Map of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece started out in 2900 BC when early Aegean cultures started to arrive and appear around what was soon to be ancient Greece. Ancient Greece was destroyed when the Slavs overran Greece in 641 AD. During this time, many important historical events happened. One was that the Trojan War started and ended, and the Olympic games first appeared in Olympia.
Background of Ancient GreeceThe land of Greece is made up of a mainland, and The Greeks and their civilization isnumerous islands scattered throughout the mostly known for their gods, theater, andAegean, and Adriatic seas. The land had many for the famous buildings that occupymountains with hot and dry summers, and rain some of Greece like the famousonly in the winter. The whole country was split up Parthenon. Also, the first Olympics wereinto different communities cut off from each other hosted in Greece.and often competing for the best land. Each ofthese places was called a city state, and the peoplein the community were loyal to it. In the theater, only men were The Parthenon was buildThe main gods are the Twelve allowed to be in the plays, so between 447 and 432 BC.Olympians, and the best they had to play parts for The Parthenon wasknown ones, are the Big Three, men and women. Almost all dedicated to the godor also known as the eldest of the theaters were open so Athena, who thegods named Zeus (king of the the gods could watch and Athenians believe to begods), Poseidon (god of the see. Plays were first started their protector.seas), and Hades (ruler of the too honour the godunderworld). Dionysus.
Ancient Greek Social Structure In Ancient Greece the government was very important and thecitizens had to obey the laws, if they didn’t they get severelypunished. Men who were born in Ancient Greece could vote and Governmentparticipate in the government, but people who were foreignersweren’t able to interact with the government at all even thoughthey might have lived in their city-state for more than 10 years.Women were not able to do anything relating to the government, Male Citizensleaving men only to rule the government and its people. Malechildren had an advantage than female children, because theywent to school while girls stayed home and were thought basicskills, like how to clean and cook. Women were less importantthan men, because men went to school (only wealthy families Male Childrencould afford school) and could participate in the government whilewomen take care of the house, children, cooking and cleaning. InAncient Greece slaves never got treated right. Slaves couldn’t vote Women/Foreigners/just like women and foreigners and also whenever they disobeyed Female Childrentheir masters they could get punished (with a wipe if the masterwas very strict). Social structure is like a triangle, at the top is thegovernment, then male citizens, male children, women, foreigners,female children and after slaves at the very bottom. Slaves
Housing Average Home In ancient Greece, the home was a place to focuson family life. Like it is today, a home in Greece wasmeant for sleeping, cooking, meals, and personalhygiene. The ancient Greeks built their houses fromsun-dried mud bricks laid on stone foundations. Theroofs were covered with pottery tiles. Rooms werearranged around an open courtyard so that cool aircould build up and circulate through the roomsduring the heat of the day. Each house had a malehead of the house. His wife would run the day today activities within the house and made manyimportant decisions within that, but the familieshead person always had the final say in things. Anaverage house that a family would live in would bewithin a modest size, and usually was kept lookinggood on the inside and out. Many houses hadcourtyards where they have no roofs, so the godscould hear their prayers. Two of the moreuncomfortable rooms were the kitchen andbathroom mostly because of the size. The master andhis wife occupy the largest room which made theterm master bedroom. The children would share aroom, and the eldest child might have their ownroom. Slaves and servants would also share a room. Rich Mans House
How Did The Wealthy Live? Wealthy people in Ancient Greece had a house that included several rooms and twostoreys. Usually in a house the women would be away from the men so on the second storeywomen had only their bedrooms there; it was some place where women could be away frommen. Rich Ancient Greeks would have many parties that were held in the living room. Wealthy ancient Greeks had slaves to all the cleaning and even grocery shopping. Womenwould rarely leave the house; all their duties were inside. Men would go to work all day whilethe women would take care of the children (if they had any that didn’t go to school), cook(sometimes the slave would cook) and take care of taxes. Wealthy families in Ancient Greececould send their children to school, so they could learn and get a good job when they wouldmature. Also wealthy Ancients Greeks could afford meat and vegetables which back then wasvery pricey. Ancient Greek Party
Food In ancient times, the Greeks workedvery hard to try and produce enough, butoften they couldn’t which formed manyfamines during the dark ages. Gripe vinesgrew well on terraced hills, and olivetrees thrived in poor soil, but there wasalways the problem of needing more flat,fertile land for growing wheat and barley.Most of the time, they shipped in thosesupplies from ancient Egypt. The peopleate greens such as cabbage, lettuce,spinach, and dandelion leaves, and alsoate root vegetables such as radishes,carrots and onions. Eggs, goat’s milkcheese, almonds, figs and other fruit werealso available for most of the time. Squid,sea urchin, fish and shellfish wereplentiful and provided protein, becausemeat was rare, and only the wealthy andthose who hunted could afford them. TheGreeks sweetened their cakes and pastrieswith honey. Seasonings including thingslike mint, and marjoram.
