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History Prior to the Modern World
<ul><li>The Scientific View of the World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pre-revolutionary” Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sci...
<ul><li>The French Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Revolution in France </li></...
<ul><li>The Industrial Revolution in Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agricultural Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
 
<ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artist, engineer, and scientific thinker; Universal genius of the Italian ...
<ul><li>Botany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European knowledge of plants expanded with explorations overseas; herb collections be...
<ul><li>The Ptolemaic System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cosmos was in a group of concentric spheres with the innermost sphe...
<ul><li>Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of the ...
<ul><li>Galileo (1564-1642) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1609: Built telescope  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon was not itself a ...
<ul><li>Gravity or the pull of the earth upon the objects on earth might be a form of a universal gravitation, or similar ...
<ul><li>With the rising view of skepticism (all beliefs are relative), Europeans were not content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
<ul><li>Can never be considered purely scientific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science does not tell what ought to exist  </li></...
<ul><li>The idea of natural law provides a basis for the development of modern democratic values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It...
<ul><li>Thomas Hobbes (1588-1670) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a materialistic and atheistic view in philosophy </li></ul></...
 
<ul><li>The reading public had greatly expanded; by the 1780s in France, literacy rates had risen 47 percent among men and...
<ul><li>Montesquieu (1689-1755) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spirit of the Laws:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of gov...
<ul><li>-a form of absolute monarchy in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon ra...
<ul><li>Louis XV  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the practical difficulties of the Fre...
<ul><li>Peter I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined to westernize and modernize Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted ec...
<ul><li>While the Seven Years’ War resulted in a considerable expansion of the British Empire, Great Britain would soon re...
 
<ul><li>When Louis XIV died in 1715, he left France with a heavy burden of debt due to his wars of aggression.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 proved to be the immediate effect of such leadership.  </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>The failure of the Directory resulted in the establishment of Napoleon Bonaparte’s military dictatorship in 1799. ...
 
 
<ul><li>During the 18 th  and 19 th  centuries, the agricultural revolution quickened. </li></ul><ul><li>The development o...
<ul><li>Began in Great Britain in the late 18 th  Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The invention of power-driven machinery </...
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Chapter 7 – 11 Review Power Point by Emma Hernandez

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Chapter 7 – 11 Review Power Point by Emma Hernandez

