MapIn 3000 BC, the Minoans civilizationbegan. They lived on the island Crete,south of the mainland. In 2000 BC, theGreek- speaking people began tomigrate to Greece from the north. Byabout 1600 BC, towns had been builtand each were centered on a palace.These group of Greek-speaking peoplewere called Mycenaeans, based on thelarge and powerful town of Mycenae.The Mycenaeans soon claimed Cretefor themselves. This causedretribution between the Minoans andthe Mycenaeans. The Mycenaeanssuccessfully took away the land butsoon fell out of power, and the Greeksentered the “Dark Age”. The Dark Ageended in 800 BC and the Greeks sooncolonized places like Italy and Turkey.And in around 400 BC, Greece becamewhat we call Classical Greece.
Ancient Greece is the first ancient civilization to allow citizens to vote and was the first civilization to have a democracy. This civilization lasted from the 8th century to the 6th century BC, until the Romans took over. The Greeks had many new ideas about science, art, and philosophy. They were the first to invent the Olympic Games and had many stories on why things happen. There were 2 important cities in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. These 2 cities were very different from each other. Sparta was strict but the people had more rights, in Athens, people had less rights. Ancient Greece was the birthplace of democracy -“power of the people”. Although women were unable to participate in political discussions, men were allowed to vote and run for government.
The Greek’s social structure had 2 main groups, slaves and free people. The slaves were looked at like things. They were workers and servants and had no legal rights. They could be sold to other countries. Free people were divided into Pure Athenians the citizens and the Metics. Citizens had rights and was higher in the society. But citizens who are pure Athenian have the most power. Citizens are expected to take part for making decisions. Metics are foreign people that came to Athens for a long time. They had to pay taxes. But they couldn’t own a house or land and couldn’t Metics Citizens speak out against things. In Athens, your rank is higher by how much money you(foreigners) have. In Sparta, when you finish your education, you are a equal citizen. The kings in Sparta had the most power. Men also had more rights than women. Men Women Slaves
Greek’s designed their homes so they could stay cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Men and women would live in different parts of the house because they had different jobs. Women stayed deeper into the house so people outside of the family can’t see them. The houses were made of sun-dried mud bricks, with a small yard in the middle. After a few years the houses had to be rebuilt as the mud brick was not very durable and crumbled easily. The roofs of houses were made with clay bricks and in the windows there was no glass. Instead there were wooden shutters to keep out the hot sun. Rich people had as many as 50 slaves. The slaves did all of the hard work in the house and on the farm. In the houses, they have rooms but do not have a lot of furniture in it. Most people had no bathrooms. Only rich people enjoyed private baths. As the slaves would carry buckets of water for them to bathe in.
In Ancient Greece the wealthy lived very differently thanthe poor. Wealthy people in Ancient Greece lived in largehouses that were usually centered on a courtyard and hadan upper storey. Downstairs there was a kitchen and adining room (called an andron), as well as a living room.Upstairs there would be bedrooms and a gynaecium (agynaecium is a room for women-it is where they eat andweave). The furniture in a wealthy person’s house wouldbe quite basic. There would be chests and hooks to storethings, as well as a dresser to display expensive cups andpottery. There would also be simple couches in a wealthyancient Greeks house for them to recline on (these couldalso be used as beds). Wealthy Greeks had a more varieddiet than less wealthy people. There meals consisted ofroasted meat, peacock and other types of eggs, and irisescoated in vinegar. In wealthy household women were keptaway from men to keep them ‘safe’ from men that theywere unfamiliar with. Wealthy women were expected tomanage the home and sometimes keep track of thefinances, and they did not do the shopping as they couldsend one of there many slaves to do it for them. Wealthywomen also were expected to spin and weave cloth.