Ancient Greek Family Life In a ancient Greek home, womenran the household chores with the helpof slaves. Women had to obey theirfathers, husbands, brothers or sons. Afather could abandon his newly bornchild if he wanted too. He might do thisif the baby was sick, but sometimes,healthy baby girls were abandoned aswell. Women married at about the ageof 15, while men married at thirty orolder. The father of the woman chosethe soon to be husband, and gave himvaluables and money to save for thewife in case he died before she did, orthey got a divorce. Sometimes a bridemet her husband for the first time ontheir wedding day. Men and their wifeusually had separate quarters.
Ancient Greek MarriageWeddings in ancient Greece were a major part of a personslife. They are especially important for the bride to be. Theweddings were usually arranged by the brides parents. Themarriage symbolized• Love• Mutual respect• Equality• SacrificeThe weddings consisted of three main parts• Pre-wedding ceremonies• The actual weddings• The post wedding ceremoniesThis way, the wedding took about three days to complete.According to many people, Greeks usually married duringthe winter. Women married between 13 to 16, and menmarried between 30 and after because they were done inthe military after that age. On the day of the wedding, thebride had to throw out all of her toys and other childhooditems. The reception was like a modern day one with food,dances, and other things like that. Wealthy families arrivedin horse drawn carriages, and the poor arrived in carts.Some people think, that the wedding was meant to pass thebride from one `owner` to another. A dowry was when thebride brought gifts and valuables to the husband. It waseasy to a man to divorce a wife, but much morecomplicated for a woman to divorce her husband.
Childbirth PracticesBirth processes in Ancient Greecewere difficult and many women diedin the process. Hospitals did not existso delivery took place in the home ofthe pregnant woman. There was amidwife along with other women tohelp. Religion was a big part of birth.Women in labour often called uponthe goddess Artemis who had theability to bring new life into the worldeasier. If the birth went well, themother would make a sacrifice toArtemis. Herbs were used heavily,and different ones were used fordifferent things.
Ancient Greek Childhood Children in Ancient Greece were not part of their family until five days later after birth. If the baby’s parents did not want the child, the child would instantly turn into a slave or the family could abandon the baby (they abandon girls more than boys). On the fifth day there is a celebration of the child where he or she becomes part of their family. In some Ancient Greek cities people would wrap they baby in cloth until they were two years old, so they would have strong and straight limbs. The family would usually care more for the son than daughter because back then in Ancient Greece men were more important than women. This is because men could only go to schools while women were taught basic skills like cooking, cleaning and reading. Ancient Greek girls got married at the ages of 13-16 to men who were 20-30. When a son or a daughter disobeyed their parents or didn’t do what they asked, then instantly they would get punished very severely (with a whip sometimes). Ancient Greek child A whip
Comparing Ancient Greek Childhood with Canadian Childhood Ancient Greek childhood is very different from childhood in Canada. In AncientGreece only boys from wealthy families got to go to school because back then girls onlyneeded to know how to run their house and basic skills like reading and writing. Buthere in Canada both girls and boys go to school and nowadays you don’t pay thatmuch for school but you still pay a little bit to the government through taxes. This isbecause our government believes that women and men should have education andhave a right to learn and become successful in the future. Also the government believesthat every child should have an education, either you are male or female everybody hasrights to learn and have knowledge that you are able to use in the future and or in thepresent. Back in Ancient Greece if child disobeyed their parents they would getseverely punished with a whip sometimes if the parents were very strict. In Canada achild could still get punished if they didn’t listen to their parents (grounded), but not asseverely like in Ancient Greece because in Canada we have child services. Also inSparta, young boys from the age of 7 were trained to become soldiers and also weretaught to fight in the war instead of having an education. Here in Canada menvolunteer to fight for our county, they go to war at the age of 20-35, but also in Canadaeducation always comes first. A Canadian Boy Studying. Ancient Greek Warrior
Ancient Greek Education In Athens boys start going to schoolwhen they reach the age of 7, while girls don’t goto school but are taught the basic reading andwriting skills at home along with sewing andweaving. Only wealthy families could afford fortheir sons to go to school. In Sparta boys weretaught to be tough and to not show theiremotions. They slept on hard beds without anycovers, they never had enough food to eat andthey were taught survival skills and how to be agood solider. Reading and writing were not asimportant as training to be a warrior or solider.At the ages of 18 or 20 Ancient Greek Sparta boyswould have to pass a test. If they failed the testthey would turn into perioidos; a person whohad no political rights and was not even a citizenof their city. If they passed the test then they A classroom of Ancient Greek boys learning.would kept training to be a warrior or solider.The military service ended when then menturned 60.
