Concise Approach to Psychology & Limbic System


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In this brief presentation, we are going to view the aspects of integrative functions & their associated parts in the brain & ANS, also some effects of stroke on patients regarding the post-psychosocial aspect, & other interesting matters to view at the end of the presentation, please view the presenter's notes since they contain more info & some links relevant to our topic

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • Read important info on the presenter’s notes ;)
  • the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the sense
    William Stern, a German who invented the term IQ
  • There is no single, universally accepted definition
  • FIGURE 10.2 of Bernstein /
    The Normal Distribution of IQ Scores in a PopulationWhen IQs in the general population are plotted on a graph, a bell-shaped curve appears. The average IQ of any given age group is 100. Half are higher than 100, and half are lower than 100. Approximately 68 percent of the IQs of any age group fall between 84 and 116; about 16 percent fall below 84, and about 16 percent fall above 116.
  • Another source ;
    115-124 - Above average (e.g., university students)
    * 125-134 - Gifted (e.g., post-graduate students)
    * 135-144 - Highly gifted (e.g., intellectuals)
    * 145-154 - Genius (e.g., professors)
    * 155-164 - Genius (e.g., Nobel Prize winners)
    * 165-179 - High genius
    * 180-200 - Highest genius
    * >200 - "Unmeasurable genius"
  • aptitude measures / Tests designed to measure a person’s capacity to learn certain things or perform certain tasks.
    achievement measures / Tests designed to measure what a person has accomplished or learned in a particular area.
    GCSE General certificate of secondary education.
    He was born on 1st April 1888 in New York City. His IQ was estimated to be between 250 and 300. He went to a grammar school at an age of 6 and graduated within 7 months. He went to Harvard at an age of 11 and by the time he was adult, he knew over 40 languages. He specialized in the field of mathematics. At Harvard he was physically threatened by some students due to which his parents got him a teaching assistant job at Rice University in Texas. Being frustrated at job and being threatened by students he left his job and had a political career ahead. He died in 1944 due to some brain damage and it was the same reason his father had passed away.
    Aphasia is impairment in the ability to use or comprehend words.
    It may cause difficulty:
    •Understanding words.
    •Finding the word to express a thought.
    •Understanding grammatical sentences.
    •Reading or writing words or sentences.
  • People with serious comprehension difficulties have what is called Wernicke’s aphasia
  • When a stroke injures the frontal regions of the left hemisphere, different kinds of language problems can occur. This part of the brain is important for putting words together to form complete sentences. Injury to the left frontal area can lead to what is called Broca’s aphasia.
    “Car…bump…boom!” This is not a complete sentence, but it certainly expresses an important idea. Sometimes these individuals will say a word that is close to what they intend, but not the exact word; for example they may say “car” when they mean “truck.”
    A speech pathologist friend mentioned to a patient that she was having a bad day. She said, “I was bitten by a dog.” The stroke survivor asked, “Why did you do that?” In this conversation, the patient understood the basic words spoken, but failed to realize that the words of the sentence and the order of the words were critical to interpreting the correct meaning of the sentence, that the dog bit the woman and not vice versa.
  • When a stroke affects an extensive portion of the front and back regions of the left hemisphere, the result may be global aphasia.
  • Is a characteristic of animals & particularly humans…
  • Learning is the adaptive process through which experience modifies preexisting behaviour and understanding. The preexisting behaviour and understanding may have been present at birth, acquired automatically as we mature, or learned earlier. Learning plays a central role in the development of most aspects of human behaviour. It allows us to build the motor skills we need to walk or tie a shoe, the language skills we use to communicate, and the object categories—such as “food,” “vehicle,” or “animal”—that help us organise our perceptions and think logically about the world. Sayings such as “Once burned, twice shy” and “Fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me” reflect this vital learning process
  • Habituation can occur in relation to sights, sounds, smells, tastes, or touches, it is through habituation that you eventually lose awareness of your glasses or your watch and that after being in a room for a while, you no longer smell its odor or hear its ticking clock.
  • habituation The process of adapting to stimuli that do not change.
    People who move from a small town to a big city may at first be distracted by the din of traffic, low- flying aircraft, and other urban sounds, but after a while, the process of habituation makes all this noise far less noticeable.
  • for example, when people and animals show exaggerated responses to unexpected, potentially threatening sights or sounds, especially during periods of emotional arousal. So while breathlessly exploring a dark, spooky house, you might scream, run, or violently throw something in response to the unexpected creaking of a door.