Food in Ancient Greece was very simple. For example bread, milk, beans , olives, grapes, fresh vegetables, herbs and figs were a typical meal in the summer. But in the winter food was sparse and tour meals would consist of apples, chestnuts, lentils, and smelly goat cheeses. Even though there was no sugar you could purchase sweet honey from mountain farms. If you lived near the coast your diet would be much different. Only the rich would be able to eat a lot of meat, such as hare, deer, and wild boars that were killed by hunters. Rich people would always eat inside. Poor people and slaves would eat outside. Olives were very important food in the Greek diet. They would eat the olive, crushed it to make olive oil, for cooking, lighting, and cosmetics.
Men and women in ancient Greece have very different lives. Men were expected to participate in the public life, like going to the Assembly, or the Olympic Games, etc. They went to parties and horseback riding for fun. Women were not allowed to attend these things. They were expected to run the house. Their jobs were to make clothes, cook, and bear children. They could not go anywhere without their husband’s permission. Slaves helped women to the household jobs, but their jobs were harder and tougher. The female slaves cooked, cleaned, and worked on the farm. The male slaves helped too, but they also guard the door so strangers wouldn’t go inside the house. Women had more freedom in Sparta. Children help around the house too, before they leave to go to school or get married. Girls help their mother cook and run the house. Boys help in the fields and fish.
Girls in Ancient Greece would get married at a young age, at about 13-16 years old. The richer girls would marry younger, and poorer girls would marry older. Her father would chose her husband, who would be at about his 30’s. She would sacrifice her toys to Artemis to say that her childhood is over. There were no marriage ceremonies. The parents would arrange a party. After that, the parents would pay the dowry to the man and the girl would move into his house. If she lives in the man’s house, they are married. If not, they are divorced. When they get divorced, the man has to give back the dowry, so the girl has money to live on. The man gets to keep the children to teach them their education. The pomegranate was a symbol of married love.
The child is usually delivered by midwives and is usually delivered on a birthing stool. If the baby was overdue, they used herbs to help it come out. Some materials that they use to help delivering the baby easier are: olive oil, warm water, soft sea sponges, things to smell, and a pillow. These materials are used so the baby is delivered properly and the women is fine after delivering the child. It is believed that if the women is not having trouble with the baby, the baby will be a boy. If not, it will be a girl. Because the girls married so young, they would also get pregnant young too. This causes death because the girls are not fully developed to bear a child. It has been said that there are the same number of deaths of women delivering a child than men dying in a war. Eilithyia is the goddess of childbirth. She is believed to sooth the pain and help delivering the baby.
Many Greeks wanted sons instead of daughters. This is because the sons would stay and take care of their parents at old age. And daughters would go out and get married, which was expensive. If the baby was weak and small, the parents could abandon their baby on the street. Someone might come across the baby and take it in. Rich people have their kids taken care of by a slave. When the child is 3, they are given a jug to say that their babyhood is over. The boys went to school at 7. Girls stayed at home and learned how to take care of a family. Only rich people could afford to go to school. Besides school, boys had to learn how to work, like a farmer , a fisherman, stonecarvers, etc. Girls, at the age of 13-16, get married. They would sacrifice their toys to Artemis to show that their childhood was over.
Canada Both GreeceGirls and boys both are educated Some of the toys in Ancient Only boys are educated as theyat public school Greece are still used today- are considered more important dolls, rattles, swings, tops, etc… than girlsUsually start school at the age of Children are not named Start school at the age of sevenfour or five immediately after birth (usually) (boys only)It is optional whether or not you In both places families kept pets Girls were kept in their mothersjoin the army at 18 years of age Canada=dogs, cats, fish, etc... quarters until the age of seven, Greece= tortoises, birds, goats, and they were taught to weave, etc... etc…Children are usually not separated In both places boys sometimes In Sparta boys were sent tofrom their parents at young ages take up the trade/work of their barracks at the age of seven and father trained for the militaryDon’t marry as young. At about 16 Some children were put intoto 25. slavery because they were abandoned after birthBoys and girls are treated equally Girls married between the ages of 12-16 Girls were also expected to have a baby quite young (after they marry) In some Greek cities boys were required to do two years in the army after they turned 18
The education is private for Ancient Greece, except for Sparta. Only wealthy families could afford a teacher. Girls were less important so they learned read, write, do simple math, importantly, to run a house and do household jobs. They don’t usually receive any education after this, or sometimes, don’t get any at all. Boys on the other hand, learned how read, write, quote literature, sing, play one instrument, and were trained for the military. They also learned how to be a good citizen. They continued their education after 18 (their childhood). They study with a mentor that they had become close with when they were teenagers. This mentor teaches them more about subjects and other things. Sparta, as said before, has a public education. All boys went to school when they were 7 and learned how to be a Spartan warrior. They learned how to steal, jeer at the weak, and become strong. Punishments were cruel and hurtful.
