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DNA and Protein Synthesis
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids - Function• Control the processes of  heredity by which cells and  organisms make proteins.
Nucleic Acids – Types• DNA –Deoxyribonucleic Acid• RNA –Ribonucleic Acid
As you know, DNA stands for….DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC      ACID
Is DNA a monomer or polymer50%         1. Monomer50%         2. Polymer 1    2    3    4    5   6   7   8   9   10   11   ...
The monomer units of DNA areknown as….  NUCLEOTIDES
All nucleotides have three “parts” in  common. They all contain….                             One of FOUR different       ...
PLEASE UNDERSTAND, A NUCLEOTIDEIS A VERY COMPLEX STRUCTURE. IF WE  REPRESENTED ALL OF THE ATOMS, IT       WOULD LOOK LIKE ...
We will use our hands to represent anucleotide. PHOSPHATE                   NITROGEN                                BASE  ...
The four different Nitrogen Bases for DNAare abbreviated using the following letters….                    A       Adenine ...
Using your two hands, please show howyou think two nucleotides will/should bondtogether. Did you put your hands like this???
In DNA, Adenine always pairswith Thymine using two hydrogen            bonds.    A                T
A AND T AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL
In DNA GUANINE always pairs withCYTOSINE using three hydrogenbonds.    G                 C
G AND C AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL
THEENTIREMOLECULEAT THEATOMICLEVEL
Time to use your brain andhands in order to reviewnucleotide structure and type.  USING YOUR HAND, SHOW ME THYMINE  USING ...
OK    Now that you recognizenucleotide type and structure, it’stime to start building the polymer    from these monomers.
In order to make a molecule of DNA,you would need to create many rungsto the DNA ladder. Look. Many Rungs.                ...
What part of the nucleotide alternatesto form the sides of the DNA ladder?  Sugar, Phosphate.  Sugar, Phosphate.  Sugar, P...
What makes up the“RUNGS” of the ladder?              The Nitrogen                 Bases
Go Ahead!Stack your hands on top of your partner’shands building two rungs of the DNAladder.
TRY IT!!!
If you link enough nucleotides together,the DNA molecule begins to take onthe characteristic shape known as the   Double H...
Let’s make a candy version of          our DNA
Let’s Review First…•   Nucleic Acid•   Nucleotide•   DNA•   RNA•   Nitrogen Base•   Double Helix
Nucleic Acid – Structure• Made up of a chain of Nucleotides  that contain  – Phosphate backbone  – Sugar  – Nitrogen base ...
Nucleic Acids
DNA
DNA SUGARPhosphate
Let’s see how well you looked at the     diagram…regarding the nitrogen bases,     Adenine always bonds with which one?   ...
DNA SUGARPhosphate
Let’s make a candy version of          our DNA
Candy DNA• Pipe cleaner for the form• Red Twizzler = Deoxyribose• Black Twizzler = Phosphate• Colored Marshmallows = nitro...
Candy DNA• Colored Marshmallows = Nitrogen Bases  – Pink Marshmallow = Adenine  – Green Marshmallow = Thymine  – Yellow Ma...
Let’s Build
What actual structures make up the       sides of the ladder?• Deoxyribose sugar• Phosphate
What structures make up the             rungs?• Nitrogen Bases
What do you notice about all the   DNA molecules in the room?• They are all different!
DNA Replication• 1.) DNA unzips• 2.) Free nucleotides bond with open  complementary base pairs• 3.) 2 new strands formed
Let’s review DNA
Let’s Build A Protein
Protein Synthesis• It’s a process  – DNA -> RNA -> Amino Acids (Protein)
RNA• Sugar is Ribose NOT  what…• Has nitrogen base  Uracil instead of  Thymine  – Also contains the other    3 bases…what ...
RNA
Transcription• 1.) DNA strand unzips  – The bonds between the nitrogen bases are    broken• 2.) A single strand of mRNA (m...
Transcription
Why is mRNA called messenger            RNA?• Because it carries the directions to make a  protein to the ribosome like a ...
Translation•   mRNA meets up with a ribosome…why??•   tRNA molecules bring amino acids to    ribosomes•   An mRNA codon wi...
Translation
That’s the process, Now how do you know what    amino acids make up a particular protein• We use an mRNA codon chart
 Dn aand_proteinsynthesis09
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Dn aand_proteinsynthesis09

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How DNA synthesis & protein synthesis happens

