BASIC CONCEPT OF
WHAT IS DEEP LEARNING ?
Basically Deep Learning is a subset of ML .
Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that uses
multiple layers to progressively extract higher-level features from the
raw input. For example, in image processing, lower layers may identify
edges, while higher layers may identify the concepts relevant to a
human such as digits or letters or faces.
Deep learning is a particular kind of machine learning that achieves
great power and flexibility by learning to represent the world as a
nested hierarchy of concepts, with each concept defined in relation to
simpler concepts, and more abstract representations computed in terms
of less abstract ones.
Why Deep Learning ?
In human brain approximately 100
billion neurons all together this is a
picture of an individual neuron and
each neuron is connected through
thousand of their neighbours.
The question here is how do we
recreate these neurons in a
computer. So, we create an artificial
structure called an artificial neural
net where we have nodes or
neurons. We have some neurons
for input value and some for output
value and in between, there may be
lots of neurons interconnected in
the hidden layer.
1. Deep Neural Network – It is a neural network with a certain level of
complexity (having multiple hidden layers in between input and output
layers). They are capable of modeling and processing non-linear
2. Deep Belief Network(DBN) – It is a class of Deep Neural Network. It is
multi-layer belief networks.
Steps for performing DBN :
a. Learn a layer of features from visible units using Contrastive
b. Treat activations of previously trained features as visible units and
then learn features of features.
c. Finally, the whole DBN is trained when the learning for the final
hidden layer is achieved.
3. Recurrent (perform same task for every element of a
sequence) Neural Network – Allows for parallel and sequential
computation. Similar to the human brain (large feedback network of
connected neurons). They are able to remember important things about
the input they received and hence enables them to be more precise.
1. Best in-class performance on
2. Reduces need for feature
3. Eliminates unnecessary costs.
4. Identifies defects easily that
are difficult to detect.
1. Large amount of data
2. Computationally expensive to
3. No strong theoretical
APPLICATION’S OF DL
1. Automatic Text Generation – Corpus of text is learned and from this model
new text is generated, word-by-word or character-by-character.
Then this model is capable of learning how to spell, punctuate, form sentences,
or it may even capture the style.
2. Healthcare – Helps in diagnosing various diseases and treating it.
3. Automatic Machine Translation – Certain words, sentences or phrases in one
language is transformed into another language (Deep Learning is achieving top
results in the areas of text, images).
4. Image Recognition – Recognizes and identifies peoples and objects in images
as well as to understand content and context. This area is already being used in
Gaming, Retail, Tourism, etc.
5. Predicting Earthquakes – Teaches a computer to perform viscoelastic
computations which are used in predicting earthquakes.
The term convolution refers to the mathematical combination of two
functions to produce a third function. It merges two sets of
information. In the case of a CNN, the convolution is performed on
the input data with the use of a filter or kernel (these terms are used
interchangeably) to then produce a feature map.
A convolution is the simple application of a filter to an input that
results in an activation. Repeated application of the same filter to an
input results in a map of activations called a feature map, indicating the
locations and strength of a detected feature in an input, such as an
Convolution in Convolutional Neural
The convolutional neural network, or CNN for short, is a
specialized type of neural network model designed for
working with two-dimensional image data, although they
can be used with one-dimensional and three-dimensional
Central to the convolutional neural network is the
convolutional layer that gives the network its name. This
layer performs an operation called a “convolution“.
APPLICATION OF CONVOLUTION
Convolution and related operations are found in many applications in
science, engineering and mathematics. In image processing. In digital image
processing convolutional filtering plays an important role in many
important algorithms in edge detection and related processes.
In optics, an out-of-focus photograph is a convolution of the sharp image
with a lens function. The photographic term for this is bokeh. In image
processing applications such as adding blurring.
In digital data processing. In analytical chemistry, Savitzky–Golay smoothing
filters are used for the analysis of spectroscopic data. They can
improve signal-to-noise ratio with minimal distortion of the spectra .
In statistics, a weighted moving average is a convolution.
In acoustics, reverberation is the convolution of the original sound
with echoes from objects surrounding the sound source. In digital signal
processing, convolution is used to map the impulse response of a real room
on a digital audio signal.