Ancient greece


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Ancient greece

  1. 1. Ancient Greece By: Nick F. And Derek Kim
  2. 3. <ul><li>  8000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Mesolithic Period (8300-7000)     </li></ul><ul><li>  Earliest evidence of burials found in Franchthi Cave in the Argolid, Greece 7250 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Evidence of food producing economy, simple hut construction, and seafaring in mainland Greece and the Aegean 7000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Period (7000-3000 BCE)     </li></ul><ul><li>  First &quot;Megaron House&quot; at Sesclo, in central Greece 5700 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Evidence of earliest fortifications at Dimini, Greece 3400 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Houses of Vasiliki and Myrtos Messara Tholoi House of Tiles at Lerna </li></ul>Greek Timeline
  3. 4. <ul><li>3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Aegean Bronze Age or Early Bronze Age (3000-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan Prepalatial or: EMIA, EMIB (3000-2600 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Cycladic Culture (3200-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Helladic Period (3000-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>    2600 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan Prepalatial Period or: EMIIA, EMIIB, MMIII (2600-2000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  Destruction of Minoan settlements 2000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan Protopalatial Period or: MMIA, MMIB, MMI IA, MMI IB, MMI IIA, MMI IIB, LMIA Early (1900-1700 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Middle Cycladic (2000-1600 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Helladic Period or Middle Bronze Age (2000-1550) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  Destruction of Minoan palaces Settlement of Akrotiri, Thera Grave Circle B at Mycenae 1700 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan Neopalatial Period or: LMIA Advanced, LMIA Final, LMIB Early, LMIB Late, LMII (1700-1400) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  Eruption of Thera volcano (sometime between 1627 and 1600) 1627 BCE  </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Grave Circle A at Mycenae Legends: Argo Voyage, Heracles, Oedipus 1600 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Late Bronze Period or The Heroic Age (1600-1100)       Tholos Tomb at Mycenae 1550 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Late Helladic Period (1500-1100)     </li></ul><ul><li>  Linear B writing (1450-1180) 1450 BCE       </li></ul><ul><li>  Mycenaean Palaces Evidence of expanded Mycenaean trade at Levand 1400 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Minoan Postpalatial Period or: LMIIIA1, LMIIIA2, LMIIIB, LMIIIC (1400-1100) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>Palace of Knossos destruction 1370 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  &quot;Sea Peoples&quot; begin raids in the Eastern Mediterranean 1300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Mycenaean Culture (1300-1000)     </li></ul><ul><li>  Trojan War (1250 or 1210) 1250 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Destruction of many Mycenaean palaces Doric Invasions? (1200-1100) Sea Peoples (1200-1100) 1200 BCE </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>  1180 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Mycenaean Period (1180-1050) Destruction of Miletus and resettlement 1100 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Minoan Period (1150-950) </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Age of Greece (1100-700) </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-Geometric Period (1100-900) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  End of Mycenaean civilization Lefkandi: Toumba building 1000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>    900 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric Period (900-700) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  First Olympic Games 776 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Greek colonies established in Southern Italy & Sicily Invention of Greek alphabet Homeric poems recorded in writing (750-700) 750 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Late Geometric (circa 760-700)     </li></ul><ul><li>    740 BCE Orientalizing Period (circa 740-650)     </li></ul><ul><li>  First Messenian War Sparta invades Messenia (730-710) Naxos founded (734) Syracuse founded (733) 730 BCE </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>700 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic Period (700-480)     </li></ul><ul><li>  Earliest Lyric Poets 650 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Second Messenian War Sparta invades Messenia (640-630) Cyrene founded (630) 640 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Sappho born in Lesbos 630 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Thales (625-545) born in Miletos 625 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Pythagoras (ca. 569-475) born in Samos 569 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Solon replaces the Draconian law in Athens and lays the foundation for Democracy. He introduced to Athens the first coinage and a system of weights and measures 594 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Pisistratos becomes tyrant of Athens 546 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Pesistratos Dies. His sons become tyrants of Athens 527 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Red-figure