play an important role in the group’s success. He is appointed by management and can exercise legitimate sanctioned power. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles: A role is a set of activities expected of a person occupying a particular position within the group. It is a pattern of behavior that is expected of an individual when he interacts with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Norms: A norm is a rule of conduct that has been established by group members to maintain consistency in behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Status: Status is a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Size: The size of a group can have profound implications on how the group behaves internally and with regard to other groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: Most group activities require a lot of skills and knowledge. In other words, heterogeneous groups would be more likely to have diverse abilities and information and should be more effective. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Techniques for Group Decision Making <ul><li>Brainstorming: It is a good technique for generating alternatives. The idea behind brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible, suspending evaluation until all of the ideas have been suggested. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Group Technique (NGT): This method permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking. NGT is a good technique to use in a situation where group members fear criticism from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi Technique: It was originated at the Rand Corporation to gather the judgements of experts for use in decision making. Experts at remote locations respond to a questionnaire. A coordinator summarizes the responses to the questionnaire, and the summary is sent back to the experts. The experts then rate the various alternatives gathered, and the coordinator tabulates the results. Unlike NGT, it does not require the physical presence of the group’s members. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>4. Electronic Meetings: In this technique, issues are presented to participants and they type their responses onto their computer screen. Individual comments, as well as aggregate votes, are displayed on a projection screen. This method blends the NGT with sophisticated computer technology. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Devil’s Advocacy: In this method, an individual or a group is given the role of critic. The person or persons called the Devil’s advocate has the task of coming up with the potential problems related to a proposed decision. This helps organizations avoid costly mistakes in decision making by identifying potential pitfalls in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Quality Circles and Quality Teams: ‘Quality circles’ are small groups that voluntarily meet to provide input for solving quality or production problems. ‘Quality teams’, in contrast, are included in total quality management and other quality improvement efforts as part of a change in the organization’s structure. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contd. <ul><li>7. Self Managed Teams: Self managed teams make many of the decisions that were once reserved for managers, such as work scheduling, job assignments and staffing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Work Teams <ul><li>Two major dimensions along which teams differ are: </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation: Is the extent to which team members are specialized relative to others in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration: Is the degree to which the team must coordinate with managers, employees, suppliers and customers outside the team. </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF TEAM WORK: </li></ul><ul><li>The four possible combination- high or low differentiation plus high or low integration- are associated with each of the applications of teamwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Advice and Involvement: It is a team formed to generate input from a broad base of employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Production and Service: These teams are charged with the activities related to producing and selling goods and services. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contd… <ul><li>iii. Project and Development: This team is charged with planning, investigating, analyzing and reporting, often with the objective of creating outputs that are complex and unique. </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Action and Negotiation: Action/negotiation teams are usually comprised mainly of experts with specialized skills. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Teams <ul><li>Problem-solving teams: These teams consists of groups of 5-10 employees from the same department, who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-managed teams: These teams includes collective control over the pace of work, determination of work assignments, organization of breaks, and collective choice of inspection procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-functional teams: These teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. It may be again subdivided as: </li></ul><ul><li>i. Task Force: is nothing more than a temporary cross functional team. </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Committees: composed of groups made up of members from across departmental lines. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factors contributing to team-effectiveness <ul><li>The task should be motivating. The outcome of task should be perceived as being important to other people’s lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging goals, which are clearly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward: Group effort should be there. </li></ul><ul><li>Team should have right blend of skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree on norms and regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop effective problem solving techniques. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>