Types of Report Writing
Steps of Report Writing
Significance of Report Writing
Layout of Report Writing
Mechanism of Report Writing
A report is an account of a specific matter that
a person has observed or investigated in some
A report is written for a clear purpose and to a
Specific information and evidence .
Purpose of reports
Interpretation and explanation of events.
Communication with external stakeholders.
Development of information base.
Types of Reports
Formal (carefully structured, stress objectivity) .
Informal.(usually short messages with natural,
casual use of language).
Informational (annual reports, monthly financial
reports, and reports on personnel absenteeism).
Analytical (scientific research, feasibility reports,
and real-estate appraisals).
Recommendation or Proposal(RFPs).
Step 1: Decide on the 'Terms of reference’
What is it about?
What exactly is needed?
Why is it needed?
When do I need to do it?
Who is it for, or who is it aimed at?
Step 2: Decide on the procedure
How you'll write the report:
What information do I need?
Do I need to do any background reading?
What articles or documents do I need?
Do I need to contact the library for assistance?
Do I need to interview or observe people?
Do I have to record data?
How will I go about this?
Step 3: Find the information
Research and reading
Steps for writing an assignment
Step 4: Decide on the structure
The structure can include:
A title page.
Terms of reference.
Step 5: Draft the first part of your report
Step 6: Analyse your findings and draw
What have I found?
What's significant or important about my findings?
What do my findings suggest?
For example, your conclusion may descri
Don’t include any new information in the conclusion.
Step 7: Make recommendations
Reread your findings and conclusions.
what actions should they carry out?
Check that your recommendations are practical and
are based logically on your conclusions.
Ensure you include enough detail for the reader
Step 8: Compile a reference list
Step 9: Revise your draft report
Required sections are included, and are in the
Information is accurate, with no gaps.
Clear and effective as possible.
Why is report writing important?
Report is an important means of
Reporting helps the owners of business,
company ,organizations, or government to
make prompt decision, making and planning.
More and more reports?
BROAD DIVISION INDIVIDUAL SECTIONS
l. Preliminary Material Title of Report
Table of Contents
Abstract / Synopsis
2. Body of Report Introduction
3. Supplementary Material References / Bibliography
The title itself is an important opportunity to tell the potential
reader what your research is about.
Format for the title page is likely to be a required in your
discipline, so you need to check what that is.
Title page bearing:
Full title of the report
Name of the author
Name of spnosors or authority
Table Of Contents
The titles of parts, sections or chapters and their principal, and
their principal subdivisions should be listed in the table of
Contents and must be worded exactly as they appear in the
body of the report.
It is advisable to use numbers for;
Heading: e.g. 5 ANALYISIS AND DISCUSSION
Sub-heading: 5.2 Effect of Stress Level
Sub sub-heading: 5.2.1 Mean Stress
(No further sub-division is allowed)
Major headings and sub-headings are typed closer with the
Candidate is free to label or give title for each chapter as
In this part, every person whom you want to mention or
dedicate your work can be added here. It might be:
Abstract / Summary
Placed immediately before the first chapter of the report
It should take the form of a short factual statement identifying
the topic of your study, the approach adopted & the findings.
Including the conclusions.
Birdseye view of the result
The abstract should give a brief exposition of the research
problems, purposes of the study, scope of study, research
approach and limitation.
Chp 1 - Introduction
Background of study
Objective of study
Chp 2 - Literature Review, Or Context Of
describe the current state of research in your defined
consider whether there are any closely related areas
that you also need to refer to;
identify a gap where you argue that further research is
explain how you plan to attend to that particular
Chp3 - Methodology
Plain when, where, and how the research was done?
Include subsections or informative headings as appropriate
(e.g., evaluation criteria)?
Mention which method/tools were used to collect data
Purpose of Methodology
The method section answers these two main questions:
How was the data collected or generated?
How was it analysed? In other words, it shows your reader
how you obtained your results.
Result & Discussion
The key to a great results section is in describing your results, you need to tell to
your readers exactly what you found out.
Result should include:
Focus on key results.
Be clear and concise.
Don’t go into too much detail.
This section has four purposes, it should:
Interpret and explain your result.
Answer your research question.
Justify your approach.
Evaluate your study.
Conclusion & Recommendations
This section should be much shorter than the discussion section.
It should include main points That have emerged and what they mean for your
These can take two forms:
Recommendations for further study.
Recommendation for change.
References & Appendeces
Whenever you cite information from another source, you must credit the source in
Information that is not essential to explain your findings, but that supports your
analysis (especially repetitive or lengthy information), validates your conclusions or
pursues a related point should be placed in an appendix.
Examples of information that could be included in an appendix include:
1. Size and Physical Design:
Unruled paper of standard size
If it is in hand written than use black or blue ink.
Right side: half inches
Left side: One or one and half inches
Header and Footer:
One inches from sides spaced should be left
The layout of the report and various types of reports
have been described in this presentation earlier which
should be taken as a guide for report writing.
3.Treatment of quotations
Definitions or Quotations should be placed in quotation
marks and double spaced forming an immediate part of
Footnotes serves two purposes:
For Cross References:
Asterisk(*) sign may be used to prevent confusion and supplement
note related to particular word should be mentioned below at that
5. Documentation Style
Author’s name in normal order
Title of work,underlinded to indicate italics
Place and date of publication
The use of abbreviations is usually optional, but of great
help to the reader.
Providing an alphabetical list of their definitions
improves the readability of the document, allowing
readers to easily look up unfamiliar abbreviations.
7. Use of Statistics, Charts and Graphs
Statistics are usually presented in the form of tables,
line-graphs, pictograms etc.
Such type of presentation should be self-explanatory
and complete in itself.
8. The final draft
Revising and rewriting the rough draft of the report
should be done with great care before writing the
The purpose behind writing a bibliography is to
communicate to the reader in a sequential
manner to make the contents look decent &
10. Preparation of index
At the end of report, an index should be always
prepared, it acts as a good guide to the reader.
Index may be prepared of 3 types:
1. Author index
2. Subject index
3. Content index