pottery developed in Athens 525 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alcmaeonid family and Spartans free Athens from tyranny. Introduction of Democracy in Athens 510 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Kleisthenes begins reforming Athenian code of laws, and establishes a democratic constitution 508 BCE </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>  Ionian revolt 499 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Ionian revolt defeated by Persians 494 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Persian Wars 497-479 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Battle of Marathon Athenians defeat Darius and his Persian army 490 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Silver mines discovered near Athens. Athens begin building naval fleet 483 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Aristides ostracized 482 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Xerxes marches on Greece Battle of Thermopylae Persians burn the Acropolis Athens and allies defeat Persian fleet at naval battle of Salamis 480 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Period (480-323 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional (480-450) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  Battle of Plataea Greeks defeat Persian army 479 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Delian league lead by Athens 477 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Earthquake in Lakonia Helot revolt against Sparta in Messenia 465 BCE </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Peloponnesian Wars: &quot;First Peloponnesian War&quot; 461-445       </li></ul><ul><li>  Perikles leads Athens through its &quot;Golden Era&quot; (ca. 460-429) 460 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Aeschylus produces &quot;the Oresteia&quot; trilogy of tragedies (Agamemnon, Libation Barers, Eumenides) in Athens 458 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Delian league treasury moved from Delos to Athens 454 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Sophist Protagoras visits Athens 450 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Acropolis and other major building projects begin in Athens Construction of Parthenon (449-432) Sophocles produces the tragedy &quot;Ajax&quot; 449 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Thirty-year peace treaty signed between Athens and Sparta in winter 446/445 446 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Sophocles produces &quot;Antigone&quot; in Athens 430-429 441 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Peloponnesian War (431-404) resumes Euripedes produces &quot;Medea&quot; in Athens 431 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Plague epidemic in Athens 430 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Death of Perikles 429 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Peace of Nicias 421 BCE </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>  Construction of Temple of Athena Nike (420-410) 420 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Athenians resume hostilities Spartans defeat Athens at Mantinea 418 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Athens razes Melos 416 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Athens expedition to Syracuse Alcibiades defects to Sparta 415 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Syracuse defeats Athens 413 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Aristophanes produces &quot;Lysistrata&quot; 411 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Athens surrenders to Sparta Thirty tyrants rule Athens 404 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Democracy restored in Athens 403 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Trial and execution of Socrates 399 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Plato establishes the Athens Academy 380 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Sparta defeated in Leuctra 371 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Thebes defeats Sparta at Mantinea 362 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Philip II, becomes King of Macedonia 359 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Macedonian army defeats Athens and its allies at Chaeronea League of Corinth founded 338 BCE </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Phillip II Assassinated. Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia 336 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Aristotle founds the Lyceum in Athens 335 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander the Great defeats Persian army at Granicus river in Anatolia 334 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander the Great defeats Persians at Issus 333 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Tyre capitulates to Alexander after siege 332 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander invades Egypt City of Alexandria founded in Egypt Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela 331 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander's army reaches Bactria (Afghanistan) 329 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander marries Roxane (princes of Bactria) 327 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Alexander's army reaches India 326 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Death of Alexander the Great 323 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic Period (323-146)     </li></ul><ul><li>  Aristotle dies 322 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Stoic philosopher Zeno founds school in Athens 310 