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MITOTIC CELL
DIVISION
RINI JOSEPH
CELL CYCLE
• The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of
the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer
interphase, where the cell prepares itself for cell
division.
• Interphase is divided into three:
G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second
gap)
• The chromosomes are replicate only during
the S phase .
• A cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it
duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more
and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally it
divides (M) before restarting the cycle.
• (G0) Resting phase ,it is a fourth stage of
CELL DIVISION
• Mitosis is the characteristic type of cell division ,
which keeps up the genetic continuity and
genetic integrity of organisms and preserves
their somatic chromosome value all through
successive generations.
• The daughter cells, formed by mitosis ,are
genetically and metabolically identical to each
other and also to the parent cell.
• Mitosis is described as an equational division.
DISCOVERY
• German zoologist Otto Bütschli discover the process
mitosis.
• Walther Flemming ( 1882 ) coined the term mitosis.
• Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat
cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time
by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875.
• The term is derived from the Greek word μίτος
mitos "warp thread".
STAGES OF CELL DIVISION
• PROPHASE
• METAPHASE
• ANAPHASE
• TELOPHASE
PROPHASE
• The first stage of prophase begins as long as the
chromatin fibers of the chromosomes start to fold and
pack into structure that are thick enough to be visible
under the light microscope.
• As the packing called condensation ,proceeds, each
chromosomes can be seen split lengthwise into two
chromatids.
• The nucleolus be come smaller and eventually
disappears completely in most species .
• The rate of RNA transcription and protein synthesis and
drops ,and exocytosis and endocytosis essentially halt.
• The spindle fibers begins to assembles in the
protoplasm outside the nucleus.
• The spindle microtubules become aligned in
roughly parallel arrays extending from one
end of the cell to the other.
• The microtubules of spindle , with associated
motile protein known as microtubules
“motor” develop forces later in mitosis that
separate the two chromatids of each
chromosome and deliver them opposite
poles.
METAPHASE
• Metaphase is initiate by the movement of
chromosome towards the centre of the cell .this
centripetal metaphasic chromosome
is called metakinesis or congression.
• In the centre of the cell ,the chromosome get
attached to the chromosomal spindle and
arrange themselves in a single plane now in
equator of the cell .
• The chromosome attach the spindle with the
help of their kinetochore.
ANAPHASE
• Anaphase begin with the separation of the sister
centromeres and the segregation of sister chromatids
from each other.
• Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles by spindle
microtubules.
• The separation of sister chromatids move to the
respective poles at uniform velocity.
• The anaphase movement which is not completely
understood ,involves a complex interplay of
,microtubules ,microtubule motor and adjustment of
equilibrium between tubulin subunits and assembled
microtubules.
TELOPHASE
• The end of the pole ward migration of
marks the onset of telophase .
• It represent the “prophase in reverse “
• The tightly coiled and highly condensed
chromosomes undergo despiralisation and
decondensation and become long and thin
chromatin filaments.
• The two daughter nuclei are formed with in the
parent cell. This is called nuclear replication or
karyokinesis .
• The spindle fibers undergo dissolution in the
DIVISION OF THE CYTOPLASM
• In most cell division of the cytoplasm ,termed
begin during anaphase.
• In animal cell ,protists and many fungi and algae the
indication of cytoplasmic division is the appearance of
furrow in the plasma membrane .
• The furrow continues to deepen until the daughter
nuclei are cut off in separate cell , each with its own
cytoplasm and a complete plasma membrane.
• The time require for the division varies from cell to
species. For e.g.: an animal embryo can take 15-20 min
for a cycle. Like wise it can be very slow, a day ,a month
or even a year .
SIGNIFICANCE
• DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH
The number of cells within an organism increases by mitosis. This is
the basis of the development of a multicellular body from a single
cell.
• CELL REPLACEMENT
In some parts of body, e.g. skin and digestive tract, cells are
constantly sloughed off and replaced by new ones. New cells are
formed by mitosis and so are exact copies of the cells being
replaced. Eg; RBC
• REGENERATION
Some organisms can regenerate body parts. The production of
new cells in such instances is achieved by mitosis. Eg; star fish
• ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Some organisms produce genetically similar offspring through
asexual reproduction. Eg; Hydra. The same division happens
ERRORS AND VARIATIONS IN MITOSIS
• Errors can occur during mitosis, especially during
early embryonic development in humans.
• Mitotic errors can create aneuploid cells that have
too few or too many of one or more chromosomes,
a condition associated with cancer.
• Early human embryos, cancer cells, infected or
intoxicated cells can also suffer from pathological
division into three or more daughter cells (tripolar or
multipolar mitosis), resulting in severe errors in their
chromosomal complements.
• In nondisjunction, sister chromatids fail to
separate during anaphase. One daughter cell
receives both sister chromatids from the
nondisjoining chromosome and the other cell
receives none.
• As a result, the former cell gets three copies of
the chromosome, a condition known as
trisomy.
• And the latter will have only one copy, a
condition known as monosomy.