Ancient Greek Religion Ancient Greek religion was based onpolytheism which means that there was aassumption that there were many godsand goddesses. Each city-stateworshipped its own god. Athens hadAthena, Sparta had Artemis, Corinth hadAphrodite, Delphi and Delos had Apollo,Olympia had Zeus, and so on onto thesmaller towns. Some gods became godsafter books were written, so many peoplewere unaware of them like Dionysus. Thepeople of ancient Greece also believedthat once and a while, a god would comeand interact with humans, and producechildren that are called demigods, or half-bloods. These kids are half human halfgod. The people of Greece worshipped intemples that were dedicated to the gods.People sacrificed animal blood to makethe gods happy.
Main GodsandGoddesses On Mount Olympus• Zeus - King of the Gods• Hera - Queen of the Gods• Aphrodite - goddess of love and beauty• Apollo - god of light, truth, healing, archery, music, poetry• Ares - god of war• Artemis - goddess of hunt, moon, children There were, at various times, fourteen different gods recognized as• Athena - goddess of wisdom, war, Olympians, though never more than twelve at one time. Zeus, Hera, patriotism and good citizenship Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and• Demeter - goddess of grain, agriculture, Artemis are always considered Olympians. Hestia, Demeter, Dionysus, fertility and Hades are the variable gods among the Twelve. Hestia gave up her• Dionysus - god of wine, vegetation, and position as an Olympian to Dionysus in order to live among mankind theater (eventually she was assigned the role of tending the fire on Mount• Hades - god of the underworld Olympus). Persephone spent six months of the year in the underworld• Hephaestus - god of forge and fire (causing winter), and was allowed to return to Mount Olympus for the other six months in order to be with her mother, Demeter. And,• Hermes - messenger of the gods, god of motion, travelers, commerce, thieves, and although Hades was always one of the principal Greek gods, his home sheep in the underworld of the dead made his connection to the Olympians• Hestia - goddess of the hearth and home more tenuous. The Olympians gained their control in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Hera,• Poseidon - god of the sea, earthquakes, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings; all other and horses Olympians (with the exception of foam-born Aphrodite) are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born of Zeus alone. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Heras revenge for Zeus solo birth of Athena. There are many different creatures and gods that live on Mount Olympus, or have a throne there. Some other things that live there that arent gods like nymphs and Pegasus.
Poseidon ΠοσειδώναςPoseidon is the god of the sea, and is also knownas “Earth-Shaker. He is also the father to horses.His symbol is a trident, fish, dolphin, horse, or abull. His consort Amphitrite, and his parents areCronus and Rhea. He had three sons that wereheroes named Theseus who was famous forkilling the minotaur, Triton, and Polyphemus.Almost every Greek god has a Roman equivalentwho is sort of like them. Poseidons is Neptune,god of the same things. Poseidon was relied onto help sailors have a safe voyage. Men oftendrowned horses in is honour to convince him tomake their ships sailing smooth. He lived on theocean floor in a palace made of coral and gemsand had a chariot pulled by horses. Poseidonwas sometimes very moody, and when thathappened, it resulted in violence and stormyoceans. Temple of Poseidon
Ancient Greek Clothing In Ancient Greece men wore chitons and tunics. The tunic was usually knee length,which was made from wool or linen and hanged on one shoulder. A chiton looks verysimilar to a tunic, but it can have sleeves while a tunic is one shouldered. Due to the factAncient Greece was very hot back then; the idea of having a tunic that hanged from oneshoulder and had a length to your knee was smart and very useful. This way men wouldn’tsweat that much during the day. Women wore a peplos, similar to a chiton but the lengthcovered the feet and hangs on two shoulders. A peplos was made from wool, but WealthyAncient Greek women could afford having their peplos made from silk, expensive linen,patterns and bright colors. Women’s material was lighter than men’s material. This isbecause women had clothing that covered their feet which caused a lot of sweating, but withlight material women wouldn’t sweat as much as before rather than men have clothing thatonly ran down to their knees. Not many men and women could afford shoes; so they traveled with no shoes and or they went barefoot everywhere. Wealthy men and women of Athens could afford sandals that were made from cloth and sometimes leather. In Sparta men who were training to be soldiers didn’t wear shoes to show how tough they were. Now a day’s many women and teenagers wear Gladiators which are quiet similar to sandals that Ancient Greek men and women wore. Women’s Gladiators Statue wearing a chiton. Athena wearing a peplos.
