Au09 Presentation Ut118 1


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My Autodesk University 2009 presentation. It was about aligning the Data Model to the business and the capabilities of AutoCAD Map for utility modeling

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Au09 Presentation Ut118 1

  1. 1. GIS for the Utility or Municipality With AutoCAD® Map 3D Richard E Chappell Geospatial Application Engineer, CADsoft Consulting Geospatial
  2. 2. Welcome Richard Chappell Geospatial Application Engineer CADsoft Consulting, Inc 1295 W. Washington St., Suite 201, Tempe, AZ 85281 480-820-0408 Please turn off phones, etc. Geospatial
  3. 3. What about you? How many are experienced CAD users? How many are GIS Professionals? How many are new to GIS? How many are just hanging out until the beer bust tonight? Geospatial
  4. 4. Rewards (Not Bribes) at Booth #826 Supplies are limited – First come , first served Geospatial
  5. 5. Objectives Understand the issues behind implementing GIS in an organization so you can make better informed decisions on your GIS design See how AutoCAD Map can provide full GIS capability to an organization Learn some basic tools for communicating and designing your GIS Geospatial
  6. 6. Critical GIS Design Elements Geospatial
  7. 7. Data Management Discuss GIS Data Management Models Discuss the Geospatial Value Chain Discuss how the DWG file becomes a key tool in the GIS Geospatial
  8. 8. Single Geodatabase Model Typically large, relational DBMS Such as Oracle or SQL Server May use a middleware, such as ESRI’s ArcSDE All data housed in single format May have multiple instances of grouped data sets Could be managed file-based databases Shape files SDF DWG Access Etc. Geospatial
  9. 9. Multi-Format Data Model Data is stored in multiple formats Can use data in original formats without conversion Easy to swap data (update) Geospatial
  10. 10. Centralized Storage Model All data in same location Database Drive/Folders for file-based data Easy to administer Perform backups Easy to share resources Potential single point of failure Shared resources may not be available for low priority tasks Geospatial
  11. 11. Distributed Storage Model Data stored in separate databases/drive/folders Department databases Allows “owner” to manage resources Potential performance hit going to different locations in the same sessions Need qualified people in departments Geospatial
  12. 12. Hybrid Model Many organizations are a hybrid of these models Geospatial
  13. 13. Autodesk Geospatial Value Chain Stage 1 – AutoCAD or LT Stage 2 – Map 3D Stage 3 – Map 3D and FDO Stage 4 – Spatial Databases Stage 5 – Topobase and Other Applications Geospatial
  14. 14. Stage 1 – AutoCAD or LT Geospatial
  15. 15. Stage 2 – Map 3D Geospatial
  16. 16. Stage 3 – Map 3D and FDO Geospatial
  17. 17. Stage 4 – Spatial Databases Geospatial
  18. 18. Stage 5 – Topobase and Other Applications Geospatial
  19. 19. Breaking Free of the DWG Geospatial
  20. 20. Attaching Drawings and Working With Objects Geospatial
  21. 21. Connecting to Feature Data Sources and working with Features Geospatial
  22. 22. Demo Multi-format Data Access Shared data – different DWG front-ends Geospatial
  23. 23. Summary There are a number of methodologies to store and manage geospatial data. All provide value – some provide greater value than others Understanding where you are currently can help you in moving further up the value chain Geospatial
  24. 24. Data Modeling How-to Metodologies OO vs Relational Spatial Graphic relationships Documentation UML? Domain Lists Existing vs Proposed Managing Changes Geospatial
  25. 25. Data Modeling – Quick and Dirty Manage Expectations You’re not going to become a DBA You’re not going to become an expert modeler You will be able to communicate with Information technology people about requirements and data organization You will have some tools to communicate and share your GIS structure Geospatial
  26. 26. UML Unified Modeling Language Object Model Represents Object classes Shows inheritance Does not represent Database schemas directly Geospatial
  27. 27. Entity Relationship Diagrams It has the benefit of showing the data structure and relationships between the data elements. It is an effective way to model the logical and then the physical data structure. Geospatial
  28. 28. Important Terminology Conceptual Models Logical Models Physical Models Schema Entity Field Domain Primary Key Foreign Key Data Normalization Normal Forms Geospatial
  29. 29. Conceptual Models Sometimes called domain models, these are created during the initial requirements gathering as a way to explore concepts with the customer. Geospatial