  • left is male
    right is female
  • Much of our behaviour is learned by imitating others, especially those who serve as role models. To appreciate the impact of social learningin your life, list five examples of how your own actions, speech, mannerisms, or appearance have come to match those of a parent, a sibling, a friend, a teacher, or even a celebrity.
  • Virtual Surgery
    Using a virtual reality system, this medical student can actively learn and practiceeye surgery skills before working with real patients. Computer-based human body simulators are also giving new doctors active learning experience in emergency room diagnosis and treatment; in heart, lung, and abdominal surgery; and other medical skills
  • Practice—the repeated performance of a skill—is the most critical component of skill learning
    Feedback about the correctness of responses is also necessary. As with any learn- ing process, the feedback should come soon enough to be effective but not so quickly that it interferes with the learner’s efforts to learn independently.
  • Explicit / Clear
    Declarative / explicit or formal announcement
    Implicit / fundamental, not associated with awareness
  • retention / the continued control of something
  • Explicit memory is for factual knowledge about people, places, and things. Explicit memories that are initially required for activities such as riding a bicycle can become implicit once the task is thoroughly learned.
    Semantic / relating to meaning in language or logic.
  • Perceptual / relating to the ability to interpret or become aware of something through the senses
  • example of bike
  • Skills & actions - example skiing, diving - habits
    Classical or Pavlovian conditioning
    Operant -operant A response that has some effect on the world.
  • Babkin,one of Pavlov’s students, later foundthat if a different conditioned stimulus(a whistle) is associated with the absence of food, the dogs would learn to inhibit (suppress) their salivation. The effect of this inhibitory conditioning can be seen in the adjustments sometimes made by people who suffer with agoraphobia and panic disorder (see the chapter on psychological disorders). These people are normally intensely afraid of leaving home, but some of them find that the presence of a trusted friend acts as a safety signal that inhibits their conditioned fear responses enough to let them venture out into the world (Schmidt et al., 2006).
  • Lifesaving Punishment
    This child suffered from chronic ruminative disorder, a condition in which he vomited everything he ate. At left, the boy was approximately 1 year old and had been vomiting for four months. At right is the same child thirteen days after punishment with electric shock had eliminated
    the vomiting behaviour. His weight had increased 26 percent. He was physically and psychologically healthy when tested six months, one year, and two years later.
  • Lifesaving Punishment
    This child suffered from chronic ruminative disorder, a condition in which he vomited everything he ate. At left, the boy was approximately 1 year old and had been vomiting for four months. At right is the same child thirteen days after punishment with electric shock had eliminated
    the vomiting behaviour. His weight had increased 26 percent. He was physically and psychologically healthy when tested six months, one year, and two years later.
  • To see this for yourself, turn your head and eyes slowly from left to right. It may seem as though your eyes are moving smoothly, like a movie cam- era scanning a scene, but that’s not what is happening. Instead, your eyes fixate at one point for about one-fourth of a second and then rapidly jump to a new position. You perceive smooth motion through the visual field because you hold each scene in your visual sensory register (also known as your iconic memory) until your eyes fix- ate again. Similarly, when you listen to someone speak, your auditory sensory register allows you to experience a smooth flow of information, even though there are actually short silences between or within words. Information remains in each of the five sen- sory registers for varying amounts of time. For example, information in the auditory sensory register lasts longer than information in the visual sensory register.
  • When you check the building directory to see which floor your new dentist’s office is on and then keep that number in mind as you press the correct elevator button, you are using short-term memory.
    During short-term memory, the memory traces are subject to disruption by trauma and various drugs, whereas long-term memory traces are remarkably resistant to disruption.
  • When you mentally calculate what time you have to leave home in order to have lunch on campus, return a library book, and still get to class on time, you are using working memory.
  • Attention is observation whilst concentration is focus
  • Sustained attention / reading a book, moping the floor. Distractions can break a person’s attention and make it difficult to complete the task in a timely or effective fashion. These can include environmental as well as cognitive disruptions; certain learning disabilities, for example, interfere with attention. Patients with conditions like Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) have difficulty with sustained attention tasks.
    Involuntary - construction noise
    Ignoring info. /
    Inattentional blindness ; allows us to ignore construction noise while we are taking an exam. But it can also endanger us if we ignore information—such as a stop sign—that we should be attending to.
