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changes Open Science in High-Energy Physics - Salvatore Mele at OpenCon

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changes Open Science in High-Energy Physics - Salvatore Mele at OpenCon

  1. 1. Change Alley: Open Science in High-Energy Physics a.k.a. what’s impossible and what’s not November 14th, 2015 OpenCon 2015 - Brussels Salvatore.Mele@CERN.ch
  2. 2. HEP – High Energy Physics (crawling Wikipedia)
  3. 3. What is the world made of ? International Catalog of World Coins
  4. 4. How does stuff work ? flickr.com/photos/paulm/2253776428/
  5. 5. International co-operation
  6. 6. LHC 10’000+ scientists+engineers, 113 countries, 20+ years
  7. 7. 27 Km, -271.25°C, 99.999999% of speed of light
  8. 8. Four “detectors”
  9. 9. Large as a cathedral flickr.com/photos/the_yes_man/4012514457
  10. 10. 100 million “sensors”, 40 million pictures/second
  11. 11. More than 100PB(=100’000TB) on tape at CERN
  12. 12. Welcome to CERN Discovery of the Higgs boson
  13. 13. article 2899 authors references
  14. 14. 90% of HEP articles: 1-5 authors (mostly theorists)
  15. 15. Change Alley: Open Science in High-Energy Physics a.k.a. what’s impossible and what’s not November 14th, 2015 OpenCon 2015 - Brussels Salvatore.Mele@CERN.ch
  16. 16. L3 detector at CERN LEP accelerator
  17. 17. Head of Open Access at CERN
  18. 18. Wikipedia
  19. 19. Change Alley: Open Science in High-Energy Physics a.k.a. what’s impossible and what’s not November 14th, 2015 OpenCon 2015 - Brussels Salvatore.Mele@CERN.ch
  20. 20. flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/3163571645
  21. 21. flickr.com/photos/funky64/3925955346
  22. 22. impossible
  23. 23. Observer,Alamy
  24. 24. Wikipedia
  25. 25. Scholarly communication would have been impossible without scientific journals
  26. 26. Observer,Alamy
  27. 27. smaismrmilmepoetaleumibunenugttauiras
  28. 28. Altissimum planetam tergeminum observavi
  29. 29. Once upon a time, when air-mail was fast…
  30. 30. …HEP scientists wrote papers…
  31. 31. …passed them through the cyclostyle/mimeograph… Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
  32. 32. …then mailed them to journals AND colleagues…
  33. 33. …other scientists read these PREPRINTS…
  34. 34. …libraries catalogued these PREPRINTS…
  35. 35. … into Open Access repositories.
  36. 36. T. Berners-Lee, CERN, ’91: the web is born
  37. 37. P. Ginsparg ’91:“Preprints on the internet?” arXiv.org
  38. 38. 97% of HEP journals’ content is in arXiv.org
  39. 39. Effects of global (green) Open Access in HEP Open Access accelerates Science! Scientific dialogue on subject repositories % of HEP journals content is OA as preprin Journals no longer have a communication role! en Access subject repositories accelerate Scienc HEP articles also available OA! Years ! Citatations! 0 ! 1 ! 2 ! 3 ! 8 !-1 ! 4! 5 ! 6 ! 7 ! Only published ! Gentil-Beccot, Mele, Brooks arXiv:0906.5418
  40. 40. Is impossible to convert existing journals to Open Access limiting the use of fresh money, and with no burden for researchers
  41. 41. flickr.com/photos/ipalatin/6031936991
  42. 42. Observer,Alamy
  43. 43. SCOAP3.org Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics
  44. 44. Re-use the CERN model…
  45. 45. …of international co-operation…
  46. 46. build a global partnership
  47. 47. Re-use money …
  48. 48. …spent by libraries for subscriptions…
  49. 49. …and liaise with Funding Agencies…
  50. 50. …to pay peer-review/publishing services…
  51. 51. …and not for content...
  52. 52. …which is “mostly open” anyhow!
  53. 53. Keep scientists happy !
