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Lifecanbeviewedasconstantflowofenergy,channeledbyorganismtodothework
ofliving.Eachofthesignificantpropertybywhichwedefinelife---order,growth,
responsiveness,reproductionandinternalregulation---requiresconstantsupplyof
energy.Animalsneedtoeatforawidevarietyofcellularfunctions.Deprivedofa
sourceofenergy,LIFESTOPS.Thereforeacomprehensivestudyoflifewouldbe
impossiblewithoutdiscussingbioenergetics,theanalysisofhowenergypowersthe
activitiesoflivingsystems.
Energy and
Metabolism
Charilyn D. Dela Cruz
The Flow of Energy in
living Systems
* Cells are governed by the laws of
physics and chemistry , so we must
understand these laws in order to
understand how cells function.
–The study of science that deals
with heat changes.
It is the capacity to do
work.
Energy
* much of the work that living organisms carry
out involves transforming potential to kinetic
energy.
• Energy can take many forms:
mechanical energy, heat , sound, electric
current, light or radioactivity.
* Heat is the most convenient way of measuring
energy because all other forms of energy can be
converted into heat.
–The unit of heat most commonly employed in
biology is the kilocalorie (kcal).
–One kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories (cal).
* One calorie is the heat required to raised the
temperature of one gram of water one degree
Celsius (0C )
The sun provides energy
for living systems
• It is estimated that the sun provides the
Earth with more than 13 x 1023 calories
per year or 40 billion calories per
second.
• Plants , algae and certain kinds of
bacteria capture this energy in the form
of photosynthesis.
• In the process of photosynthesis, energy
from the sun is stored as potential energy in
the covalent bonds between atoms in the
sugar molecules.
• The strength of a covalent bond is measured
by the amount of energy required to break it.
• For example: it takes 98.8 kcal to break one
mole (6.023 x 1023 ) of the carbon – hydrogen
(C-H) bond found in organic molecules.
Oxidation – Reduction
Reaction Transfer
– Oxidation – reduction ( redox) always takes place together
because every electron that is lost by one atom through
oxidation is gained by another atom through reduction.
– Oxidation is the process by which molecule loses electron.
– Reduction , a process by which molecule gains electron.
– Oxygen is the most common electron acceptor in the
biological systems.
– Redox play a key role in the flow of energy through
biological systems.
Energy (E) Transfer
Overview
The Laws of
Thermodynamics and Free
Energy– First Law states that energy cannot be created or
destroyed.
– Second Law states that some energy is lost as disorder
increases.
– Some of the energy dissipates into the environment as
heat.
– Energy continuously flows to the biological world in
one direction with new energy from the sun
constantly entering the system to replace the energy
dissipated as heat.
Chemical reactions can be
predicted based on changes in
Free EnergyThe amount of energy actually available to break and
subsequently form other chemical bonds is called the
FREE ENERGY of that molecule.
• Free energy is the energy available to do work in a
system.
Endergonic – reaction that requires an input of energy
- energy must be supplied
Exergonic – “ outward energy”,
- release the excess free energy as heat.
Energy and Chemical
Reactions
Activation energy
- Extra energy needed to
destabilize existing
chemical bonds and
initiate a chemical rxn.
ATP: The Energy
Currency of Cells
KEY CONCEPT
* All cells need chemical energy.
• The chief currency all cells used for their energy
transactions is the nucleotide Adenosine
Triphosphate
* ATP powers almost every energy requiring
process in the cell from making sugars to supplying
activation energy for chemical reactions, to
actively transporting substances across
membranes, to moving to the environment and
growing.
–Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide
triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often
called the "molecular unit of currency" of
intracellular energy transfer.
- ATP transports chemical energy within
cells for metabolism.
- It is one of the end products of
photophosphorylation, aerobic
respiration and fermentation.
- It is used by enzymes and structural
proteins in many cellular processes,
including biosynthetic reactions,
motility, and cell division.