Art and MusicThe ancient Greeks enjoyed all different kinds People in ancient Greece loved music,of art. They are especially famous for their and made it an important part of their lives.sculptures, including their statues and vases. Greek people thought of music as a way ofThe vases often had scenes from the Olympics honouring the gods, and making the world aor pictures of musical instruments painted on more human, civilized place. The Greeks hadthem. The best artists in ancient Greece many different instruments. hey had pipes, andsculpted statues of important people in Greek lyres, and drums, and cymbals. Their pipeshistory. he Ancient Greeks made pottery for were made from wood or reeds, with holes cuteveryday use. Most surviving pottery consists in them for your fingers to play the tune. Someof drinking vessels such as amphorae, kraters were played vertically, like a recorder, and some(bowls for mixing wine and water), hydria were played sideways, like a flute. Sometimes(water jars), libation bowls, jugs and cups. people played more than one pipe at a time.Painted funeral urns have also been found. Pipes and drums were played in a loud, livelyMiniatures were also produced in largenumbers, mainly for use as offerings at way, for dancing, and people played this musictemples. paintings normally depicted figural when they were worshipping Dionysus, the godscenes, including portraits. They were collected of wine and parties. The Greeks also had lyres,and often displayed in public spaces. Most which are like small harps, and might haveGreek sculptures were painted in strong and sounded something like a guitar. According tobright colors. The paint was frequently limited the Greek story, the first lyre was made from ato parts depicting clothing, hair, and so on, turtle shell by the god Hermes when he was awith the skin left in the natural color of the baby, and then Hermes gave it to Apollo. Apollostone, but it could also cover sculptures in their was the god of reason and logic, and thetotality. The painting of Greek sculpture should Greeks thought of music as a great expressionnot merely be seen as an enhancement of their of order and patterns. Lyre music was playedsculpted form, but has the characteristics of a calmer, and more soothingly, than the pipes anddistinct style of art. drums.
Ancient Greek Festivals Ancient Greek women Ancient Greece had many festivals. A throwing a pig into a pit.couple of them are Thesmophoria andThe Ancient Olympic Games.Thesmophoria is celebrated by women ofAncient Greece. This festival was inrespect of Demeter the Goddesses ofHarvest and her Daughter Persephone.Only non-virgin women celebrated thisfestival, while men worked and or stayedat home. Thesmophoria was celebrated inPyanepsion (late October and or earlyNovember), the festival lasted three days.During Thesmophoria, the women therewould sacrifice pigs to symbolize thekidnapping of Persephone. They put pigsinto a pit where usually in Ancient Greecesnakes would be and watch the serpentseat the pigs. Whatever was left theparticipants of the Thesmophoria wouldeat on the third day of festival at the bigfeast.
Ancient Olympic Games Statue of Zeus Citizens of Ancient Greece made the Olympic Games tohonor Zeus. Strong men from all different city-states andother close lands (Black Sea, Mediterranean) were welcometo the games. The Olympic Games started in 776 BC inOlympia in Ancient Greece, the games were held every fouryears. On Olympia there was a statue of Zeus, so he couldwatch and supervise the games. Unlike the modernOlympics, the Ancient Greek Olympics were always held inOlympia. Also the Ancient Greek Olympics had fewerevents and the prize of winning an event was an olivewreaths and or a crown. During the games 100 oxen weresacrificed to Zeus. Some events in the Olympics are racing,wrestling and chariot racing. If athletes wanted toparticipate in the games the place they come from had tohave a truce with other competitors, so if they were in warwith each other they would stop so athletes could go andtravel to Olympia. Each city-state would pay for theircontestant but he (the competitor) had to have been trained Chariot Racingfor 10 months to get in the games. If you were a slave and or Ancient Greekif you disobeyed the gods, you couldn’t participate in thegames. This means only wealthy men could attend thegames. In the year 393 AD, a Roman Emperor Theodosiusbanned the Ancient Greek Olympic Games. Nowadays wehave the Olympic Games but instead of chariot racing andrunning we have winter and summer sports.