  54. 54. Sweden 0,8% Mexico 0,8% Taiwan 0,8% Portugal 0,9% Netherlands 0,9% Iran 0,9% Israel 1,0% Poland 1,3% Switzerland 1,4% Korea 1,8% CERN 2,0% India 2,6% Brazil 2,6% Canada 2,7% Spain 2,9% Russia 3,4% France 3,8% China 5,3% United Kingdom 6,7% Italy 6,9% Japan 7,2% Germany 9,1% United States 24,9% Other Countries 9,3% Cern Scientific Information Service Distribution of HEP publications, average 2005-2006 J. Krause et al. CERN-OPEN-2007-014 Estimated cost: 5M€/year fairly distributed: each country contributes share of HEP publications
  55. 55. Took some time to get organized
  56. 56. Publisher Journal Nuclear Physics B Physics Letters B Advances in High Energy Physics Chinese Physics C Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics New Journal of Physics Acta Physica Polonica B Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics European Physical Journal C Journal of High Energy Physics
  57. 57. Start SCOAP3
  58. 58. Publisher Journal articles Nuclear Physics B 605 Physics Letters B 1’659 Advances in High Energy Physics 312 Chinese Physics C 44 Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 414 New Journal of Physics 17 Acta Physica Polonica B 33 Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics 148 European Physical Journal C 1’045 Journal of High Energy Physics 3’839 Articles as of November 13th 2015: Share of all HEP 8’116 >50%
  59. 59. 3 times cheaper than hybrid APCs ~10 times cheaper for public purse 99.98% compliance
  60. 60. Publisher Journal APC Nuclear Physics B $ 2’000 Physics Letters B $ 1’800 Advances in High Energy Physics $ 1’000 Chinese Physics C £ 1’000 Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics £ 1’400 New Journal of Physics £ 1’200 Acta Physica Polonica B € 500 Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics £ 1’000 European Physical Journal C € 1’500 Journal of High Energy Physics € 1’200 Average effective APC 2014: (In 2014 SCOAP3 pays max 2011 #articles, rest free) € 1’042
  61. 61. SCOAP3 journals APC (2014, in Euro) 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 Sources: Journal Cita?on Report, publishers’ websites, scoap3.org, webarchive.org 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Impact Factor (2012) Chart: C. Romeu et al. (2014) The SCOAP3 ini1a1ve and the Open Access - Ar1cle- Processing-Charge market: global partnership and compe11on improve value in the dissemina1on of science DOI: 10.2314/CERN/C26P.W9DT a)  hUps://github.com/OpenAPC/openapc-de; b)  hUp://figshare.com/ar?cles/2015_Jan_June_UK_APC_data_combined/1509860 c)  hUp://blog.wellcome.ac.uk/2015/03/03/the-reckoning-an-analysis-of-wellcome- trust-open-access-spend-2013-14/ Average APC 2014 paid by German universi?es: € 1,234a SCOAP3 average effec?ve APC 2014: € 1,042 Average APC 2015 paid by UK higher educa?on inst: € 2,351b Average APC 2013-2014 paid by the Wellcome Trust: € 2,502c Real costs to the system (very liUle fresh money)
  62. 62. Partnership Dec 2013 Partners joined during 2014 Partners joining in 2015 Partnership today: 43 countries + 3 IGOs Austria Belgium Canada CERNa China Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hong Kong Hungary IAEAb NEW: Iceland Israel Italy Japan JINRc Korea Mexico Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland NEW: Taiwan Turkey United Kingdom United States of America NEW: 12 additional U.S. Universities a) European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva b) International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna c) Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna representing 12 of its member states 46 countries, 3 IGO, 3’000 libraries today, and growing
  63. 63. Research intensive countries supporting SCOAP3 Territory size shows the proportion of all scientific papers published in 2001 written by authors living there http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=205
  64. 64. SCOAP3 Partner Other countries with at least one SCOAP3 author 18’000 authors from 90 countries
  65. 65. Piled Higher and Deeper by Jorge Cham www.phdcomics.com title: "Sharing" - originally published 9/4/2015 phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=1818
  66. 66. Piled Higher and Deeper by Jorge Cham www.phdcomics.com title: "Sharing" - originally published 9/4/2015 data
  67. 67. Open Data in High-Energy Physics is impossible (too complex, large, dangerous, un-understandable, useless…)
  68. 68. Observer,Alamy
  69. 69. L3 detector at CERN LEP accelerator
  70. 70. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  71. 71. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  72. 72. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  73. 73. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  74. 74. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  75. 75. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  76. 76. hep-ex/0406049; 10.1016/j.physrep.2004.07.002
  77. 77. Welcome to CERN To find the Higgs boson…
  78. 78. …analyse ~100PB(=100’000TB) on tape at CERN
  79. 79. What you really need to understand the Universe?
