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Discover the Principles of
                                 a Proper Government

                                               Is Man Free?

                                    Yes                               No


 Capitalism and Egoism                               Versus       Collectivism and Altruism

               Definition                                                         Definition


                                                               Collectivism is a political system
Capitalism is a political system                               based on government control of the
based on the recognition of                                    economy, which holds that man’s life
individual rights, including                                   and work belong to the state and that
property rights, in which all                                  the state may dispose of him for the
property is privately owned.                                   sake of whatever it deems to be the
                                                               “good”.

    The Political Expression of                                        The Political Expression of


Egoism - the moral code that                                      Altruism - the doctrine which
holds that it is right for man to                                 demands that man live for others
live for his own sake, and not for                                and put the interests of others
the sake of society.                                              above his rational self interest.


                               What Principles are Manifested ?

 The purpose of law and of government is the                  The government’s over-riding concern is the
 protection of individual rights.                             protection of the personal power of its leaders.
 The three broad categories of the proper functions           Any constitution that exists is subjective and
 of government address the issues of physical force           unenforceable in the absence of the balance of
 and the protection of men’s rights: the police, to           powers found in separate branches of government.
 protect men from criminals, the armed services, to           The citizens must depend on the good will and
 protect men from foreign invaders, the law courts,           motives of its tyrants, whether single dictators or
 to settle disputes among men according to                    majority rule.
 objective laws.
                                                              Controlled economies cannot determine how to price
 A complex legal system, based on objectively valid           goods and services, thus causing increasing
 principles, must be implemented to make a society            shortages in goods and services available to the
 free and to keep it free.                                    people.
 The constitution is a limitation on the government,          The government is free to do anything that it wants to
 not on private individuals. It prescribes the conduct        do, while the people must have permission to do
 of the government, not of the people. It does not            anything.
 grant the government power, but protects the
 people from the government.
                                                                                       From Capitalism the Unknown Ideal
                                                                                                 by Ayn Rand
Discover the Principles of
                                         the Objective Rule of Law
      See Diagram




Principles of a Proper                     What is the Standard of
     Government                               Objective Law?



   A Legal System                            The Proper Purpose                          The Objectivity of
                               Serves          of Government           Establishes
   of Objective Law                                                                           Law


   Definition of Rights
Rights are the moral principle that           The Protection of
defines and sanctions a man’s                 Individual Rights
freedom of action in a social                   of the Citizens
context.
Rights protect a man’s freedom to
take all of the actions required by                                See Diagram of the The
the nature of a rational being for the                             Nature of Man: Source of
support, the furtherance, the                                            Moral Rights
fulfillment and the enjoyment of his
                                                  Determines
own life.
My rights protect my freedom of
action from the initiation of physical
force by others – and that’s all.


                                                The Purpose
      See Diagram of the                         Of the Law
       Five Branches of
          Philosophy                                                                          Guarantees
                                                 Determines

        Philosophy of
                                              The Relevant Facts
         Objectivism
                                                  Of Reality


    The Way Things Are
                                                 Determines
         (Reality)



                                                  Objective Law
           Governs               Discovered through logical inference from all
                                 of the relevant facts of reality.




                                                Page 1 of 3                            From Humanity’s Darkest Evil
                                                                                              by Tara Smith
Discover the Principles
                                Governed by the
                             Nature of Objective Law



                     What is the Nature of Objective Law?




 Valid Form            And         Valid Content              And       Implementation



                   Based on the protection of individual rights.
                   Protects a man’s freedom from the initiation of force
                   by the government or by other men.
                   Does not advance any goal outside of protecting
                   individual rights.
                   Supports the government’s ability to serve its proper
                   function – which excludes regulatory law and income
                   redistribution.
                   Required to protect individuals from the passions,
                   prejudices and mistakes that people can make in
                   governing.



