Lecture ppt ch2

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Lecture ppt ch2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Ecology of Socialization
  2. 2. The childhood shows the man, as morning shows the day. John Milton
  3. 3. Aims of Socialization
  4. 4. Terms • Self-Concept – An individual’s perception of his or her identity as distinct from that of others • Self-Esteem – The value one places on his/her identity
  5. 5. Name Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Task Developmental Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Infancy Develop a basic sense of trust Autonomy vs. Shame and Early Childhood Doubt Develop autonomy Initiative vs. Guilt Play Age Develop initiative Industry vs. Inferiority School Age Develop feelings of competence Identity vs. Identity Diffusion Adolescence Integrate early self with changing self Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adulthood Establish intimacy Generativity vs. SelfAbsorption Adulthood Establish and guide the next generation Integrity vs. Despair Senescence Reach end of life with positive self-esteem
  6. 6. Aims of Socialization • • • • • Develop self-concept Enable self-regulation Empower achievement Teach appropriate social goals Implement developmental skills social, emotional, cognitive skills
  7. 7. Self-Regulation • The ability to control one’s impulses, behavior, and/or emotions. . . until an appropriate time, place, or object is available for expression • Teens-prefrontal cortex just behind the forehead
  8. 8. Developmental Task • A task that lies between an individual need and a societal demand
  9. 9. Agents of Socialization
  10. 10. Agents of Socialization • • • • • Family School and Child Care Peers Mass Media The Community
  11. 11. Agents of Socialization JEFF GREENBERG / PHOTOEDIT, INC.
  12. 12. Egocentrism • The cognitive inability to look at the world from any point of view other than one’s own
  13. 13. Cultural Differences Orientation Collectivist / Individualistic Coping Style Active/Passive Attitude Toward Authority Submissive/ Egalitarian Communication Style Open-Expressive/ Restrained-Private
  14. 14. Methods of Socialization
  15. 15. Affective Methods • Include – – – – responses to others feelings about self feelings about others expression of emotion
  16. 16. Attachment • An affectional tie that one person forms to another person, binding them together in space and enduring over time
  17. 17. Methods • • • • • • Affective Operant Observational Cognitive Sociocultural Apprenticeship see text
  18. 18. Operant Methods • Operant: Producing an effect • Reinforcement – An object or event presented following a behavior that serves to increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur • Extinction – The gradual disappearance of a learned behavior following the removal of the reinforcement
  19. 19. Operant Methods • Punishment – Physical or psychologically painful stimuli or the temporary withdrawal of pleasant stimuli when undesirable behavior occurs • Feedback – Evaluative information, both positive and negative, about one’s behavior
  20. 20. Observational Methods • Modeling – A form of imitative learning that occurs by observing another person (the model) perform a behavior and experience its consequence
  21. 21. Cognitive Methods • Instruction • Setting Standards • Reasoning – Giving explanations or causes for an act See text
  22. 22. Parenting Styles • Authoritarian • Parent-centered; Characterized by unquestioning obedience to authority • Permissive • Child-centered; Characterized by lack of directives or authority • Authoritative • Democratic; Authority is based on competence or expertise
  23. 23. Sociocultural Methods
  24. 24. Apprenticeship • A process in which a novice is guided by an expert to participate in and master tasks • Structuring • Collaborating • Transferring
  25. 25. Outcomes of Socialization
  26. 26. Outcomes • • • • • • • Values Attitudes Motives and attributions Self-esteem Self-regulation/behavior Morals Gender roles

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