ConclusionOverall, ancient Greece it a fascinating place filled withmountains, art, music, myths that have spread all over theworld to make new stories, and many other things that haveinfluenced our own culture today. Some of those things aredemocracy that was first introduced in Greece, and foodthat many people all over the world still enjoy. AncientGreece is full of wonderful experiences that any personwould have enjoy visiting.
Bibliography picture• How Did The Wealthy Live?:• http://220.127.116.11:82/medina/courses/cm0910/group4/pages/poc.php?ID_POC=4&ID_Lang=1#basso – Ancient Greek Party• http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/dunkle/athnlife/domestic.htmm - Ancient Greek House• Ancient Greek Childhood:• http://greece.mrdonn.org/kids.html- Ancient Greek child• Clip Art- A whip• Comparing Ancient Greek Childhood with Canadian Childhood:• http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Greek_hoplite.png - Ancient Greek Warrior• Clip Art- A Canadian Boy Studying• Ancient Greek Education:• http://www.glogster.com/glog.php?glog_id=14102276&scale=54&isprofile=truee – A classroom of Ancient Greek boys learning.• Ancient Greek Clothing:• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acropole_Mus%C3%A9e_Ath%C3%A9na_pensante.JPG – Athena wearing a peplos• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Young_man_exomis_Musei_Capitolini_MC892.jpg - Statue wearing a chiton.• http://womens-gladiator-shoes.yolasite.com/ - Women’s Gladiators• Ancient Greek Festivals:• http://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~tcf/pictures/thesmo.gif - Ancient Greek women throwing a pig into a pit.• Ancient Greek Olympic Games:• http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/Greek+Customs/Games/Chariot+Racing – Ancient Greek Chariot Racing• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Statue_of_Zeus.jpg – Statue of Zeus• Map of Ancient Greece:• http://www.kusadasi.tv/titans-myths-ancient-greece.html - map• http://www.eastchester.k12.ny.us/schools/ms/teachers/hill/AncientGreece.htm -map• Clip Art- Trojan horse• Childbirth Practices:• http://www.wellsphere.com/cancer-article/women-s-work-i/466588• http://www.jashford.com/Pages/birthnotecards.html
Picture Bibliography 2• Title Page:• http://www.crystalinks.com/greeksacredsites.html -Hephaestus Temple• Clip Art- theater, paintings• http://www.primaryclassroomresources.co.uk/teaching-resources/Ancient-Greece-Display-Set.html -daily life• Background of Ancient Greece:• http://www.howstuffworks.com/parthenon-and-the-acropolis-landmark.htm - Parthenon• http://natashaelkhoury10dramadw.wikispaces.com/home -theater• http://fyreangyl.tripod.com/Mythology/gods.htm -12 Olympians• Housing:• http://www.kidsgen.com/school_projects/different_homes.htm -house1• http://havoc20.wordpress.com/2011/02/27/stone-textures/ -house2• Food:• Clip Art- Greek Food• http://www.bestourism.com/items/di/1073?title=Greece&b=209 –food• Ancient Greek Family Life:• http://cwest-domesticconfusion.blogspot.com/2010/10/very-tight-crawl-space-into-depths-of.html -family• Ancient Greek Marriage:• http://mkatz.web.wesleyan.edu/Images2/cciv243.papertopics.html -wedding• Art and Music:• http://au.greekreporter.com/2011/03/29/museum-of-ancient-greek-musical-instruments-travels-to-australia/- art/instruments• Poseidon:• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poseidon - Poseidon• Conclusion:• http://www.pageandmoy.co.uk/destinations/europe/southern-europe/greece/the-treasures-of-ancient-greece/ -theater and temple• Clip Art- tile
Book Bibliography Information• Pearson, Anne. Ancient Greece. New York: DK Publishing, 2004.• Nardo, Don. Life in Ancient Greece. San Diego, California: Lucent Books, 1996.• Simpson, Judith. Ancient Greece. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1996.• Powell, Anton. Ancient Greece. New York: Facts on File, 1989.• Robinson, Charles Alexander. Ancient Greece. New York: F Watts, 1984.• Ross, Stewart. Daily Life. Lincolnwood, Ill: P. Bedrick Books, 1999.• Schomp, Virginia. The Ancient Greeks. New York: Benchmark 1996.