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Participatory Academic Communities - connectedness, openness and academic citizenship at the future university beyond the campus

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Slides from Assistant Professor Rikke Toft Nørgård and PhD Fellow Janus Holst Aaen's invited talk at the Center for Higher Education Studies, Institute of Education, UCL on November 8th 2015 where Rikke Toft Nørgård have been a visiting academic in the Fall 2015: https://www.ioe.ac.uk/research/189.html

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Participatory Academic Communities - connectedness, openness and academic citizenship at the future university beyond the campus

  1. 1. Participatory Academic Communities – connectedness, openness and academic citizenship at the future university beyond the campus Rikke Toft Nørgård, Assistant professor, PhD Janus Holst Aaen, PhD Fellow Center for Teaching Development and Digital Media, Aarhus University, Denmark
  2. 2. Vignette: Participatory Academic Communities
  3. 3. Theme of the talk This seminar revolves around research and developmental work carried out at Aarhus University around ‘the future university,’ ‘academic citizenship’ and ‘academic virtues for genuine participation in higher education’ coming together under the concept of ‘participatory academic communities.’
  4. 4. A call for a future university grounded in human dignity
  5. 5. A call for a future university grounded in human dignity Because, universities emanates certain values, calls for certain forms of participation and speaks to us in a certain ‘voice’ (Buchanan, 2006; Nixon, 2008). Because ‘We should consider what we mean by human dignity and how all of the products that we make either succeed or fail to support and advance human dignity’ (Buchanan, 2006, p.302).
  6. 6. Universities, courses and educational activities as virtuous atmospheres
  7. 7. Universities, courses and educational activities as virtuous atmospheres The university itself is a force of being, and by dwelling there we become “absorbed” into this being. (Heidegger, 2000) “[T]he physical resources of the institution, the buildings in which they are held, and the land on which they are built are (…) critical to institutional success.” (Temple, 2014a, p.xxi). For people to be able to dwell within the university, course or educational activity and not merely occupy its space, they must be ‘enabled’ to dwell there; to have access to resources, be supported, feel encouraged in their projects, and be drawn into worthwhile and collaborative connections (Macfarlane, 2012, p.96ff.)
  8. 8. Academic citizenship and Participatory Academic Communities: being a citizen and participating in society in academic ways ACADEMIC CITIZEN SOCIETY UNIVERSITY
  9. 9. Academic citizenship and Participatory Academic Communities: being a citizen and participating in society in academic ways Our notion of academic citizenship are building on the description of the virtuous academic citizen as outlined by Jon Nixon (2008) and Bruce Macfarlane (2007), emphasizing virtues such as engagement, care, loyalty, collegiality, and benevolence, which implies a mutual integration and dialogue (Freire, 1974) between university, academics, and society.
  10. 10. Value-based vision-driven Participatory Academic Communities to support Academic Citizenship at the future university
  11. 11. Value-based vision-driven Participatory Academic Communities to support Academic Citizenship at the future university “To be without a place of one’s own – persona non locata – is to be almost non-existent, as studies of the homeless imply” (Gieryn, 2000, p.482) As such, academic citizenship is not something that is acquired at a general level, but a virtue that emerges from the virtuous university offering public engagements in the university and academic engagements in society– a participatory academic community where empathy, dialogue, autonomy, commitment and connectedness prevail
  12. 12. Participatory Academic Communities: A future virtuous university beyond the campus
  13. 13. Participatory Academic Communities: A future virtuous university beyond the campus This possible schism emerges from the fact that educational institutions today are often seen as more or less abstract and secluded spaces withdrawn from the surrounding world, entailing the call for more market- oriented and commodified universities, as critically discussed by Barnett (2011; 2013), Solberg and Hansen (2015), Biesta (2006; 2013) and Filippakou and Williams (2015).
  14. 14. Practicing Participatory Academic Communities
  15. 15. Practicing Participatory Academic Communities Participatory academic communities was developed as a concept through an iterative design and research process aiming for engagement, empowerment and enterprising in education through transformative and transgressive interactions and experiences of ‘educators’ and ‘educatees’ (terms from Freire, 1974). Participatory academic communities aim at merging the projects of people, society and institution through value- based vision-driven interactions of educators and educates in the form of open, dialogical and democratic engagements between people, society and educational institutions.