    Divided At./
  • Take Cinderella as an example ,
    all types of attention, can you guess which picture(s) describe(s) - divided attention ?
  • Look at these words and, as rapidly as possible, call out the colour of the ink in which each word is printed. This Stroop Colour Word Test (Stroop, 1935) is not easy because your brain automatically processes the meaning of each word, which then competes for attention with the response you are supposed to give. To do well, you must focus on the ink colour and not allow your attention to be divided between colour and meaning. Children just learning to read have less trouble with this task because they do not yet process word meanings as automatically as experienced readers do.
  • Everyone seems to agree that joy, sorrow, anger, fear, love, and hate are emotions, but it is hard to identify exactly what it is that makes these experiences emotions rather than, say, thoughts or impulses.
  • Incoming sensory information alerts the brain to an emotion-evoking situation. Most of the information goes through the thalamus. The cingulate cortex and hippocampus are involvedin the interpretation of this sensory input. Output from these areas goes to the amygdala and hypothalamus, which control the autonomic nervous system via brainstem connections. There are also connections from the thalamus directly to the amygdala. The locus coeruleus is an area of the brainstem that causes both widespread arousal of cortical areas and changes in autonomic activity.
  • Generally, the sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres have opposite effects on these target organs. Axons from the parasympathetic system release acetylcholine onto target organs, leading to activity related to the protection, nourishment, and growth of the body. For example, parasympathetic activity increases digestion by stimulating movement of the intestinal system so that more nutrients are taken from food. Axons from the sympathetic system release a different neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, onto target organs, helping prepare the body for vigorous activity. When one part of the sympathetic system is stimulated, other parts are activated “in sympathy” with it. For example, input from sympathetic neurones to the adrenal medulla causes that gland to release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the bloodstream, thereby activating all sympathetic target organs
  • Control of Voluntary and Emotional Facial MovementsThis man has a tumour in his motor cortex that prevents him from voluntarily moving the muscles on the left side of his face. In the photograph at the top, he is trying to smile in response to instructions from the examiner. He cannot smile on command, but as shown in the photo at the bottom, he can smile with happiness, because involuntary movements associated with genuine emotion are controlled by the extrapyramidal motor system.
  • Incontinence / inability to control the bladder &/or bowel movements
  • Many people experience memory problems after a stroke. In particular, people who have had a stroke in the right hemisphere of their brain commonly have problems paying attention. Stroke survivors can experience the following types of memory loss:
    •Verbal: memory of names, stories and information having to do with language
    •Visual: memory of shapes, faces, routes and things seen
    •Informational: memory of information and skills or trouble learning new things
    •Vascular dementia: A greater, more general decline in thinking ability
  • Dementia occurs due to brain cells atrophy & in this case due to stroke
    Dementia is a chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning.
  • American Psychiatric Association
    Anxiety disorders are abnormal states in which the most striking features are mental and physical symptoms of anxiety , occurring in the absence of organic brain disease or an other psychiatric disorder
  • Phobias / Intense, unreasonable, disruptive fear of objects or situations
    Generalised A.D/ Excessive anxiety not focused on a specific object or situation; free-floating anxiety
    Panic attack/ Repeated attacks of intense fear involving physical symptoms such as faintness, dizziness, and nausea
    OCD / Persistent ideas or worries accompanied by ritualistic behaviours performed to neutralise anxiety-driven thoughts
    Stress related disorders like Post-Traumatic stress disorders.
  • Dissection of the right cerebral hemisphere exposing the cavity of the lateral ventricle, showing the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the fornix.
    The hippocampus’s anterior end is expanded to form the pes
    Pes / the human foot, or that of the vertebrates.
  • Termed so due to it resembling a sea horse in coronal section
    A-The hippocampus terminates posteriorly beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum.
  • Coronal section of the hippocampus and related structures.
    The convex ventricular surface is covered with ependyma, beneath which lies a thin layer of white matter called the alveus- consists of nerve fibers that have originated in the hippocampus, and these converge medially to form a bundle called the fimbria -in turn, becomes continuous with the crus of the fornix- see previous slide
  • The indusium griseum is a thin, vestigial (rudimentary) layer of grey matter that covers the superior surface of the corpus callosum (Fig. 9-6). Embedded in the superior surface of the indusium griseum are two slender bundles of white fibres on each side called the medial and lateral longitudinal striae. Anteriorly, the dentate gyrus is continued into the uncus.