Ancient Greece has a mythology that contains stories that explain why things happen and why you shouldn’t do things. There were many gods in their stories. The twelve man ones on Olympus (The home of the gods) are: Zeus (the leader of all the gods), Hera (Zeus’s wife, goddess of marriage), Poseidon (Zeus’s brother, the god of the sea), Ares (god of war) Hermes ( Olympus’s messenger), Hephaestus (the god of forge and fire), Aphrodite (the goddess of love and beauty), Athena (Zeus’s favourite daughter, goddess of wisdom and the arts), Apollo (god of the sun), Artemis (the goddess of wild animals), and Hades (the god of the underworld or dead, but doesn’t really spend a lot of time on Olympus). People believed these gods helped them and always think that things happen for a reason. They worship them and sometimes name cities after them, like Athens. The people of Greece worshiped these gods and sacrificed things for them. There are many rituals that the gods are involved in.
Athena was the goddess of wisdom, strategy, and the arts. She was Zeus’s favourite daughter, which makes her very powerful. She helps many heroes along their journeys, like telling Perseus how to cut Medusa’s head off without turning into stone, and helping Odysseus get his wife back so there is peace. Her birth was from a headache that Zeus had. Zeus complained about these headaches so Hephaestus cut his head open, and out came Athena. Athena has done many great deeds to help civilization, such as growing the olive tree, turning Arachne into a spider, and turning Medusa into a gorgon. The capital of Greece, Athens, is named after Athena because of her gift of the olive tree. The Parthenon is a temple built in honour of Athena.
Ancient Greek hairstyles Ionian chiton with himation In ancient Greece, babies usually didn’t wear anything. The women usually wore a long tunic, called a chiton, which is made of cotton or linen. The chiton went down to their ankles. Women also wore a cloak over top, which is called a himation, and was thin in the summer and thick in the winter. Women were expected to be covered up. Some rich or noble women cover their heads or wear a veil in public. The men wore tunics or usually nothing at all. The young men preferred to wear short tunics and the old preferred long ones. Nakedness was pride for men. But they wore clothes in front of women. The slaves wore only a strip of cloth. Everyone in Greece don’t usually wear shoes but they sometimes wear sandals or high boots for horseback riding. Men and women wore wide- brimmed hat to shade them from the sun. They had lots of jewelry and buried the jewelry with their tombs. Women did not cut their hair because it was considered a shameful thing.Doric style woven tunic
Art in Greece is quite similar to the art that we have today. The Greeks were famous for their pottery and lifelike sculptures. One of the most famous ancient Greek sculptures is called ‘Venus de Milo’, which was carved in around 100BC; unfortunately it is missing it’s arms. Ancient Greek pottery often showed scenes of Greek mythology, and everyday life. Wall paintings were also quite popular in ancient Greece, though very few examples survived. In Greece music was also very important to there culture. Greek musicians played a wind instrument quite similar to the clarinet. One pipe was called an aulo, and two pipes played together were called an auloi. Greek musicians also played the cymbals and a string instrument called a lyre. A tambourine called a timpanon was also very popular to play music.