  16. 16. Five core values for Participatory Academic Communities Empathy: Key concepts: Compassion (Barnett, 2011), care (Dall’Alba, 2012), empathic design (Gagnon and Côté, 2014) Dialogue: Key concepts: integration (Freire, 1974), openness (Thestrup and Dalsgaard, in press), learning through collaboration (Laurillard, 2012), Autonomy: Key concepts: Empowerment (Freire), citizenship (Macfarlane 2007) Commitment: Key concepts: Community (McMillan & Chavis, 1986), engagement, participation (Aaen & Nørgaard under publication). Inquiry: Key concepts: Critical consciousness (Freire, 1974), Academic Citizenship (Macfarlane 2007)
  17. 17. Our transdisciplinary approach to PAC
  18. 18. A certain enactment of PAC
  19. 19. Media and PAC A break with the tendency within the field of EdTech research to emphasise technological developments over pedagogy (Oliver, 2011) A turn away from use of ICT in education as predominantly based on transmission of knowledge (eg. xmoocs, e-learning, screencasts and learning management systems)(Dalsgaard, 2009)
  20. 20. Media and PAC We needed a media ecology that supported contact, presence, participation, collaboration and academic citizenship Pre-media: distance & solipsism 1.0 Transmission media/tech: distance 2.0, poor remediation (watered down classroom experience) PAC media/tech: beyond remediation, overcoming distance and solipsism through potentials of new media use, like perpetual contact (Aakhus & Katz, 2002), ubiquitous Internet (Aaen & Dalsgaard, forthcoming) collaboration and production tools (Attwell 2007)), social media (Ito et al., 2010), Openness (Dalsgaard & Thestrup, in press) and new communication forms (Aaen & Dalsgaard, in press)
  21. 21. Media Ecology (Ito et al., 2010)
  22. 22. Media Ecology The educatees’ media use: - self-governed - emphasized dialogue over transmission - emphasized co-design of multilayered media communication over fixed unilateral ‘learning management systems’ - to a great extent characterized by openness and collaboration.
  23. 23. Shadowy siblings
  24. 24. Educational designers must acknowledge to and embrace the shadowy siblings emerging from the application of their core values. For every idealistic, positive and “cheerful” virtue for academic knowing and practice (Nixon, 2008), a number of entangled, distorted and “shadowy” sensations, experiences and values mirror it (Bengtsen and Barnett, 2015). There is a dialectic relationship between core values and shadowy siblings that gradually appears when listening to the the voices of the educatees. Shadowy siblings
  25. 25. Shadowy siblings
  26. 26. The “shadowy side” of education (Bengtsen and Barnett, 2015 in press; Bengtsen and Nørgård 2014) must be embraced as an ever-present and powerful counterpart to the guiding values of any kind of educational activity – including participatory academic communities. Shadowy siblings
  27. 27. FutureMaking: PAC as a new empathic design pedagogy for the future university
  28. 28. A 6 point manifesto for PAC as a new empathic design pedagogy 1. PAC is to practice education as something collective, connected, dialogical, and empathic. 2. To teach for PAC we cannot extend these values to them, we need to practice what we preach, both on a professional and institutional level. 3. PAC is to invite for participation in education through empathic design pedagogy where: “To achieve [the future university], we have to understand each other. We have to listen and see the points of view of people who are committing themselves to their everyday life [...] empathy in design implies to learn to be empathic towards the users [as institution, academics, and society], to empathically communicate insights from users to the design team and to develop empathic teamwork within multidisciplinary context” (Gagnon & Côté, 2014 p. 1-3).
  29. 29. A 6 point manifesto for PAC as a new empathic design pedagogy 4. In PAC knowledge is assessed, analyzed and used in the pursuit of what design thinking calls ‘intentional change in an unpredictable world’ (Nelson & Stolterman, 2012), adopting an interventionist proactive and future-oriented approach to institutions, courses, and educational activities aimed at education the day after tomorrow 5. PAC is to approach education as a ‘design practice.’ In this way, educational practice and research shifts from the paradigms of deductive and inductive reasoning towards abductive thinking about educational designs as ‘envisioning possible futures’ (Brandt & Binder, 2007) inside and outside institutions. 6. In PAC academics critically reflect on how institutions, courses and educational activities are conceptualized and how that affect our responses to these designs. These designs can play a nurturing role for the academics, creating a sense of belonging to a shared endeavor that can change academics perception of the nature of their academic identity, practice and citizenship (Laurillard, 2012).