  • Shaped like an almond
  • Lateral view of the right cerebral hemisphere dissected to show the position of the lentiform nucleus, the caudate nucleus, the thalamus, and the hippocampus.The amygdaloid nucleus consists of a complex of nuclei that can be grouped into a larger basolateral group and smaller corticomedial group.
  • It is interesting to note that injury to the amygdaloid nucleus and the hippocampus produces a greater memory loss than injury to either one of these structures alone.
  • Artificial Intelligence
    Chess master Garry Kasparov had his hands full when he was challenged by Deep Blue, a chess-playing computerthat was programmed so well that ithas won games against the world’s best competitors, including Kasparov. Still, even the most sophisticated computers cannot perceive and think about the world in general anywhere near as wellas humans can. Some observers believe that this situation will eventually change as progress in computer technology—and a deepening understanding of human cognitive processes—leads to dramatic breakthroughs in artificial intelligence
  • The people who provide instantaneous translation of speeches—such as this one at the United Nations—must store long, often complicated segments of speech in short-term memory while searching long- term memory for the equivalent second- language expressions. The task is made easier by chunking the speaker’s words into phrases and sentences.
  • •Severe, with GCS < 8-9
    •Moderate, GCS 8 or 9–12 (controversial)
    •Minor, GCS ≥ 13.
    The Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale).
  • Read more: Difference Between Dementia and Amnesia | Difference Between | Dementia vs Amnesia
  • & other websites
  • Concise Approach to Psychology & Limbic System

    1. 1. A Brief Intro to Psychology & the Limbic System Relationship M.Khalifa
    2. 2. “Where ID is, there shall ego be” –Sigmund Freud 1932
    3. 3. Contents Integrative functions ( cognitive & behavioural ) Effects of stroke ( physically & emotionally ) The limbic system
    4. 4. Integrative Functions
    5. 5. A.Cognition
    6. 6. 1. Intelligence 2. Language & Speech 3. Memory & Learning 4. Concentration & Attention 5. Planning - Executive functions - DCD
    7. 7. Intelligence What is intelligence?
    8. 8. ““The measure of intelligence is the ability to change.” -Albert Einstein (IQ 160-190)
    9. 9. The vast majority of psychologists agree that intelligence includes three main characteristics: (1) abstract thinking or reasoning abilities, (2) problem-solving abilities, (3) the capacity to acquire knowledge
    10. 10. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) An index of intelligence that reflects the degree to which a person’s score on an intelligence test deviates from the average score of others in the same age group.
    11. 11. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Stanford-Binet , Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Cognitive Assessment System, and the Differential Ability Scales.
    12. 12. Flynn Effect When a new version of an IQ test is normed, the standard scoring is set so performance at the population median results in a score of IQ 100. The phenomenon of rising raw score performance means if test-takers are scored by a constant standard scoring rule, IQ test scores have been rising at an average rate of around three IQ points per decade.
    13. 13. Other Lovely Tests Achievement measures / GCSE Aptitude test / SAT , ‫القدرات‬ ‫اختبار‬
    14. 14. William James Sidis IQ 250-300
    15. 15. Language & Speech Language / symbols and a set of rules for combining them that provide a vehicle for communication.
    16. 16. Speech=Phasia Wernicke’s Aphasia Broca’s Aphasia Global Aphasia
    17. 17. Wernicke’s Aphasia • Often say many words that don’t make sense. • May fail to realise they are saying the wrong words; for instance, they might call the moon a “spoon.” • May string together a series of meaningless words that sound like a sentence but don’t make sense. • Have challenges because our dictionary of words is shelved in a similar region of the left hemisphere, near the area used for understanding words.
    18. 18. Broca’s Aphasia • Can have great difficulty forming complete sentences. • May get out some basic words to get their message across, but leave out words like “is” or “the.” • Often say something that doesn’t resemble a sentence. • Can have trouble understanding sentences. • Can make mistakes in following directions like “left, right, under, and after.”
    19. 19. Global Aphasia • May have great difficulty in understanding words and sentences. • May have great difficulty in forming words and sentences. • May understand some words. • Get out a few words at a time. • Have severe difficulties that prevent them from effectively communicating.