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Stoic philosopher Epicurus founds school in Athens 307 BCE </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Ptolemy I founds museum in Alexandria 300 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Archimedes (287-212) born in Syracuse 287 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Achaean League founded 284 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Invasion of Greece by Gauls 279 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Gauls defeated by king Attalus I 238 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  First Macedonian War (214-204) Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon 214 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Second Macedonian War (200-196) Victory of Flamininus at Cynoscephalae 200 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Third Macedonian War (172-168/7) Lucius Aemelius Paulus of Rome defeats Perseus of Macedon at Pydna. Macedonia divided into four republics 172 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Roman Invasion of Greece Mummius Achaicus sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Rome rules Greece henceforth 146 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Late Hellenistic or Greco-Roman (146-30) </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  Romans lead by Sulla sack Athens 86 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Battle of Aktion Octavian (later Augustus) defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra 31 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>  Death of Cleopatra 30 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>End of &quot;Ancient Greece&quot; period </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Something the Greeks are known for is the Parthenon. It is the temple of Athena Parthenos (&quot;Virgin&quot;), Greek goddess of wisdom, on the Acropolis in Athens. The Parthenon was built in the 5th century BC, and has sustained a lot of damage but still stands. Another thing they are known for is fighting. Especially the Spartans. </li></ul>Information
  13. 14. <ul><li>The Greeks social structure goes: (least to greatest) </li></ul><ul><li>1. slaves 2. freedmen 3. metics 4. citizens, who were further subdivided into: 4a. thetes (urban craftsmen and trireme rowers); 4b. hoplites (usually farmers who could afford infantry armour); 4c. knights (aristocracy, traditionally defined as people who could afford to maintain war horses); 4d. pentakosiomedemnoi (super-wealthy citizens who could contribute to the city's defence by donating warships.) </li></ul>Social Structure
  14. 15. Housing <ul><li>Ancient Greek houses were one of the best in the olden time because it was a strong country before. Most of them were built of clay bricks or stones, although some houses were made of wood. The roofs of the Greek houses were covered with reeds or tiles. Rich people and poor people had different types of houses. The houses of the riches generally had one or two stories, including a kitchen, a room for bathing and additional rooms as a sitting area, dining and even orgy's room. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Greeks, like most other people lived in families with a mother and a father and their children. Usually men got married when they were about twenty-five or thirty years old (as they do today), but women got married much younger, between twelve and sixteen years old. The typical ancient Greek house was a place where the man of the family was proud to live.  Within the walls of the house, no one could treat him with any form of disrespect at any possible time. The house was the heart of the man, in which he had no choice but to protect it and its living and non-living contents. Because of this men got very worried when they were sent away from there house because of wok or war. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The wealthy lived in the most luxurious of the civilian houses. Sometimes they donated warships to aid the forces in the local area. They would usually be of higher social status than the less wealthy. </li></ul>How the Wealthy Live
  16. 17. Food <ul><li>The Greek diet consisted of foods that were easily raised in the rocky terrain of Greece’s landscape. Breakfast was eaten just after sunrise. Lunch was like breakfast with some extra food added to it. Supper was the main meal of each day. It was eaten near sunset. It consisted of vegetables, fruit, fish, and possibly honey cakes. Sugar was unknown to ancient Greeks, so natural honey was used as a sweetener. Fish was the main source of protein in the Greek diet. Beef was very expensive, so it was rarely eaten. Beef and pork were only available to poor people during religious festivals. It was during the festivals that cows or pigs were sacrificed to the gods, and the meat was cooked and handed out to the public. Wine was the main drink in ancient Greece. It was watered down; to drink it straight was considered barbaric. Milk was rarely drunk, because again, it was considered barbaric. Milk was used for cheese production. Water was another possible choice as a drink. The Greeks did not have any eating utensils, so they ate with their hands. Vegetables, legumes, and fruit were the mainstay, and fish was a favorite. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The oldest male would help their father and learn what he knows and pass it on </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest female would do housework, and learn all their mother knows and pass it on </li></ul>Family Life