  30. 30. Future PAC work PAC as a new empathic design pedagogy? Is Particpatory Academic Communities important in HE? Is Academic Citizenship important in HE? Collaboration, connectedness and citizenship as core values for the future university? Universities, courses and educational activities as virtuous atmospheres? How to best move this further? how best to investigate it? how to best substantiate it? Rikke Toft Nørgård: rtoft@tdm.au.dk Janus Aaen: jhaaen@tdm.au.dk
  31. 31. References Aaen, J. & Dalsgaard, C. (forthcoming).Expanding the context for learning: How does the ubiquitous internet change the conditions for education? First Monday Aaen, J. & Dalsgaard, C. (in press). Student Facebook groups as a third space: Between social life and school work. Learning Media & Technology Aaen, J.H. & Nørgård, R.T. (2015, in press). Participatory Academic Communities. A transdiciplinary perspective on participation in education beyond the institution. To appear in Conjunctions. Aakhus, M. A., & Katz, J. E. (2002). Perpetual Contact. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. Attwell, G. (2007). Personal Learning Environments - the future of eLearning? eLearning Papers, 2. Barnett, R. (2015b). In Search of a Public: Higher Education in a Global Age. In Filippakou, O. & Williams, G. (Eds.). Higher Education As a Public Good. Critical Perspectives on Theory, Policy and Practice. New York: Peter Lang Barnett, R. (2013). Imagining the University. London & New York: Routledge Barnett, R. (2011). Being a University. London & New York: Routledge Bengtsen, S. & Barnett, R. (in press). Confronting the Dark Side of Higher Education. In Journal of Philosophy of Education Biesta, G.J.J. (2013). The Beautiful Risk of Education. Boulder & London: Paradigm Publishers
  32. 32. Biesta, G.J.J. (2006). Beyond Learning. Democratic Education for a Human Future. Boulder & London: Paradigm Publishers Brandt, E., & Binder, T. (2007). Experimental design research: genealogy, intervention, argument. International Association of Societies of Design Research, Hong Kong. Buchanan, R. (2006). Human Dignity and Human Rights: Thoughts on the principles of human-centered design. In A. Bennett (ed.) Design Studies. Princeton Architectural Press. (pp.300-305) Dall’Alba, G. (2013). Re-imagining the University. Developing a Capacity to Care. In Barnett, R. (Ed.) The Future University. Ideas and Possibilities. New York & London: Routledge Dalsgaard, C. (2009). From transmission to dialogue: Personalised and social knowledge media. MedieKultur, 25. Dalsgaard, C., & Thestrup, K. (in press). Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. Freire, P. (1974). Education for Critical Consciousness. London: Bloomsbury References
  33. 33. References Gagnon, C. and Côté, V. (2014). Learning from Others – a five-year experience on teaching empathic design. in Lim, Y. et al (eds.) Proceedings of DRS2014: Design’s Big Debates, Design Research Society Biennial International Conference 16-19 June 2014, Umeå Sweden ,p. 113-127 Gieryn, T.F. (2000). A Space for Place in Sociology. In Annual Review of Sociology, 26 (pp. 463-496) Heidegger, M. (2000). Being and Time. Translated by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson. Oxford & Cambridge: Blackwell Ito, M. et al (2010). Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. MIT Press. Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a Design Science – building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology. London: Routledge. Macfarlane, B. (2012). Intellectual Leadership in Higher Education. Renewing the Role of the University Professor. London & New York: Routledge Macfarlane, B. (2007). The Academic Citizen: The Virtue of Service in University Life. London & New York: Routledge Nelson, H. G. & Stolterman, E. (2012). The design way – intentional change in an unpredictable world. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  34. 34. References Nixon, J. (2008). Towards the Virtuous University. The Moral Bases of Academic Practice. New York & London: Routledge Nørgård, R.T. and Bengtsen, S.S. (2015, under publication). “Academic Citizenship. A call for the placeful university.” Forthcoming special Issue of Journal of the Higher Education Research And Development Oliver, M. (2011). Technological determinism in educational technology research: some alternative ways of thinking about the relationship between learning and technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(5), 373–384. Solberg, M. & Hansen, F.T. (2015). On Academic Bildung in Higher Education. A Scandinavian approach. In Fossland, T., Mathiasen, H., Solberg, M. (Eds.). Academic Bildung in Net-based Higher Education. London & New York: Routledge Temple, P. (Ed.) (2014a). The Physical University. Contours of space and place in higher education. London & New York: Routledge

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