At the time, it was believed that most diseases were caused by specific but different pathogens. Tuberculosis was due to the tubercle bacillus, anthrax by the anthrax bacillus, syphilis by a spirochete, etc. What Selye proposed was just the opposite, namely that many different insults could cause the same disease, not only in animals, but in humans as well.
Jack & Jill – plunge – overexert – production
independent of conscious thoughtcontrols organs & glands
Holmes and Rahe scale
Cushing’s - This is a disease associated where unusually high levels of cortisol are secreted by the adrenal cortex often resulting in cardiovascular and other diseases such as type II diabetes.People with Cushing's disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a stress hormone. Too much ACTH means too much cortisol
Enhance intensifyTrier Social Stress Test)
Take note that stress is something primeval in a sense it doesn’t evolve to adapt modern stressors
Endorphin -any of a group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions. They are peptides which activate the body's opiate receptors, causing an analgesic effect.
Extrapolate ; to expand his results on animals to that on humansin hope that its applicablePhrase is the same for Allostasis
For further elucidation
“Everyone knows what stress is, but
nobody really knows.”
What is Stress?
• “The non-specific response of the body to
any demand for change”
– Coined by Dr. Hans Selye
• Lab animals subjected to acute ( short
duration ) but different noxious and
emotional stimuli ;
– blaring(loud) light,
– deafening noise,
– temperature extremes,
– Perpetual frustration (never ending )
• All exhibited the same results;
– Stomach ulcerations
– shrinkage of lymphoid tissue
– & enlargement of adrenal glands
• “Persistent stress could cause these animals
to develop various diseases similar to those
seen in humans.”
• i.e. heart attacks, strokes , kidney disease ,
and rheumatoid arthritis .
• Response to stress can be counter productive;
• Response is under control of
– Autonomic Nervous System
– Independent of conscious thought
– Controls organs & glands
– Sympathetic - mobilizes body for action
– Parasympathetic – calms & restores
– Constantly interacting to maintain
Know the short and long term
General Adaptation Syndrome
• Hans Selye discovered that there are 3
stages of stress and coined this the General
Adaptation Syndrome or (GAS): Alarm,
resistance and exhaustion.
• Allostasis “ process by which the body
responds to stressors to regain homestasis.
• The long-term wear and tear of the stress
response is called allostatic load.
• This is actually your body’s response to longterm over-exposure to cortisol.
• High levels of cortisol have been associated
with CUSHING’s Disease.
• Cortisol is another term for Hydrocortisone
• Produced from the progesterone hormone
precursors. It is synthesized in the cortex of
adrenal glands .
– Bone formation is lowered by cortisol.
– Suppresses Immune system
– Increases blood Pressure
Acute Vs. Chronic stress
• Acute ; (Primal )
– Short term ; 5 -100 min
• WBCs redistributed + enhancement of the immune
– Stressful event ;
• Personal trauma – getting a cold
Acute VS. Chronic Stress
• Chronic ; long term stressors –(Modern)
– Unemployment, caregiving to ill-patients
– Causes prolonged secretion of cortisol
– May accelerate course of diseases that involve
– Can lead to death…
• Selye struggled unsuccessfully all his life to
find a satisfactory definition of stress. In
attempting to extrapolate his animal studies
to humans so that people would understand
what he meant, he redefined stress as
“The rate of wear and tear on the body”.
Dr.Hans Selye –
• A Syndrome Produced by Nocuous Agents ( 1936 )
Collected & presented – by yours truly