Structure of ATP
O
OH OH
N
N
N
N
NH2
CH2OPOPOPO
-
O O O
O-
O-
O-
adenine
ribose
adenosine triphosphate ATP
ADP
adenosine diphosphate
How ATP stores energy
–The key to how ATP stores energy lies in its
triphosphate group
ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl
Lohmann, and independently by Cyrus
Fiske and Yellapragada Subbarow of
Harvard Medical School.
It was proposed to be the intermediary
molecule between energy-yielding and
energy-requiring reactions in cells by
Fritz Albert Lipmann in 1941.
It was first artificially synthesized by
Alexander Todd in 1948.
Energy is released as food is oxidized
Used to form ATP from ADP and Pi
ADP + Pi + Energy ATP
In cells, energy is provided by the hydrolysis
of ATP
ATP ADP + Pi + Energy
ATP CYCLES CONTINUOUSLY
Biochemical pathways may have evolved
in step wise fashion
In the primordial soup of early oceans, many
reactions were probably single step reactions
combining two molecules. As one of the
substrates molecules was depleted, organism
having an enzyme that could synthesize the
substrate would have a selective advantage. In this
manner biochemical pathways are thought to
have evolved “backward” with new reactions
producing limiting substrates for existing
reactions.
23
Feedback inhibition regulates some
biochemical pathways
• Biosynthetic pathways are often regulated by the end product
of the pathway
• Feedback inhibition occurs when the end product of a reaction
• combines with an allosteric site to shut down the enzymes activity.
Inhibition
Substrate
1
Substrate
2
Enzyme B Substrate
3
Enzyme C Substrate
4
Enzyme D
Product
Rate-limiting
Enzyme A
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
THERMODYNAMICS
ENERGY

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Energy and metabolism

  • 3. The Flow of Energy in living Systems * Cells are governed by the laws of physics and chemistry , so we must understand these laws in order to understand how cells function.
  • 4. –The study of science that deals with heat changes.
  • 5. It is the capacity to do work.
  • 6. Energy * much of the work that living organisms carry out involves transforming potential to kinetic energy. • Energy can take many forms: mechanical energy, heat , sound, electric current, light or radioactivity. * Heat is the most convenient way of measuring energy because all other forms of energy can be converted into heat.
  • 7. –The unit of heat most commonly employed in biology is the kilocalorie (kcal). –One kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories (cal). * One calorie is the heat required to raised the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius (0C )
  • 8. The sun provides energy for living systems • It is estimated that the sun provides the Earth with more than 13 x 1023 calories per year or 40 billion calories per second. • Plants , algae and certain kinds of bacteria capture this energy in the form of photosynthesis.
  • 9. • In the process of photosynthesis, energy from the sun is stored as potential energy in the covalent bonds between atoms in the sugar molecules. • The strength of a covalent bond is measured by the amount of energy required to break it. • For example: it takes 98.8 kcal to break one mole (6.023 x 1023 ) of the carbon – hydrogen (C-H) bond found in organic molecules.
  • 10. Oxidation – Reduction Reaction Transfer – Oxidation – reduction ( redox) always takes place together because every electron that is lost by one atom through oxidation is gained by another atom through reduction. – Oxidation is the process by which molecule loses electron. – Reduction , a process by which molecule gains electron. – Oxygen is the most common electron acceptor in the biological systems. – Redox play a key role in the flow of energy through biological systems.
  • 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics and Free Energy– First Law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. – Second Law states that some energy is lost as disorder increases. – Some of the energy dissipates into the environment as heat. – Energy continuously flows to the biological world in one direction with new energy from the sun constantly entering the system to replace the energy dissipated as heat.
  • 13. Chemical reactions can be predicted based on changes in Free EnergyThe amount of energy actually available to break and subsequently form other chemical bonds is called the FREE ENERGY of that molecule. • Free energy is the energy available to do work in a system. Endergonic – reaction that requires an input of energy - energy must be supplied Exergonic – “ outward energy”, - release the excess free energy as heat.
  • 14. Energy and Chemical Reactions Activation energy - Extra energy needed to destabilize existing chemical bonds and initiate a chemical rxn.