  1. 1. History Prior to the Modern World
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Scientific View of the World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pre-revolutionary” Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Scientific Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political Theory: the School of Natural Law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Philosophes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightened Despotism: France and Austria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The British Reform Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The French Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Regime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Revolution in France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Consulate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Napoleonic Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Imperial System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Continental System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Movements (Resistance to Napoleon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Congress of Vienna </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution in Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Agricultural Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialism develops… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences/Effects </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artist, engineer, and scientific thinker; Universal genius of the Italian Renaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissection of human bodies, drew designs for submarines and airplanes, speculated use of parachutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated Thinker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Witchcraft Panic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1450 to 1650, the fear of witches was at its height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for all kinds of natural disasters and personal tragedies (deaths of children, bad harvests, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted longest in Germany and Central Europe due to insecurities of the Thirty Years’ War; English colonies were the last to have these fears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executions did take place! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novum Organum : Insisted on inductive method (from concrete to abstract) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One should rid themselves of prejudices and preconceptions and view the world with a fresh eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism: the founding of knowledge on observation and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest weakness: failure to comprehend the crucial role of mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descartes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematician; inventor of coordinate geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartesian dualism: thinking vs. extended substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of systematic doubt </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Botany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European knowledge of plants expanded with explorations overseas; herb collections became extensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Structure of the Human Body: Vesalius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put aside Galen and based his own opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Harvey put forth the doctrine of the continual circulation of the blood through arteries and veins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malpighi: discovery of capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regnier de Graaf: first description of the female ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Astronomy and Physics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overshadowed Chemistry and other sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics could be most fully applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made it more generally possible to think about nature </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>The Ptolemaic System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cosmos was in a group of concentric spheres with the innermost sphere being the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geocentric Universe: All spheres revolved around the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical system: corresponding to actual appearances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric Universe! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earth was the one revolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its acceptance was very gradual </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of the heavenly bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never accepted the Copernican theory in full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, his assistant… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built upon his observations through Brahe’s accurate astronomical and planetary observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered that the orbits of the planets were ellipses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed that the length of time in which the several planets revolve about the sun varies proportionately with their distance from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cosmic mathematical relationship between space and time </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Galileo (1564-1642) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1609: Built telescope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon was not itself a luminous object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun was not “pure” nor “perfect” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such observations led him to feel reassurance of the validity of the Copernican theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heavenly bodies might be of the same substance as the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found mathematical laws describing the movement of the bodies on the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned by church </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Gravity or the pull of the earth upon the objects on earth might be a form of a universal gravitation, or similar pull, characterizing all bodies in the solar system. </li></ul><ul><li>All motion that could be timed and measured, whether on earth or in the solar system, could be described by the same mathematical formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>It was during his time that the journey to natural knowledge became institutionalized where in 1662 the Royal Society of London was founded. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific periodicals began to be published. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>With the rising view of skepticism (all beliefs are relative), Europeans were not content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking for understanding not disbelief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted new means of telling the true from the false: new sense of EVIDENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence is that which allows one to believe a thing to be true, or at least truer than something else for which the evidence is weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>The English law of evidence began to take on its modern form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously the belief had been that the more atrocious the crime the less evidence should be necessary in arriving at the verdict of guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 17 th Century, the judge lost his power of discretion in deciding what should constitute evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put an end in the delusions of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideas of witches were no longer accepted as evidence </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Can never be considered purely scientific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science does not tell what ought to exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Purpose: how society and government ought to be like, in view of human nature and the capacity to be miserable or contented </li></ul><ul><li>Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican form of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Prince : Machiavelli described how governments and rulers actually behaved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Princes kept their promises or broke them, told the truth or distorted or discolored it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He suggested how rulers successful rulers obtained their success and how the ought to proceed. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The idea of natural law provides a basis for the development of modern democratic values. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is held that there is a law that distinguishes right from wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It held that right is “natural”, not a mere human invention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural law cannot be determined by the authority of any person or people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right and law exist outside and above all peoples; universal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural law philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human beings are rational animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea of natural law and the faith in human reason went side by side </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes (1588-1670) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held a materialistic and atheistic view in philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concluded that humans had no capacity for self-government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He held that people in the “state of nature”, or as imagined to exist without government, were quarrelsome and turbulent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leviathan: Absolutism, unlimited sovereignty of the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce civil peace, individual security, and a rule of law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>John Locke (1632-1704) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good government is an expedient of human purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government was based on a kind of contract or rational agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genial view of human nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People in the “state of nature” were reasonable and well disposed, willing to get along with one another though lacking public authority </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>The reading public had greatly expanded; by the 1780s in France, literacy rates had risen 47 percent among men and 27 percent among women. </li></ul><ul><li>The intellectual middle class was larger than ever. </li></ul><ul><li>While newspapers and magazines multiplied, there was a great demand for dictionaries and encyclopedias. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diderot’s Encyclopedie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All writings were written under censorship in order to protect people from harmful ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such censorship was loosely administered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paris became the heart of the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salons became well-organized meeting places in which lively conversation spread the reputations of aspiring philosophes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The salon of Madame de Geoffrin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Montesquieu (1689-1755) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spirit of the Laws: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of government varied according to climate and circumstances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation and balance of powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admired the English constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilization was the source of much evil and that life in a “state of nature” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious by temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No admiration for parliamentary institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voltaire (1694-1778) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admirer of England: religious liberty and its relative freedom of the press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First to present history in a purely secular manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightened governments </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>-a form of absolute monarchy in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Louis XV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the practical difficulties of the French government could be traced to its method of raising revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis XIV tried to tax everyone; the taxes were evaded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the Seven Years’ War, the government tried to increase it, without success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same happened during Louis XVI’s reign </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maria Theresa (1740-1780) and Joseph II (1780-1790) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to war, she lost a lot of support and land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her subjects did not show much inclination to remain together under her rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked institutions of serfdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph II: modernize his instruments of government in an effort to increase the crown’s authority over the diverse Hapsburg domains and to establish royal power over the church and nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated many internal tariffs; encouraged road building; opposed serfdom </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Peter I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined to westernize and modernize Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthened Russia’s Armed Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorganized the central administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended state control over the Russian Orthodox Church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little reform in Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced internal barriers to trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave support to Nobles; led to serf revolt (Pugachev’s Rebellion) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>While the Seven Years’ War resulted in a considerable expansion of the British Empire, Great Britain would soon receive opposition from an important part of that empire (the 13 colonies). </li></ul><ul><li>The war left Great Britain with a considerable amount of debt for which they had to bear with the continuing costs of protecting the frontier in America. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonists objected to new taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>The revolution began in April 1775, ending with British surrender in 1781 (Battle of Yorktown) for which the Treaty of Paris was later signed (1783). </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>When Louis XIV died in 1715, he left France with a heavy burden of debt due to his wars of aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>The French monarchy was approaching bankruptcy, both in its finances and in its ability to provide the nation with effective leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV’s successors, Louis XV and Louis XVI, both proved incapable of dealing with the government’s financial and administrative problems. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>The outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 proved to be the immediate effect of such leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Assembly ruled for the next two years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by the reform-minded middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established a constitutional monarchy and reduced the power and privileges of the nobility and the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under the Legislative Assembly (1791-1792) and the National Convention (1792-1795), the revolution entered a more radical phase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The monarchy was abolished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The king was executed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Thermidorean Reaction of 1794 established a new government, the Directory, which failed to cope effectively with France’s political and economic problems. </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>The failure of the Directory resulted in the establishment of Napoleon Bonaparte’s military dictatorship in 1799. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1799-1815, the Napoleonic Empire reigned in France and throughout Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1799, Bonaparte took power and established the Consulate. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1804, he took the title of emperor of the French. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprived the French people of political liberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided an orderly and efficient system of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmed a number of enduring legal and educational reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between 1805 to 1807, Bonaparte achieved his greatest military successes, defeating Austria, Prussia, and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>His power declined… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The failed invasion of Russia in 1812 marked his decline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1815, Bonaparte returned to power for the “Hundred Days”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later defeated at Waterloo in June of the same year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exiled to the remote island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic where he died in 1821 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>During the 18 th and 19 th centuries, the agricultural revolution quickened. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of scientific agriculture, the introduction of new crops, the enclosure of agricultural lands, and increasing mechanization expanded agricultural production. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended famine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Due to large production and mechanization, fewer farm workers were needed to produce food for the growing population, and surplus agricultural labor migrated to the new industrial towns to find employment in factories. </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Began in Great Britain in the late 18 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The invention of power-driven machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The introduction of the factory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in the production in coal, iron and eventually steel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also, the expansion of banking and credit facilities and the broader application of the principle of limited liability to business organization stimulated the revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution spread gradually beyond Great Britain to the rest of Europe and North America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought greater material changes to the lives of people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrialization brought great improvements in the material standard of living however miserable conditions prevailed in the factories and slums. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty was brought into a sharp focus </li></ul></ul>

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