• On occasion, when cells experience
nondisjunction, they fail to complete
cytokines and retain both nuclei in one cell,
THANK YOU

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Mitotic cell division (2)

  • 4. • The mitotic phase is a relatively short period of the cell cycle. It alternates with the much longer interphase, where the cell prepares itself for cell division. • Interphase is divided into three: G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap) • The chromosomes are replicate only during the S phase . • A cell grows (G1), continues to grow as it duplicates its chromosomes (S), grows more and prepares for mitosis (G2), and finally it divides (M) before restarting the cycle. • (G0) Resting phase ,it is a fourth stage of
  • 5. CELL DIVISION • Mitosis is the characteristic type of cell division , which keeps up the genetic continuity and genetic integrity of organisms and preserves their somatic chromosome value all through successive generations. • The daughter cells, formed by mitosis ,are genetically and metabolically identical to each other and also to the parent cell. • Mitosis is described as an equational division.
  • 6. DISCOVERY • German zoologist Otto Bütschli discover the process mitosis. • Walther Flemming ( 1882 ) coined the term mitosis. • Mitosis was discovered in frog, rabbit, and cat cornea cells in 1873 and described for the first time by the Polish histologist Wacław Mayzel in 1875. • The term is derived from the Greek word μίτος mitos "warp thread".
  • 7. STAGES OF CELL DIVISION • PROPHASE • METAPHASE • ANAPHASE • TELOPHASE
  • 8. PROPHASE • The first stage of prophase begins as long as the chromatin fibers of the chromosomes start to fold and pack into structure that are thick enough to be visible under the light microscope. • As the packing called condensation ,proceeds, each chromosomes can be seen split lengthwise into two chromatids. • The nucleolus be come smaller and eventually disappears completely in most species . • The rate of RNA transcription and protein synthesis and drops ,and exocytosis and endocytosis essentially halt.
  • 9. • The spindle fibers begins to assembles in the protoplasm outside the nucleus. • The spindle microtubules become aligned in roughly parallel arrays extending from one end of the cell to the other. • The microtubules of spindle , with associated motile protein known as microtubules “motor” develop forces later in mitosis that separate the two chromatids of each chromosome and deliver them opposite poles.
  • 10. METAPHASE • Metaphase is initiate by the movement of chromosome towards the centre of the cell .this centripetal metaphasic chromosome is called metakinesis or congression. • In the centre of the cell ,the chromosome get attached to the chromosomal spindle and arrange themselves in a single plane now in equator of the cell . • The chromosome attach the spindle with the help of their kinetochore.
  • 11. ANAPHASE • Anaphase begin with the separation of the sister centromeres and the segregation of sister chromatids from each other. • Chromatids are pulled to opposite poles by spindle microtubules. • The separation of sister chromatids move to the respective poles at uniform velocity. • The anaphase movement which is not completely understood ,involves a complex interplay of ,microtubules ,microtubule motor and adjustment of equilibrium between tubulin subunits and assembled microtubules.
  • 12. TELOPHASE • The end of the pole ward migration of marks the onset of telophase . • It represent the “prophase in reverse “ • The tightly coiled and highly condensed chromosomes undergo despiralisation and decondensation and become long and thin chromatin filaments. • The two daughter nuclei are formed with in the parent cell. This is called nuclear replication or karyokinesis . • The spindle fibers undergo dissolution in the
  • 13. DIVISION OF THE CYTOPLASM • In most cell division of the cytoplasm ,termed begin during anaphase. • In animal cell ,protists and many fungi and algae the indication of cytoplasmic division is the appearance of furrow in the plasma membrane . • The furrow continues to deepen until the daughter nuclei are cut off in separate cell , each with its own cytoplasm and a complete plasma membrane. • The time require for the division varies from cell to species. For e.g.: an animal embryo can take 15-20 min for a cycle. Like wise it can be very slow, a day ,a month or even a year .
  • 14. SIGNIFICANCE • DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH The number of cells within an organism increases by mitosis. This is the basis of the development of a multicellular body from a single cell. • CELL REPLACEMENT In some parts of body, e.g. skin and digestive tract, cells are constantly sloughed off and replaced by new ones. New cells are formed by mitosis and so are exact copies of the cells being replaced. Eg; RBC • REGENERATION Some organisms can regenerate body parts. The production of new cells in such instances is achieved by mitosis. Eg; star fish • ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Some organisms produce genetically similar offspring through asexual reproduction. Eg; Hydra. The same division happens
  • 15. ERRORS AND VARIATIONS IN MITOSIS • Errors can occur during mitosis, especially during early embryonic development in humans. • Mitotic errors can create aneuploid cells that have too few or too many of one or more chromosomes, a condition associated with cancer. • Early human embryos, cancer cells, infected or intoxicated cells can also suffer from pathological division into three or more daughter cells (tripolar or multipolar mitosis), resulting in severe errors in their chromosomal complements.
  • 16. • In nondisjunction, sister chromatids fail to separate during anaphase. One daughter cell receives both sister chromatids from the nondisjoining chromosome and the other cell receives none. • As a result, the former cell gets three copies of the chromosome, a condition known as trisomy. • And the latter will have only one copy, a condition known as monosomy. • On occasion, when cells experience nondisjunction, they fail to complete cytokines and retain both nuclei in one cell,