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Lipid Micelle formation

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Lipid Micelle formation

  1. 1. z Lipid micelle formation
  2. 2. z Amphipathic lipids  Lipids are insoluble in water, that is hydrophobic in nature due to the presence of hydrocarbon groups.  However, some of the lipids possess polar or hydrophilic groups which tend to be soluble in water.  Molecules which contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups are known as amphipathic.
  3. 3. z Examples of amphipathic lipids  Among the lipids, fatty acids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, bile salts and cholesterol (to some extent) are amphipathic in nature.
  4. 4. z Fatty acids contain a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group. The carboxyl group is polar in nature with affinity to water (hydrophilic) while the hydrocarbon chain of fatty acid is hydrophobic.
  5. 5. z Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head (phosphate group attached to choline, ethanolamine, inositol etc.) and long hydrophobic tail.
  6. 6. z Structure of amphipathic lipid The general structure of an amphipathic lipid may be represented as a polar or hydrophilic head with a non-polar or hydrophobic tail
  7. 7. z Micelles  Micelles are the amphipathic lipid molecules that arrange themselves in a spherical form in aqueous solutions.
  8. 8. z Micelle formation  When amphipathic lipids are mixed in water (aqueous phase), the polar groups (heads) Orient themselves towards aqueous phase while the non-polar groups (tails) Orient towards the opposite directions. This leads to the formation of micelles.
  9. 9. z Conditions influence micelle formation  Kraft temperature It is the minimum temperature above which the formation of micelles takes place.  Critical micelle concentration (CMC) It is the concentration of surfactants above which micelles formation takes place
  10. 10. z Importance of micelles  Micelles act as emulsifiers that allows a compound that is usually insoluble in water to dissolve.  They help the small intestine to absorb essential lipids and vitamins from the liver and gall bladder.  They carry complex lipids such as lecithin and lipid soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) to the small intestine.  Micelles help clean the skin. Many facial washes use micelles to perform this task. They clean the skin by removing oil and other substances without the need of being washed afterward.  Micelles can increase reaction yield, create conditions more favorable to specific reaction products (e.g. Hydrophobic molecules), and reduce required solvents, side products, and required conditions.  Micelle formation may also inhibit chemical reactions, such as when reacting molecules form micelles that shield a molecular component vulnerable to oxidation.

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