The festival Panathenaea is a festival to celebrate and worship the goddess Athena. During the festival there were many animal sacrifices, and a woven tunic was woven by the Athenian It is not none for sure how many days the women for the goddess. This festival festival lasted and what happened but here is was celebrated every year in mid the modern reconstruction of it: August and every fourth year there Day 1: Musical and Rhapsodic Contests would be a Great Panathenaea where Day 2: Athletic Contests for Boys and Youth the festivities would be even more splendid than other years. This Day 3: Athletic Contests for Men holiday is in mid-august because that Day 4: Equestrian Contests is when it was believed to be Athena’s Day 5: Tribal Contests birthday as well as the first month in Day 6: Torch race and Pannychos (nocturnal the Athenian year. ritual): procession and sacrifice Day 7: Apobates (race in which an armed warrior jumps off of a moving chariot) and Boat Race Day 8: Awarding of prizes, feasting, and celebrations
Overall Ancient Greece is a very important and interesting civilization. Some of their decisions and ideas have affected how we live today, like democracy and the Olympic Games. Although they contributed to our society the Ancient Greek culture is very different than ours. So it is important to learn their daily lifestyle. Thanks for watching our slideshow!!!!!! - Alice and Ellie
Books MacDonald, Fiona. How Would You Survive As An Ancient Greek? Danbury, Connecticut. Groiler Publishing. 1996. Toutant, Arnold. Doyle, Susan. Ancient Worlds. Don Mills, Ontario. Oxford University Press. 2000.Websites Ancient Greece: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece#Religion_and_mythology Ancient Greek Family: http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/people/family.htm Ancient Greeks: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/ancient_greeks/ Athena: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athena Children of Ancient Greece: http://www.historylink102.com/greece3/children.htm Culture and Society: http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture/ Daily Life: http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0210200/ancient_greece/daily_life.htm Everyday Life In Ancient Greece: http://www.localhistories.org/GREECE.HTML Panathenaic Festival: http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/dunkle/courses/panfest/panfest.htm Roles of Men, Women, and Children: http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html The Greek House: http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/dailylife/challenge/cha_set.html
Coin- http://financeologist.com/2009/10/05/money-in-ancient-greece-greek-coinage-ancient-greek-money/ Parthenon- http://www.uvm.edu/~inquiryb/webquest/sp07/asmith1/Greek%20Mythology%20Homepage.html Head- http://www.picoleze.co.cc/POP-Art/Alex-Katz-December.html Warrior art- http://proteus.brown.edu/greekpast/4868 God and Bird-http://karenswhimsy.com/ancient-greek-gods.shtm Map: http://www.greeka.com/greece-maps/ancient-greece-map.htm Olympic Stadium: http://www.cybertraveltips.com/europe/greece/Ancient-Greece-Olympics.html Greek Slaves: http://history100slavery.wordpress.com/2010/10/12/ancient-greece-slavery/ Wealthy Picture 1&2: http://blog.aurorahistoryboutique.com/category/world-history/ancient-greece-world-history Greek Family on vase: http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/greeks/people/family.htm Women Daily Life Drawing- http://karenswhimsy.com/ancient-greek-women.shtm Marriage1: http://pages.uoregon.edu/howard/?p=173 Marriage2:http://www.squidoo.com/understanding_marriage?utm_source=google&utm_medium=imgres&utm_campaign=fram ebuster Stone Carving of Childbirth: http://www.hsl.virginia.edu/historical/artifacts/antiqua/women.cfm Mother with Baby http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/2010/1008/Which-nation-has-the-most-in-vitro-babies-Here-are-the- Top-5/Greece-5.8-percent Horse with wheels: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toy Old man teaching boys: http://palasha.wordpress.com/2009/01/06/citizen-of-the-world-in-ancient-greece/ Athena statue:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PallasGiustiniani.jpg Greek hairstyles: http://www.fashion-era.com/ancient_costume/ancient-greek-dress-chiton.htm Greek vase: http://www.arthistoryspot.com/2010/02/classical-greek-pottery/ Equestrian race: http://socrates.clarke.edu/aplg0317.htm Apobates: http://ancientolympics.arts.kuleuven.be/eng/TD004EN.html *All unmentioned pictures are from Microsoft clipart*