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Horizontal drilling


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Process of Horizontal Drilling

Published in: Engineering

Horizontal drilling

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Horizontal drilling is a drilling process in which the well is turned horizontally at depth. It is normally used to extract energy from a source that itself runs horizontally, such as a layer of shale rock. Horizontal drilling is a common way of extracting gas from the Marcellus Shale Formation. Since the horizontal section of a well is at great depth, it must include a vertical part as well. Horizontal wells are drilled parallel to the reservoir bedding plane. A vertical well is drilled perpendicular to the bedding plane.
  3. 3. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Until the arrival of modern downhole motors and better tools to measure inclination and azimuth of the hole, directional drilling and horizontal drilling was much slower than vertical drilling due to the need to stop regularly and take time-consuming surveys, and due to slower progress in drilling itself (lower rate of penetration). These disadvantages have shrunk over time as downhole motors became more efficient and semi-continuous surveying became possible.
  4. 4. OBJECTIVE The main objective of horizontal well drilling is to enhance reservoir contact which enhances well productivity, which is highly desirable for enhanced oil recovery applications.
  5. 5. RISK ANALYSIS  Drag and Torque: Drag is a force restricting the movement of the drill tools in directions parallel to the well path. Torque is the force resisting rotation movement.  Hole Cleaning: A particular problem is the difficulty of removing the rock cuttings from the horizontal section of the well.
  6. 6. Water Sensitive Shale: Shale layers frequently tend to collapse with fresh water.  Directional Control: The fundamental problem in horizontal drilling is overcoming the force of gravity.
  7. 7. METHODOLOGY  Most horizontal wells begin at the surface as a vertical well. Drilling progresses until the drill bit is a few hundred feet above the target rock unit. At that point the pipe is pulled from the well and the hydraulic motor is attached between the drill bit and the drill pipe.  The hydraulic is powered by the flow of drilling mud down the drill pipe. It can rotate the drill bit without rotating the entire length of drill pipe between the bit and the surface. This allows the bit to drill a path that deviates from the orientation of the drill pipe.
  8. 8.  After the motor is installed the bit and pipe are lowered back down the well and the bit drills path that steers the well bore from vertical to horizontal over a distance of the few hundred feet. Once the well has been steered to the proper angle, straight- ahead drilling resumes and the well follows the target rock unit. Keeping the well in a thin rock unit requires careful navigation. Down hole instruments are used determine the azimuth and orientation of the drilling. This information is used to steer the drill bit.  Horizontal drilling is expensive. When combined with hydraulic fracturing a well can cost up to three times as much per foot as drilling a vertical well. The extra cost is usually recovered by increased production from the well. These methods can multiply the yield of natural gas or oil from a well. Many profitable wells would be failures without these methods.
  9. 9. PHASE PLANNING & COST ANALYSIS 1 Vertical Drilling Drill Pipe Drill Bit Surface Casing Conductor Pipe
  10. 10. 2 Angle Building and Lateral Drilling MWD Motor Drill Pipe Drill bit Surface Casing Conductor pipe 3 Perforatio n Perforating Gun Wire Line
  11. 11. 4 Hydrauli c Fracturi ng Frac Plug • Land acquisition and leasing : Rs 12,60,00,000 • Permitting : Rs 6,00,000 • Vertical drilling : Rs 3,97,80,000 • Hydraulic fracturing : Rs 7,20,00,000 • Completion : Rs 1,20,00,000 • Production to gathering : Rs 2,83,20,000
  12. 12. CONCLUSION  Horizontal well analysis requires engineering judgment.  It is difficult to get unique answer.  Reserves are difficult to estimate during the transient flow.