    20. 20. Therapy for Aphasia
    21. 21. Aphasia vs. Apraxia Aphasia is impairment in the ability to use or comprehend words- may cause difficulties in ; • Understanding words. • Finding the word to express a thought. • Understanding grammatical sentences. • Reading or writing words or sentences. Apraxia of speech (verbal apraxia) is difficulty initiating and executing voluntary movement patterns necessary to produce speech when there is no paralysis or weakness of speech muscles-may cause difficulties in ; • Producing the desired speech sound. • Using the correct rhythm and rate of speaking.
    22. 22. Therapy for Apraxia
    23. 23. Memory & Learning The ability to alter behaviour on the basis of experience.
    24. 24. Learning / is acquisition of the information that makes this possible. Memory / is the retention & storage of that information.
    25. 25. Learning
    26. 26. Sights, Sounds, & Other Stimuli Novel stimuli - things we have not experienced before tend to attract our attention. Habituation - The process of adapting to stimuli that do not change.
    27. 27. The reappearance of your original response when a stimulus changes is called dis- habituation.
    28. 28. Sensitisation Appears as an increase in responsiveness to a stimulus.
    29. 29. Cerebral cortex imaging during a language-based activity
    30. 30. Observational Learning: Learning by Imitation
    31. 31. Active Learning
    32. 32. Skill Learning
    33. 33. Memory
    34. 34. Forms of Memory Explicit ( declarative memory ) Implicit ( non-declarative memory )
    35. 35. Explicit Memory ( Consciousness ) The process of intentionally trying to remember something For its retention / Hippocampus Medial temporal lobe
    36. 36. Subtypes Semantic memory for facts e.g. words,language, & rules Episodic memory for events
    37. 37. Implicit Memory ( Unconsciousness ) The unintentional influence of prior experiences. Implicit memory is important for training reflexive motor or perceptual skills
    38. 38. Priming is the facilitation of the recognition of words or objects by prior exposure to them and is dependent on the neocortex
    39. 39. Procedural memory includes skills and habits, which, once acquired, become unconscious and automatic. This type of memory is processed in the striatum.
    40. 40. Associative learning relates to classical & operant conditioning in which one learns about the relationship between one stimulus and another. This type of memory is dependent on; amygdala for its emotional responses the cerebellum for the motor responses.
    41. 41. Click me Please
    42. 42. Non-associative learning includes habituation and sensitisation Is dependent on various reflex pathways.
    43. 43. Storing New Memories
    44. 44. Sensory memory / A type of memory that holds large amounts of incoming information very briefly, but long enough to connect one impression to the next. Sensory memory helps us experience a constant flow of information, even if that flow is interrupted.
    45. 45. Short-term memory / lasts seconds to hours, during which processing in the hippocampus & elsewhere lays down long-term changes in synaptic strength. Long-term memory / stores for years & sometimes for life,
    46. 46. Working memory is a form of short-term memory that keeps information available, usually for very short periods, while the individual plans action based on it. Maintenance (holding information in short- term memory) Manipulation (working on that information).
    47. 47. Concentration & Attention Is there a difference?
    48. 48. Attention Attention is the process of directing and focusing certain psychological resources to enhance perception, performance, and mental experience.
    49. 49. Types of Attention Sustained Attention Directed focus on stimulus for duration of cognitive task.
    50. 50. Divided Attention Multitasking Alternating Attention e.g. reading and then making a recipe, singing whilst dancing or moping.
    51. 51. Planning An executive function
    52. 52. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved with "on-line" processing of information such as integrating different dimensions of cognition and behaviour. As such, this area has been found to be associated with verbal and design fluency, ability to maintain and shift set, planning, response inhibition, working memory, organisational skills, reasoning, problem solving and abstract thinking.[
    53. 53. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in emotional drives, experience and integration. Associated cognitive functions include inhibition of inappropriate responses, decision making and motivated behaviours. Lesions in this area can lead to low drive states such as apathy, abulia or akinetic mutism and may also result in low drive states for such basic needs as food or drink and possibly decreased interest in social or vocational activities and sex.
    54. 54. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a key role in impulse control, maintenance of set, monitoring ongoing behaviour and socially appropriate behaviours. The orbitofrontal cortex also has roles in representing the value of rewards based on sensory stimuli and evaluating subjective emotional experiences. Lesions can cause disinhibition, impulsivity, aggressive outbursts, sexual promiscuity and antisocial behaviour
    55. 55. B.Behavioural
    56. 56. Emotions Transitory positive or negative experiences that are felt as happening to the self, are generated in part by cognitive appraisal of a situation, and are accompanied by both learned and innate physical responses.