Must be written in clear and plain terms.             The date that the law goes into effect must
                                                      be set according to standard rules for
Must be made known to the public prior to             notification.
its implementation.
                                                      The exact nature of the crime addressed by
Must not be retroactive.                              the law must be clearly stated.
Must be stable & remain in effect until               The punishment for breaking the law must
changed through a predetermined                       be clearly stated.
procedure.
                                                      Law enforcement personnel must know
Must not contradict itself or other laws.             how they will detect the crime and what
Must apply to all men, including the                  action they may take to enforce the law.
lawmakers, equally.                                   Laws must be applied equally to like cases.
The resolutions of disputes must be                   Methods of resolving disputes must be
respected as final.                                   clearly stated.




                                Liberated Human Beings
                     Who are free to plan and engage in the kinds
                     of action that make it possible for them to
                     survive and thrive.
                                                                             From Humanity’s Darkest Evil
                                                                                    by Tara Smith
                                        Page 2 of 3
The       Nature of
                                    Non-Objective Law



                     What is the Nature of Non-Objective Law?



 Consequences of                    Consequences of
                           Or                                        Or       Implementation
Non-objective Form                Non-objective Content


                       Violates individual rights by restricting actions that are
                       within the rights of the citizens.
                       Regulatory law violates the rights of businesses and
                       consumers to act according to their own judgment.
                       Pretends to offer protection to the individual while
                       directing the use of force against him.
                       Income redistribution violates the property rights of
                       some individuals for the unearned benefit of others.
                       Makes individuals vulnerable to the passions,
                       prejudices and mistakes of well meaning lawmakers.
                       Government is run as a favor trading auction.



  Written in ambiguous terms.                              Retroactive law punishes without notice
                                                           (changing the rules for civil matters such as
  Industries self restrict because they don’t              marriage).
  know what the actual law requires.
                                                           Lobbyists and administrators control case by
  Punishes a man for exercising his                        case decisions about what the law requires.
  legitimate rights.
                                                           Law enforcement is vulnerable to the
  The law conflicts with other laws resulting              pressures brought by powerful men.
  in individuals being guilty no matter what.
                                                           Makes the exercise of objective virtues self-
  Individuals don’t know exactly what is                   destructive.
  required of them.
                                                           Standards of enforcement vary according to
  Authorizes the unjustified use of force.                 bureaucratic preferences.
  Businesses refuse to spend or borrow in                  Legal questions are resolved according to
  the face of unexpected regulations.                      who has the most pull at the moment.




                                  A Nation of Law-Breakers
                       Who have no freedom to use their reason to act
                       on their own judgment in the pursuit of their own
                       personal values.
                                                                                    From Humanity’s Darkest Evil
                                             Page 3 of 3                                   by Tara Smith

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Discover the Principles of Objective Law