  18. 19. Marriage <ul><li>Marriages in ancient Greece were arranged by the parents of the intended bride and groom. A financial arrangement was made between the families in the form of a dowry. Girls married between the ages of fourteen to eighteen, while typically men married in their twenties or even thirties. Spartan men continued to live in the barracks, even after the wedding, until they reached the age of thirty when they could move home with their wives. Priests did not direct weddings in ancient Greece. Instead, a set of rituals was followed, after which the couple would live together. The rituals started with baths. The groom then would go to the bride’s house in a chariot or a cart. A feast may be held at the bride’s father’s house, after which the groom would take his bride back to his parents’ house. They were greeted at the door by the groom’s parents and led to the hearth. There they were showered with nuts and fruit. The couple then retired to their bedroom. For the wife to be fully accepted into the groom’s family, a child had to be conceived from their union. Divorces were easily arranged. The man would have to pay back, in cash, the remaining dowry money to his wife’s parents. Divorces were granted on many grounds; for example, if the wife could not bear children. When a wife committed adultery, divorce was legally required. Greek men did not discuss with others their wives or other female relatives. They dared not even give their names outside their close family circle. They did not want to attract unwanted attention from unrelated males. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The Greeks had one of the most studied religion in all the world. They had many gods, Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter, Hestia, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Dionysus, Hephaestus, and Hermes. </li></ul>Religion
  20. 21. Childhood <ul><li>Babies born in ancient Greece often had a difficult time surviving. Many died in the first couple days of life; therefore, babies did not receive names until the seventh or tenth day of life. If a baby was born deformed, it might have been abandoned on a mountain (female babies were abandoned more often than males). Sometimes abandoned babies were rescued and brought up as slaves by another family. In some Greek cities, children were wrapped up in cloths until they were about two years old to insure straight and strong limbs. Other city-states, such as Sparta, did not do this to their children. Children spent the majority of their time with their mother. They stayed in the women’s part of the house. While they were being raised, girls would receive their entire education and training in the home with their mothers. Boys, on the other hand, might learn their father’s trade or go to school around the age of seven. In Sparta, seven-year-old boys were taken to the barracks by the city and raised. They were trained in the military and were not allowed to leave the barracks until age thirty. Many toys, similar to current day toys, have been found in archeological sites. Dolls, rattles, tops, swings, and many other items have been unearthed. As is common today, those from richer families had a greater assortment of toys, while those from poorer families were expected to work for the family at a much younger age. Evidence also shows that Greeks kept pets such as dogs, pigs, tortoises, and caged birds. Girls reached puberty at ages twelve or thirteen, at which point they were considered adults and could marry. Girls took their childhood toys and left them at the temple of Artemis. This signaled that their childhood was over and that they were becoming adults. After marrying, the women were expected to have a baby. Not being able to bear children was seen as curse from the gods. At age eighteen, boys in several ancient Greek cities were required to join the army for two years of service. Many cities required males to reach the age of thirty before they were able to participate in city politics. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The Greeks usually wore clothing was typically homemade and the same piece of homespun fabric that was used as a type of garment, or blanket. From Greek vase paintings and sculptures, we can tell that the fabrics were intensely colored and usually decorated with intricate designs. They usually wore sandals or slippers on their feet. </li></ul>Clothes
  22. 23. Education <ul><li>Children in most of ancient Greece started their education at age seven. In Sparta, boys were given military training from ages seven to around twenty to prepare them for service in the army. Girls also were required to train physically. They believed strong women produced strong babies. In Athens, poor children did not go to school. They were needed around their homes to help their family make a living. Middle-class boys might go to school for only three to four years. For their lessons, the students used a wax-covered board with a stylus to carve out letters in the wax. When completed, the wax was smoothed over again and reused. The subjects they learned were reading, writing, basic math, music, and physical training. At the age of eighteen, most boys were required to join the army for two years of training. After military training, boys from wealthy families studied under a sophist. Known as a “wisdom seller,” a sophist charged a fee to teach subjects such as public speaking or rhetoric. In Athens and other democracies, public speaking and persuasion were highly prized skills. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Thank you for watching our presentation on the ancient civilization, Greece. </li></ul>Conclusion
  24. 25. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Bibliography