Plato was a classical Greek philosopher.
He was born in Athens, between 427-347 B.C.E
Plato’s birth name was Aristocles ( not to be confused with
Aristotle) and he gained the nickname “ Platon” because of his
He is student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle
(384–322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the
author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.
He is the son of Ariston (his father) and Perictione (his mother),
Plato was born in the year after the death of the great Athenian
PLATO’S METHOD OF TEACHING
Plato divided his scheme of education into two parts
I.E Elementary and Higher Education. It is so because
according to Plato there are some certain aspects
which are to be developed at a certain age.
The highest goal of education, Plato believed, is the
knowledge of good: to nurture a man to a better
human being it is not merely an awareness of
particular benefits and pleasures.
• “ Do not then train youths by force and
hardness but direct them to it by what
amuses their minds so that you may be
better able to discover with accuracy the
peculiar bent of the genius of each”- Plato
• Plato write in his Republic
“ Bodily exercise, when compulsory, does no
harm to the body; but knowledge which is
acquired under compulsion obtains no hold
on the mind”.
PLATO’S METHOD OF TEACHING
Plato wants a place
where children love
to go and stay there,
and they play with
things which enhance
their education by
• Plato gives importance
to nursery education, he
thinks nursery education
plays a vital role in the
education of man, it
help to build his moral
character and state of
• Plato believed in the Dialect
method of teaching. In this
method the student is
dependent on the teacher
for knowledge and learning
and the teacher has all the
• This can also be seen in his
theory of Allegory of cave.
• Plato think it will be hard to discover a
better method of education that that
which the experiences of so many ages
has already discovered, and this may be
summed up as consisting in gymnastics for
• According to Plato learning is a lifelong
process. Learning is not only done at any
educational institution, but it starts from
the surroundings and ends with the death
PLATO’S AIMS OF EDUCATION
A) To develop leader among the future
B) To develop hard and competent
C) To produce leaders with military
skill among the warriors
D) To produce future civil servants of
Plato regards education to achieve
justice, both individual justice and social
According to Plato, individual justice can
be obtained when everyone develops his or
her ability to the fullest. In this sense,
justice means excellence. For the Greeks
and Plato, excellence is virtue.
Do not train children to
learn by force and
harshness, but direct them
to it by what amuses their
mind, so that you may be
better able to discover
with accuracy the peculiar
bent of the genius of each.
• It is compulsory, state regulated and meant
for both sexes
• It ensures both physical and mental
• The most important part of education is
proper training in nursery
1. State controlled system of compulsory
He does not favor the idea of leaving
education in the parents. He considered
education as positive means by which the
ruler could mold the character of the
people and promote spirit of unselfish
devotion towards their duties.
2. Favor education, both for men and
He was in favor women holding public office
like men. It is for this step of his, that he is
regarded as a revolutionary.
3. Aimed at moral as well as physical
development of the child-
He held that a healthy mind could
reside only in a healthy body and it
was essential that education should
develop both these faculties.
4. Produce philosopher king-
It was the chief objective of his
scheme of education. The
philosophers were expected to govern
the masses only through rigorous
program of education.
Only 3 subjects
and Philosophy in
fourth stage 20-30
And too late to
as the mental
have passed right
age to study
It focuses too
much on the group
and not enough on
His training or
education plan was
rigorous and many
would say it was
impossible to meet
Plato system is
extending to 35
will be expensive
and will also kill
initiative in men at
It is primarily meant for the ruling
class only and ignores the lower
classes, which represents the over-
whelming majority of population.
Its censorship means that
there should be no
freedom of speech and
expression of opinion
other than what the stage
suggests and allows,
which is unacceptable in
In curriculum, Plato does
not propose for the
future legislators any
study of finance, law and
military tactics but only
of abstract mathematics
• It is more theoretical and less practical.
• It is too expensive to be afforded.
• Very little mention of the education of
any classes except the guardians.
• His classification ( The Producer, The
Auxiliaries and the Guardians) of the
ancient Greek citizen is quite outdated in
our present context but his position can
be considered at his time his proposition
is also defective, his classification was
base on class but how a children’s future
can be predicted was not clear in his
• He criticizes the individual schools of
education because he thought that could
misdirect the student and can be
separated from the ideology of the state
on the other hand his own thought can be
defined as individual thought of state and
education then he falls in his own fallacy.
• His theory can be questioned, moreover it
is evident that diversity and individual
enterprise brought the most fruitful time.
• In the third stage , Plato reserved the
whole space for gymnastics and military
training where there must be some
intellectual training too.
Stage to get higher
education at the
age after thirty is
because it will kill
the initiative in
man at that age.
be quite hectic
for the learners
at the age of
WHAT IS AN ALLEGORY?
The Allegory of the Cave is a theory
put forward by Plato, concerning
Plato claimed that knowledge gained
through the sense is no more than
opinion and that, in order to have real
knowledge, we must gain it through
PURSPOSES OF THE ALLEGORY
1. Distinguish appearance from reality-
it is possible to have the wrong
understanding of the things we see,
hear, feel etc.
2. Explain the enlightenment
a. Moving from shadow to the real
b. Involved pain and confusion
c. Makes you an outcast is a one-way
d. Improves you, but makes you a nerd
e. Makes you mentally clumsy
f. Cannot be taught, you must see for
3. Introduce the theory of forms
a. The allegory provides for an analogy
b. Two realm- Physical and Spiritual
What is Form?
Abstract, perfect, unchanging concept
exist in the forms.
The Allegory of the cave by Plato should not be taken at face value. In essays and exams, whoever is
marking it expects you to have a deeper understanding of the meaning of the theory. You can then use
these to think about criticisms and then to form your own opinion.
•In Plato’s theory, the cave represents people who believe that knowledge comes from what we see and
hear in the world – empirical evidence. The cave shows that believers of empirical knowledge are
trapped in a ‘cave’ of misunderstanding.
•The Shadows represent the perceptions of those who believe empirical evidence ensures knowledge. If
you believe that what you see should be taken as truth, then you are merely seeing a shadow of the
truth. In Plato’s opinion you are a ‘pleb’ if you believe this (their insult for those who are not
•The Game represents how people believe that one person can be a ‘master’
knowledge of the empirical world. Plato is demonstrating that this master
truth, and suggesting that it is ridiculous to admire someone like this.
•The escaped prisoner represents the Philosopher, who seeks knowledge
outside of the senses.
•The Sun represents philosophical truth and knowledge
•His intellectual journey represents a philosophers journey when finding
•The other prisoners reaction to the escapee returning represents that
philosophical truths and do not trust philosophers.
Like this quotes there are many other thoughts and views that are quite contradictory with his own thoughts in this quote, Plato stand against compulsory education by force by in his own opinion he wanted to enforce compulsory education to the children even by separating them from their parents, which is questionable indeed.
Imagine a cave in which prisoners are chained and seated so that they all face one way, towards the wall.
Behind the prisoners is a fire, which they cannot see, that casts the shadow on the wall before them.
Between the fire and the prisoners is a parapet, or walkway, where people are crossing back and forth with strange objects held above their heads.
Everything the prisoner see or hear is bounced off the wall. They therefore think of that as the true reality.