Psy 101


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Psy 101

  1. 1. Guys, I think we can focus our video on how children who's parents are addicted to intoxicants (cigarettes, drugs, alcohol etc) are more likely to become addicts themselves. Here are some of the links that I've found (you need an EBSCO account for this, I think):<br />INFO ON PARENTS’ INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN- SMOKING, DRUGS, ALCOHOL<br />1-<br />Author: Rebecca N H de Leeuw1<br />Source: Tobacco Control; Jun2010, Vol. 19 Issue 3, p201-205, 5p<br />Abstract: <br /> OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether parental smoking was associated with smoking-related play behaviour in young children.<br /> DESIGN: Children were asked to pretend that they were grown-ups having dinner. They were invited to act out this situation in a play corner with a toy kitchen and a child-sized dining area, including a package of fake cigarettes on the table. <br />SETTING: Children were tested individually at their school during regular school hours. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 100 children between 4 and 8 years of age (mean=5.28, SD=0.94) of which 57% were boys. The majority of the children were born in The Netherlands (99%). <br />MEASUREMENTS: The main outcome measure was whether or not a child pretended to be smoking a cigarette. Child and parent reports were used to assess parental smoking.<br /> FINDINGS: Findings revealed that 37% of the children had at least one ‘puff’ during their play. Children were more likely to pretend to smoke if they reported having smoking parents (OR=3.16, p=0.02; 95% CI=1.22 to 8.18). Analyses for the model with parent reports on parental smoking did not yield any direct association. Children's explicit attitudes were unrelated to their smoking-related play behaviour. <br />CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that young children, who reported having parents who smoke, already associate having dinner with a (after-dinner) cigarette. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />2-<br />Authors: De Leeuw, Rebecca1, Ron1Vermulst, Ad1Engels, Rutger1<br />Source: Psychology & Health; Oct2010, Vol. 25 Issue 8, p999-1021, 23p, 1 Diagram, 7 Charts, 1 Graph<br />Abstract: In this study, we tested to what extent smoking-specific parenting and changes in parenting are related to adolescents' smoking trajectories. Data were used from a four-wave prospective study including 428 adolescents (aged M = 15.2; SD = 0.60). Latent Class Growth Analyses were conducted to identify trajectories. Multinomial Logistic Regression Analyses were executed to examine the relations between parenting and class membership. Longitudinal cross-lagged models were tested to examine causal predominance between parenting and smoking. Four trajectories were found, consisting of Non-smokers, Increasers, Stable smokers and Decreasers. Quality of parental smoking-specific communication was strongly related to the membership in different trajectories. Along with the cross-lagged associations demonstrating that the quality of communication was predominantly related to future smoking rather than vice versa, these findings indicate that parents who talked about smoking in a constructive and respectful manner were more likely to have non-smoking children. In contrast, parents who talked often about smoking-related issues and increased these discussions over time were more likely to have smoking children; cross-lagged associations indicated that these findings could be best explained by children changing their parents. Having a non-smoking agreement was related to a lower risk in becoming a regular smoker. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />3-<br />Authors: Laurie Chassin, PhD 1 , <br />Clark Presson, PhD 1 , <br />Jennifer Rose, PhD 2 , <br />Steven J. Sherman, PhD 2 and <br />Justin Prost 1 <br />Abstract: Objective: To examine the relation of parent smoking cessation to adolescent smoking and test its potential mediators. <br />Method: Participants were 446 adolescents and their parents who completed a computerized measure of implicit attitudes toward smoking and questionnaires assessing smoking, parenting, and explicit attitudes. <br />Results: Parental smoking cessation was associated with less adolescent smoking, except when the other parent currently smoked. In general, ex-smoking parents showed more antismoking socialization than did smoking parents. However, in children's reports, these effects were negated if the other parent (particularly the mother) smoked. Children's reports of parents' antismoking behavior partially mediated the relation between parental smoking and adolescent smoking. Although children's implicit and explicit attitudes were unrelated to parental smoking, mothers' implicit attitudes were related to both their own smoking and their child's smoking. <br />Conclusions: Parental smoking cessation may help lower risk for adolescent smoking. However, this benefit may be realized only if the other parent does not currently smoke. Antismoking parenting might be a useful focus in cessation interventions. <br />4-<br />Authors:<br />Marmorstein, N. R.1 marmorst@camden.rutgers.eduIacono, W. G.2McGue, M.2<br />Source: Psychological Medicine; Jan2009, Vol. 39 Issue 1, p149-155, 7p<br />Abstract:<br />BackgroundPrevious research indicates that alcohol and drug dependence constitute aspects of a general vulnerability to externalizing disorders that accounts for much of the parent-offspring resemblance for these and related disorders. This study examined how adolescent offspring risk for externalizing psychopathology varies with respect to parental alcoholism and illicit drug dependence.MethodData from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, a community-based investigation of adolescents (age 17 years, n=1252) and their parents, were used. Lifetime diagnoses of alcohol and drug dependence (among both parents and offspring) and offspring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, and nicotine dependence were assessed via structured interviews.ResultsParental alcohol dependence and parental drug dependence were similarly associated with increased risk for nearly all offspring disorders, with offspring of alcohol and drug-dependent parents having approximately 2?3 times the odds for developing a disorder by late adolescence compared to low-risk offspring. Compared to parental dependence on other illicit drugs, parental cannabis dependence was associated with weaker increased risk for offspring externalizing disorders.ConclusionsBoth parental alcohol and drug dependence are independently associated with an increased risk for a broad range of externalizing psychopathology among late-adolescent offspring. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />5-<br />Authors:<br />Mützell, Sture1<br />Source:<br />Child: Care, Health & Development; Sep/Oct1993, Vol. 19 Issue 5, p327-340, 14p, 2 Charts<br />bstract:<br />Some 211 male alcoholic in-patients were compared with a simple random sample of 200 men from Greater Stockholm. The group of male alcoholic in-patients and the random sample were sub-divided with respect to alcohol consumption and use of hepatotoxic drugs: (IA) men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption and no use of drugs (<em>n</em> = 169); (IB) men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption with use of drugs (<em>n</em> = 31); (IIA) alcoholic in-patients with use of alcohol but no drugs (<em>n</em> = 171); (IIB) alcoholic in-patients with use of alcohol and drugs (<em>n</em> - 40). Earlier and more severe alcohol-related and anti-social problems were found among subjects with an alcoholic parent than among subjects without an alcoholic parent. The highest level of problems was noted for subjects with alcoholism in both parents and among the alcoholic in-patients. Groups which resembled each other were the drug users in the alcoholic group and in the general sample. Both inherited and environmental factors are important determinants and many of these individuals have psycho-social problems as children and adults. The children of those adults who used alcohol in combination with drugs (UB) had most problems and the most severe problems. In the general population sample, those who used alcohol in combination with drugs (IB) had so many problems in the family and psycho-social problems themselves that they resembled the alcoholic in-patients and especially the group with high alcohol consumption in combination with drugs (IIB). A new finding is that the high-risk groups IB and IIB, who used both alcohol and drugs, had experienced a more disturbed school career and were more aggressive, had more nervous problems, and were more emotionally disturbed than the other groups. It is concluded that alcohol and drug use by parents may be predictive of future alcoholism in their children. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />INFO ON INFLUENCE OF SIBLINGS/ROLE MODELS ON YOUNGER CHILDREN<br />6-<br />Authors: Richard Needle1†, Hamilton McCubbin2, Marc Wilson3, Robert Reineck4, Amnon Lazar5 and Helen Mederer61986, Vol. 21, No. 7 , Pages 739-766 Drawing data from the first year of a longitudinal study of 508 families with focal adolescents aged 11 to 13 years and their older siblings (14 to 18 years), the investigators examined the influence of older siblings' drug-using attitudes and behaviors, in comparison with parental and peer drug-using attitudes and behaviors, on focal adolescents' nonuse and use of substances. Older siblings are frequently a source of drugs and use substances with their younger siblings, though peers remain the primary source and the most frequent cousers. For most substances, frequency of use was predicted by older sibling and peer substance use, each after controlling for the other. Parental drug use was found to be minimal in comparison to older siblings and peers. Findings relative to the potentially important role of older siblings in influencing their younger siblings' drug-using behavior are discussed.7-<br />Authors: Poelen, Evelien A. P.1, Ron H. J.1Willemsen, Gonneke2Boomsma, Dorret I.2Engels, Rutger C. M. E.1<br />Source:<br />Alcohol & Alcoholism; Jul/Aug2007, Vol. 42 Issue 4, p362-369, 8p, 3 Charts<br />bstract:<br />Aims: The aim of this study was to examine whether the drinking habits of parents, siblings, and friends were related to regular drinking in adolescents and young adults, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. Methods: Data of 12-30-year- old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register were analysed. Information on regular drinking was collected in 1993, 1995, and 2000. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data of 1993 (N = 3760), short-term longitudinal data of 1993-95 (N = 2919), and the long-term longitudinal data of 1993-2000 (N = 1779). Results: Results show that age, sex, and one's own previous drinking habits were important predictors of later-life regular drinking. Drinking habits of parents showed small but persistent positive associations. Alcohol use of the CO-twin was strongly related to alcohol use of the participants, especially in the cross-sectional analyses, while alcohol use of additional siblings other than the co-twin was relatively unimportant. Cross-sectionally, friends' alcohol use showed a high association with regular drinking, but this association decreased over time. Conclusion: Cross-sectional analyses showed that a substantial part (29%) of the variance in regular drinking habits of adolescents and young adults was explained by the drinking habits of family members and friends, in particular, by drinking of co-twins and friends. But, over time, drinking by family members and friends could only explain a relatively small part (4–5%) of the variance in adolescents' and young adults' alcohol use. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />8-<br />Authors:<br />Kuntsche, Emmanuel1 ekuntsche@sfa-ispa.chGossrau-Breen, Diana2Gmel, Gerhard1,3,4<br />Source:<br />European Journal of Public Health; Aug2009, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p394-399, 6p, 2 Graphs<br />Abstract:<br />Background: It is common knowledge that alcohol use and violence in adolescence is interrelated. However, less is known about variables which modify the link between alcohol use and violent behaviours in adolescence. The present study investigates how the interaction of intraindividual [adolescent risky single occasion drinking (RSOD)], intrafamitial (risky drinking of older siblings) and extrafamilial (risky drinking among peers) alcohol-related risk factors contributes to adolescents' violence and delinquency. Methods: Multiple linear regression analyses including two- and three-way interactions were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3711 8-10th graders in Switzerland (mean age 15.0, SD=0.95) who had older siblings. Results: All three alcohol-related risk factors and the three-way interaction contributed significantly to the frequency of violence and delinquency. Adolescents who frequently engage in RSOD and have both drunken peers and drunken older siblings had the highest levels of violence and delinquency. Moreover, their association between own drinking and violence increased the steepest. Conclusion: The present study confirmed the occurrence of cumulative risk processes and demonstrated that excessive alcohol consumption among older siblings and peers represents a crucial contextual factor for the link between adolescents' risky drinking and violence and delinquency. For prevention, the findings suggest that a focus on peers alone may not be effective if the familial background is not taken into consideration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]<br />