  • 15. ATP: The Energy Currency of Cells KEY CONCEPT * All cells need chemical energy. • The chief currency all cells used for their energy transactions is the nucleotide Adenosine Triphosphate * ATP powers almost every energy requiring process in the cell from making sugars to supplying activation energy for chemical reactions, to actively transporting substances across membranes, to moving to the environment and growing.
  • 16. –Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
  • 17. - ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. - It is one of the end products of photophosphorylation, aerobic respiration and fermentation. - It is used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.
  • 18. Structure of ATP O OH OH N N N N NH2 CH2OPOPOPO - O O O O- O- O- adenine ribose adenosine triphosphate ATP ADP adenosine diphosphate
  • 19. How ATP stores energy –The key to how ATP stores energy lies in its triphosphate group
  • 20. ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, and independently by Cyrus Fiske and Yellapragada Subbarow of Harvard Medical School. It was proposed to be the intermediary molecule between energy-yielding and energy-requiring reactions in cells by Fritz Albert Lipmann in 1941. It was first artificially synthesized by Alexander Todd in 1948.
  • 21. Energy is released as food is oxidized Used to form ATP from ADP and Pi ADP + Pi + Energy ATP In cells, energy is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP ATP ADP + Pi + Energy ATP CYCLES CONTINUOUSLY
  • 22. Biochemical pathways may have evolved in step wise fashion In the primordial soup of early oceans, many reactions were probably single step reactions combining two molecules. As one of the substrates molecules was depleted, organism having an enzyme that could synthesize the substrate would have a selective advantage. In this manner biochemical pathways are thought to have evolved “backward” with new reactions producing limiting substrates for existing reactions.
  • 23. 23 Feedback inhibition regulates some biochemical pathways • Biosynthetic pathways are often regulated by the end product of the pathway • Feedback inhibition occurs when the end product of a reaction • combines with an allosteric site to shut down the enzymes activity. Inhibition Substrate 1 Substrate 2 Enzyme B Substrate 3 Enzyme C Substrate 4 Enzyme D Product Rate-limiting Enzyme A Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Editor's Notes

  1. My report focuses on energy – what it is and how it changes during chemical reaction.
  2. Motion (Basic) Note: This video template is optimized for Microsoft PowerPoint 2010. In PowerPoint 2007, video elements will play, but any content overlapping the video bars will be covered by the video when in slideshow mode. In PowerPoint 2003, video will not play, but the poster frame of the videos will remain in place as static images. The video: Plays automatically after each slide transition. Is 15 seconds long. Seamlessly loops for infinite playback. To add slides or change layout: To add a new slide, on the Home tab, in the Slides group, click the arrow under New Slide, then click under Motion Background Theme, then select the desired layout. To change the layout of an existing slide, on the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, then select the desired layout. Other animated elements: Any animated element you insert will begin after the slide transition and the background video has started.
  3. e
  4. Another energy unit often used in physics is called joule, one joule equal .239 cal.
  5. Energy flows into the biological world from the sun.
  6. Fat molecules have many C-H bonds and breaking those bonds provides a lot of energy. This is one reason animals store fat. The oxidation of one molecule of a 15 carbon fatty acid that is completely saturated with hydrogens yield 2340 kcal.
  7. During chemical rxn, the energy stored in chemical bonds may be used to form new bonds. You will learn this in detail in oxidation of organic compound via respiration as well as the energy in sunlight via photosynthesis
  8. All activities of living organism – such as growing, running, thinking , singing– involves changes in energy. A set of two universal law governs all energy changes in the universe.
  9. Atp is composed of three smaller components. First component is the five carbon sugar, ribose which serves as framework to which the other two subunits are attached. The second component are adenine, an organic molecule composed of two carbon nitrogen rings, each of the nitrogen atoms in the ring has unshared pair of electrons and weakly attracts hydrogen ions, making adenine chemically a weak base, The third component is a chain of three phosphates.
  10. THE SYNTHESIS OF ATP FROM ADP + PHOSPHATE IS endergonic cellular reactions and is powered by exergonic cellular reactions Pi is inoraganic phosphate The hydrolysis of atp to adp + pi is exergonic and the releasesd is used to power endergonic functions such as muscle contraction.