    57. 57. Biology of Emotions CNS / several brain areas are involved in the generation of emotions, as well as in our experience of those emotions ANS / gives rise to many of the physiological changes associated with emotional arousal.
    58. 58. Effects of Stroke in brief
    59. 59. Physical Vision; perception problem or blindness Sleep Seizures Incontinence
    60. 60. Paralysis; Dysphagia, hemiparesis, spasticity, foot drop Pain Chronic fatigue
    61. 61. Cognitive/Emotional Vascular dementia Aphasia Memory / verbal, visual, informational Depression Pseudobulbar affect
    62. 62. Dementia An acquired, chronic brain disorder, characterised by generalised impairment of intellect, personality & memory, but with intact consciousness. Forgetfulness Loss of ‘immediate or recent’ memory
    63. 63. Anxiety APA definition / anxiety is an emotion characterised by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes.
    64. 64. Anxiety Disorder A condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long- standing and disruptive.
    65. 65. Types of Anxiety Disorders Generalised A.D Phobic A.D Panic attack OCD Stress-related disorders
    66. 66. Treatment • The most notable treatment for anxiety is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). • However, anxiety can be treated medically, with psychological counselling, or independently by one’s own efforts.
    67. 67. The Limbic System Or paleomammalian brain
    68. 68. Limbic System • The word limbic means border or margin, and the term limbic system was loosely used to include a group of structures that lie in the border zone between the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus. • The limbic system is involved with many other structures beyond the border zone in the control of emotion, behaviour, and drive; it also appears to be important to memory.
    69. 69. Structure Subcallosal , Cingulate, Parahippocampal gyri, Hippocampal formation, Amygdaloid nucleus, Mammilary bodies
    70. 70. Hippocampal Formation The hippocampal formation consists of the ; hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and the parahippocampal gyrus.
    71. 71. Hippocampus The hippocampus is a curved elevation of grey matter that extends throughout the entire length of the floor of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. Where does it terminate?
    72. 72. Dentate Gyrus The dentate gyrus is a narrow, notched band of grey matter that lies between the fimbria of the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus
    73. 73. Parahippocampal Gyrus The parahippocampal gyrus lies between the hippocampal fissure and the collateral sulcus and is continuous with the hippocampus along the medial edge of the temporal lobe
    74. 74. Amygdaloid Nucleus It is situated partly anterior and partly superior to the tip of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. It is fused with the tip of the tail of the caudate nucleus, which has passed anteriorly in the roof of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle.
    75. 75. Pathways of the Limbic System • The alveus, the fimbria, the fornix, the mammillothalamic tract, and the stria terminalis constitute the connecting pathways of this system.
    76. 76. Function of the Limbic System • The limbic system, via the hypothalamus and its connections with the outflow of the autonomic nervous system and its control of the endocrine system, is able to influence many aspects of emotional behaviour. • These include particularly the reactions of fear and anger and the emotions associated with sexual behaviour.
    77. 77. Anterograde Amnesia • A lesion of the hippocampus results in the individual being unable to store long-term memory. • Memory of remote past events before the lesion developed is unaffected.
    78. 78. Additional Pain • Artificial intelligence • Neurogenesis • Chunking in action • Glasgow Coma Scale • Dementia vs. Amnesia
    79. 79. Artificial Intelligence
    80. 80. Neurogenesis • New neurones form from stem cells throughout life in at least two areas; – the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus
    81. 81. Chunking in Action
    82. 82. Glasgow Coma Scale
    83. 83. Dementia vs. Amnesia • Dementia is not a disease but a series of symptoms that leads to serious mental diseases. Amnesia on the other hand, is a serious mental condition affecting a person’s memory. • Symptoms of dementia could affect a person’s memory. But it generally affects a person’s decision making. Amnesia on the other hand is a serious form of memory loss, but it does not generally affect the patient’s decision making. • Dementia is treatable, but it depends on the cause of the disorder. Amnesia is treatable in so many different ways, whatever the cause of the condition is. • Amnesia is not a symptom. It could be forced, like childhood amnesia. Dementia, on the other hand, is purely the effect of so many factors.
    84. 84. Main References • Bernstein Psychology • Snell’s Neuroanatomy • Ganong’s Review of Physiology 24th ed. • Stroke Association ( British & American ) • Quotes / GoodReads
    85. 85. Thank you Favourite & follow for more ;)