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Dn aand_proteinsynthesis09

  1. 1. DNA and Protein Synthesis
  2. 2. Nucleic Acids
  3. 3. Nucleic Acids - Function• Control the processes of heredity by which cells and organisms make proteins.
  4. 4. Nucleic Acids – Types• DNA –Deoxyribonucleic Acid• RNA –Ribonucleic Acid
  5. 5. As you know, DNA stands for….DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
  6. 6. Is DNA a monomer or polymer50% 1. Monomer50% 2. Polymer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
  7. 7. The monomer units of DNA areknown as…. NUCLEOTIDES
  8. 8. All nucleotides have three “parts” in common. They all contain…. One of FOUR different NITROGEN BASESPhosphate GroupSugar= Deoxyribose
  9. 9. PLEASE UNDERSTAND, A NUCLEOTIDEIS A VERY COMPLEX STRUCTURE. IF WE REPRESENTED ALL OF THE ATOMS, IT WOULD LOOK LIKE THIS…
  10. 10. We will use our hands to represent anucleotide. PHOSPHATE NITROGEN BASE SUGAR
  11. 11. The four different Nitrogen Bases for DNAare abbreviated using the following letters…. A Adenine T Thymine G Guanine C Cytosine
  12. 12. Using your two hands, please show howyou think two nucleotides will/should bondtogether. Did you put your hands like this???
  13. 13. In DNA, Adenine always pairswith Thymine using two hydrogen bonds. A T
  14. 14. A AND T AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL
  15. 15. In DNA GUANINE always pairs withCYTOSINE using three hydrogenbonds. G C
  16. 16. G AND C AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL
  17. 17. THEENTIREMOLECULEAT THEATOMICLEVEL
  18. 18. Time to use your brain andhands in order to reviewnucleotide structure and type. USING YOUR HAND, SHOW ME THYMINE USING YOUR HAND SHOW ME ADENINE SHOW ME CYTOSINE SHOW ME HOW CYTOSINE AND THYMINE BOND TO FORM A RUNG ON THE LADDER THEY DON’T
  19. 19. OK Now that you recognizenucleotide type and structure, it’stime to start building the polymer from these monomers.
  20. 20. In order to make a molecule of DNA,you would need to create many rungsto the DNA ladder. Look. Many Rungs. Etc…
  21. 21. What part of the nucleotide alternatesto form the sides of the DNA ladder? Sugar, Phosphate. Sugar, Phosphate. Sugar, Phosphate. Etc… Etc…
  22. 22. What makes up the“RUNGS” of the ladder? The Nitrogen Bases
  23. 23. Go Ahead!Stack your hands on top of your partner’shands building two rungs of the DNAladder.
  24. 24. TRY IT!!!
  25. 25. If you link enough nucleotides together,the DNA molecule begins to take onthe characteristic shape known as the Double Helix
  26. 26. Let’s make a candy version of our DNA
  27. 27. Let’s Review First…• Nucleic Acid• Nucleotide• DNA• RNA• Nitrogen Base• Double Helix
  28. 28. Nucleic Acid – Structure• Made up of a chain of Nucleotides that contain – Phosphate backbone – Sugar – Nitrogen base • Guanine • Cytosine • Adenine • Thymine (Found only in DNA)
  29. 29. Nucleic Acids
  30. 30. DNA
  31. 31. DNA SUGARPhosphate
  32. 32. Let’s see how well you looked at the diagram…regarding the nitrogen bases, Adenine always bonds with which one? 1. Cytosine 2. Thymine 3. Guanine 4. Uracil 0% 0% 0% 0% e il ne e in c in ra ni ym os ua U yt Th G1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C21 22 23 24
  33. 33. DNA SUGARPhosphate
  34. 34. Let’s make a candy version of our DNA
  35. 35. Candy DNA• Pipe cleaner for the form• Red Twizzler = Deoxyribose• Black Twizzler = Phosphate• Colored Marshmallows = nitrogen bases
  36. 36. Candy DNA• Colored Marshmallows = Nitrogen Bases – Pink Marshmallow = Adenine – Green Marshmallow = Thymine – Yellow Marshmallow = Cytosine – Orange Marshmallow = Guanine• We’ll use toothpicks to join the nitrogen bases to the sugar
  37. 37. Let’s Build
  38. 38. What actual structures make up the sides of the ladder?• Deoxyribose sugar• Phosphate
  39. 39. What structures make up the rungs?• Nitrogen Bases
  40. 40. What do you notice about all the DNA molecules in the room?• They are all different!
  41. 41. DNA Replication• 1.) DNA unzips• 2.) Free nucleotides bond with open complementary base pairs• 3.) 2 new strands formed
  42. 42. Let’s review DNA
  43. 43. Let’s Build A Protein
  44. 44. Protein Synthesis• It’s a process – DNA -> RNA -> Amino Acids (Protein)
  45. 45. RNA• Sugar is Ribose NOT what…• Has nitrogen base Uracil instead of Thymine – Also contains the other 3 bases…what are they?• Only single stranded
  46. 46. RNA
  47. 47. Transcription• 1.) DNA strand unzips – The bonds between the nitrogen bases are broken• 2.) A single strand of mRNA (messenger RNA) is made – Pair up the bases• 3.) mRNA travels from nucleus to cytoplasm
  48. 48. Transcription
  49. 49. Why is mRNA called messenger RNA?• Because it carries the directions to make a protein to the ribosome like a message
  50. 50. Translation• mRNA meets up with a ribosome…why??• tRNA molecules bring amino acids to ribosomes• An mRNA codon will pair with a tRNA anticodon – Codon: 3 Nitrogen base sequence in mRNA that specifies a specific amino acid – Anticodon: 3 Nitrogen base sequence in tRNA• As tRNA’s are added, amino acids are bonded together and will be released as a fully functional protein.
  51. 51. Translation
  52. 52. That’s the process, Now how do you know what amino acids make up a particular protein• We use an mRNA codon chart

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