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AFRICA
WHAT WORKS TO FOSTER
THE ADOPTION OF
OPENNESS AND
TRANSPARENCY
PRACTICES IN SUB-
SAHARAN AFRICA:
LESSONS FROM CAMEROON
AND SOUTH AFRICA
2
Reward	
exceptional	
achievements	
in	the	
advancement	of	
transparent	
social	science	
(SSMART),	LMR	
Build	Standards	
of	openness,	
integrity,	and	
transparency
ADVOCATE,EDUCATE,	CATALYZE	
Explore	
solutions,	and	
monitor	
progress	
towards		
transparency	
Identify,	fund,	
developtools and	
resources
TRANSPARENCY…. OPENNESS…….BITSS!
Understand	
the	problem
Support reseachers in	
making their research
more	transparent	and	
open
3
CAMEROON (02 DAYS BITSS TRAINING) (1)
4
SOUTH AFRICA (YAS CONFERENCE) (01 DAY) (1)
5
SOUTH AFRICA (YAS CONFERENCE) (01 DAY) (2)
SUB	SAHARAN	AFRICA
§ SOUTHERN	,	EAST	AND	WEST	AFRICAN	
HIGHER	ACADEMIC
INSITUTIONS
§ DEPARTMENT	OF	STATISTICS	
AND	DEMOGRAPHY
UNDERGRADUATE	AND
GRADUATE	STUDENTS
ORIGIN
§ Southern	Africa	(Lesotho,	South	Africa,	
Zambia,	Botswana,	Zimbabwe)
§ Eastern	Africa	(Uganda,	Ethiopia)
§ Northern	Africa	(Egypt)
§ Central	Africa	(Cameroon)
§ Western	Africa	(Benin,	Burkina	Faso,	
Nigeria)
39	PARTICIPANTS	from
12	African	countries	
out	of	the	54!!
--Different Type	of	common
academic misconducts
in	research and	how
to	overcome eachof	them?
--How	to	builda	transparent
Workflowfrom	the	data
analysis to	the	publication?
--How	to	share their data	
and	do	files	throughGithub
or	OSF
THEY	REALIZED	THERE	ARE	EXISTING	NORMS	AND	RULES	ON	RESEARCH
THEY	REALIZED	THEY	WERE	NOT	SO	TRANSPARENT		:)
FOR	EACH	BARRIERS,	
SOLUTIONS	WERE	GIVEN
PREVIOUS	
KNOWLEDGE
A	Fewof	them	
have	previously	
heard	about	
transparency	
or	openness
Practices in	
research
(Higher	in	East	
Africa)
KNOWLEDGE	
ACQUIRED
POTENTIAL	BARRIERS
OF ADOPTION
-- AT	THE	INDIVIDUAL	LEVEL
--AT	THE	INSTITUTIONAL
LEVEL
LESSONS
LESSONS LEARNED (1)
Institutional	level
• Lack of	suitable
resources	(repositories,
Internet	access	on	campus)
• Lack of	a	body	aware	of	the	
benefit	of	open	data	and	
transparency		to	create	
incentives	for	researchers
•
Individual	level
• Fear of	someone	else	
stealing	his	idea	and	
publishing	before	him
• Unwillingness to	share	their	
code	to other	“lazy”	researchers
• Willing to	publish	in	Top	
journals		in	their	field	to	make	a	
name	as	they	are	already	
Backward	because	of	being	in	a	
developing	countries	with	lack	of	
resources.	Thereby	there	is	a	
necessity	to	publish	in	Top	
journals	which	are	not	so	often	
open
• Lack	of	suitable	sharing	
platforms
Individual	Level
• Lack	of		institutional	
reward	and	incentives	
directed	to	researchers	
publishing	in	open	
access	journal	or	
sharing	their	data
BARRIERS
21
4
35
8
SOLUTIONS
MAIN TAKE AWAY
Overall,	there is a	Lack of	knowledgeon	open	and	transparent	research
practices	in	SSA
A	top	down	approach	is a	way to	foster and	widespread
the	adoption	with specific programs	targeting senior	researchers at
the	university level
Tailor	specific	incentives	for	developing	countries	researchers	
Who	are	already	striving	to	be	open	and	transparent	in	their	work
Doingan experiment (RCT) with a control and
comparisongroup couldbe useful to better understand the best
practices to incentivize them to be open . (Lookingforward to
perform this research with the support of the catalystgrant from
BITSS)
TAKE AWAY AND WAY FORWARD
THANK	YOU	FOR	
YOUR	KIND	
ATTENTION

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What works to foster the adoption of openness and transparency practices in Sub-Saharan Africa? - Soziac Elise Wang Sonne - OpenCon 2016