  • 1. Discover the Principles of a Proper Government Is Man Free? Yes No Capitalism and Egoism Versus Collectivism and Altruism Definition Definition Collectivism is a political system Capitalism is a political system based on government control of the based on the recognition of economy, which holds that man’s life individual rights, including and work belong to the state and that property rights, in which all the state may dispose of him for the property is privately owned. sake of whatever it deems to be the “good”. The Political Expression of The Political Expression of Egoism - the moral code that Altruism - the doctrine which holds that it is right for man to demands that man live for others live for his own sake, and not for and put the interests of others the sake of society. above his rational self interest. What Principles are Manifested ? The purpose of law and of government is the The government’s over-riding concern is the protection of individual rights. protection of the personal power of its leaders. The three broad categories of the proper functions Any constitution that exists is subjective and of government address the issues of physical force unenforceable in the absence of the balance of and the protection of men’s rights: the police, to powers found in separate branches of government. protect men from criminals, the armed services, to The citizens must depend on the good will and protect men from foreign invaders, the law courts, motives of its tyrants, whether single dictators or to settle disputes among men according to majority rule. objective laws. Controlled economies cannot determine how to price A complex legal system, based on objectively valid goods and services, thus causing increasing principles, must be implemented to make a society shortages in goods and services available to the free and to keep it free. people. The constitution is a limitation on the government, The government is free to do anything that it wants to not on private individuals. It prescribes the conduct do, while the people must have permission to do of the government, not of the people. It does not anything. grant the government power, but protects the people from the government. From Capitalism the Unknown Ideal by Ayn Rand
  • 2. Discover the Principles of the Objective Rule of Law See Diagram Principles of a Proper What is the Standard of Government Objective Law? A Legal System The Proper Purpose The Objectivity of Serves of Government Establishes of Objective Law Law Definition of Rights Rights are the moral principle that The Protection of defines and sanctions a man’s Individual Rights freedom of action in a social of the Citizens context. Rights protect a man’s freedom to take all of the actions required by See Diagram of the The the nature of a rational being for the Nature of Man: Source of support, the furtherance, the Moral Rights fulfillment and the enjoyment of his Determines own life. My rights protect my freedom of action from the initiation of physical force by others – and that’s all. The Purpose See Diagram of the Of the Law Five Branches of Philosophy Guarantees Determines Philosophy of The Relevant Facts Objectivism Of Reality The Way Things Are Determines (Reality) Objective Law Governs Discovered through logical inference from all of the relevant facts of reality. Page 1 of 3 From Humanity’s Darkest Evil by Tara Smith
  • 3. Discover the Principles Governed by the Nature of Objective Law What is the Nature of Objective Law? Valid Form And Valid Content And Implementation Based on the protection of individual rights. Protects a man’s freedom from the initiation of force by the government or by other men. Does not advance any goal outside of protecting individual rights. Supports the government’s ability to serve its proper function – which excludes regulatory law and income redistribution. Required to protect individuals from the passions, prejudices and mistakes that people can make in governing. Must be written in clear and plain terms. The date that the law goes into effect must be set according to standard rules for Must be made known to the public prior to notification. its implementation. The exact nature of the crime addressed by Must not be retroactive. the law must be clearly stated. Must be stable & remain in effect until The punishment for breaking the law must changed through a predetermined be clearly stated. procedure. Law enforcement personnel must know Must not contradict itself or other laws. how they will detect the crime and what Must apply to all men, including the action they may take to enforce the law. lawmakers, equally. Laws must be applied equally to like cases. The resolutions of disputes must be Methods of resolving disputes must be respected as final. clearly stated. Liberated Human Beings Who are free to plan and engage in the kinds of action that make it possible for them to survive and thrive. From Humanity’s Darkest Evil by Tara Smith Page 2 of 3
  • 4. The Nature of Non-Objective Law What is the Nature of Non-Objective Law? Consequences of Consequences of Or Or Implementation Non-objective Form Non-objective Content Violates individual rights by restricting actions that are within the rights of the citizens. Regulatory law violates the rights of businesses and consumers to act according to their own judgment. Pretends to offer protection to the individual while directing the use of force against him. Income redistribution violates the property rights of some individuals for the unearned benefit of others. Makes individuals vulnerable to the passions, prejudices and mistakes of well meaning lawmakers. Government is run as a favor trading auction. Written in ambiguous terms. Retroactive law punishes without notice (changing the rules for civil matters such as Industries self restrict because they don’t marriage). know what the actual law requires. Lobbyists and administrators control case by Punishes a man for exercising his case decisions about what the law requires. legitimate rights. Law enforcement is vulnerable to the The law conflicts with other laws resulting pressures brought by powerful men. in individuals being guilty no matter what. Makes the exercise of objective virtues self- Individuals don’t know exactly what is destructive. required of them. Standards of enforcement vary according to Authorizes the unjustified use of force. bureaucratic preferences. Businesses refuse to spend or borrow in Legal questions are resolved according to the face of unexpected regulations. who has the most pull at the moment. A Nation of Law-Breakers Who have no freedom to use their reason to act on their own judgment in the pursuit of their own personal values. From Humanity’s Darkest Evil Page 3 of 3 by Tara Smith