  80. 80. flickr.com/photos/mbiddulph/3240818979
  81. 81. Persistent Identifiers: no-profit, community-driven, infrastructures
  82. 82. width. Acknowledgments AF thanks Dean Carmi, Erik Kuflik, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano, Tomer Volansky and Jure Zupan for collaboration on closely related projects. AF also thanks the organizers of the conference Windows on the Universe for the invitation and support. References 1. G. Aad et al. [ATLAS Collaboration], Phys. Lett. B 716, 1 (2012) [arXiv:1207.7214 [hep-ex]]. S. Chatrchyan et al. [CMS Collaboration], Phys. Lett. B 716, 30 (2012) [arXiv:1207.7235 [hep-ex]]. 2. B. Grzadkowski et al. , JHEP 1010, 085 (2010) [arXiv:1008.4884 [hep-ph]], 3. R. Contino et al. JHEP 1307 (2013) 035 [arXiv:1303.3876 [hep-ph]]. 4. A. Falkowski, F. Riva and A. Urbano, arXiv:1303.1812 [hep-ph]. 5. G. Aad et al. [ATLAS Collaboration], Phys. Lett. B 726 (2013) 88 [arXiv:1307.1427 [hep-ex]]. 6. ATLAS Collaboration, “Data from Figure 7 from: Measurements of Higgs boson produc- tion and couplings in diboson final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC: H ! ,” http://doi.org/10.7484/INSPIREHEP.DATA.A78C.HK44 7. ATLAS Collaboration, “Data from Figure 7 from: Measurements of Higgs boson pro- duction and couplings in diboson final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC: H ! ZZ⇤ ! 4`,” http://doi.org/10.7484/INSPIREHEP.DATA.RF5P.6M3K 8. ATLAS Collaboration, “Data from Figure 7 from: Measurements of Higgs boson pro- duction and couplings in diboson final states with the ATLAS detector at the LHC: H ! WW⇤ ! `⌫`⌫,” http://doi.org/10.7484/INSPIREHEP.DATA.26B4.TY5F 9. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2013-034. 10. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2013-079. 11. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2012-135. 12. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2013-080. 13. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2013-009. 14. ATLAS Collaboration, ATLAS-CONF-2013-010. 15. CMS Collaboration, CMS-HIG-13-001.
  83. 83. flickr.com/photos/nationalmuseumofamericanhistory/12619971753
  84. 84. Global community response
  85. 85. CMS detector
  86. 86. CMS collaboration: 3000 scientists, 85 countries - Consensus
  87. 87. CMS data preservation, re-use and open access policy CMS data are unique and are the result of vast and long-term moral, human and financial investment by the international community. There is unique scientific opportunity in re-using these data, at different level of abstraction and at different points in time1 . This opportunity calls for our collective responsibility, and poses unprecedented challenges as no data sample of this complexity and value has ever been preserved or made available for later re-use. The CMS collaboration is committed to preserve its data, at different levels of complexity, and to allow their re-use by a wide community including: collaboration members long after the data are taken, experimental and theoretical HEP scientists who were not members of the collaboration, educational and outreach initiatives, and citizen scientists in the general public. CMS upholds the principle that open access to the data will, in the long term, allow the maximum realization of their scientific potential. To that extent, CMS will provide open access to its data after a suitable but relatively short embargo period, allowing CMS collaborators to fully exploit their scientific potential. This policy describes the CMS principles of data preservation, re-use and open access, as well as the relevant actors in all these tasks and their roles and responsibilities. CMS understands that in order to fully exploit all these re-use opportunities, immediate and continued resources are needed. The level of support that CMS will be able to provide to external users depends on the available funding. This policy addresses the moral responsibility of CMS for its data, as well as the increasing concern of fundingDOI: 10.7483/OPENDATA.CMS.UDBF.JKR9
  88. 88. DOI: 10.7483/OPENDATA.CMS.UDBF.JKR9
  89. 89. G. Organtini
  90. 90. G. Organtini
  91. 91. G. Organtini
  92. 92. Wikipedia
  93. 93. flickr.com/photos/londonmatt/3163571645
  94. 94. flickr.com/photos/funky64/3925955346
  95. 95. Observer,Alamy
  96. 96. flickr.com/photos/hernanpc/16418578245
  97. 97. Salvatore.MELE@cern.ch

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