  30. 30. Logical Models The logical model is used to explore the domain and relationships. They depict entity types, but are rarely used other than as a stepping stone to the physical model. Geospatial
  31. 31. Physical Models The physical model identifies the entities, attributes and relationships. The schema of the database is defined, with tables, columns and keys are identified. Geospatial
  32. 32. Schema The schema describes the physical structure of the database. It consists of the table descriptions, columns, data types, etc. Geospatial
  33. 33. Entity An identifiable object or concept in the database. Entities are stored in a table, and often the terms entity and table are used interchangeably. Geospatial
  34. 34. Field An attribute of the entity. They are also called columns. These are the descriptive elements of the entity. Geospatial
  35. 35. Domain The set of values allowed in an attribute (or field or column). Geospatial
  36. 36. Primary Key The unique identifier used to identify a specific instance of the entity. The primary key can be a natural key, which is an existing data attribute that makes the instance unique, or it could be a surrogate key, which is an attribute specifically added to uniquely identify each instance. Geospatial
  37. 37. Foreign Key The foreign key is a link from a different table to the primary key of a different table. For example, a transformer bank consists of several transformers. Each transformer will have an attribute that links to the primary key of the transformer bank table. That link attribute is the foreign key. Primary and foreign keys are the elements that make database relationships, or joins, possible Geospatial
  38. 38. Keys Geospatial
  39. 39. Data Normalization A process used to reduce redundancy in a database. For example, if every address record in a system includes the city, state and zip code values, it would duplicate these items many times over. Normalizing would place the city, state and zip code in a look up table that is linked by the zip code. The zip code becomes unique to that listing of city and state, and then only that item is duplicated. The city and state are placed only during reports when called. Geospatial
  40. 40. Data Normalization Geospatial
  41. 41. Normal Forms Specific rule sets applying to data normalization. There are five normal forms, although the first three are the most common. Some Forms Level Rule First normal form (1NF) An entity type is in 1NF when it contains no repeating groups of data. Second normal form (2NF) An entity type is in 2NF when it is in 1NF and when all of its non-key attributes are fully dependent on its primary key. Third normal form (3NF) An entity type is in 3NF when it is in 2NF and when all of its attributes are directly dependent on the primary key. Geospatial
  42. 42. Cardinality The relationship of a table joined to another – particularly relating to the numbers of one object to another. Also expresses whether a relationship is required. Examples: A transformer bank is made of at least one transformer, and to three transformers. There may be none or many valves associated to a pipe. Geospatial
  43. 43. Tools Professional tools – ERWIN, etc Prosumer – Access, OpenOffice Base Relationship Purists will insist these aren’t ERD tools, but they will allow us to design and document out systems Geospatial
  44. 44. Geospatial
  45. 45. The process: A Basic Approach Identify Entity Types Identify Attributes Apply Naming Conventions Identify Relationships Assign Keys Normalize to reduce redundancy Denormalize to improve performance Geospatial
  46. 46. What about non-database data You can include non-database entities in the ERD for design purposes by representing them as entities Include pertinent attributes Example: AutoCAD objects – Layer, and color or linetype if appropirate Links to external databases and be modeled Geospatial
  47. 47. Spatial Relationships Relationships between objects can be maintained entirely through geographic relationships Linking objects based on adjacency or by overlaying Geospatial
  48. 48. Spatial Relationships Relationships between objects can be maintained entirely through geographic relationships Linking objects based on adjacency or by overlaying Commonly called “spatial analysis” Geospatial
  49. 49. Map’s Spatial Relationship Tools Intersect Erase Union Clip Identity Paste Geospatial
  50. 50. Data Warehousing A data warehouse is a repository of data designed to speed up and facilitate data reporting and analysis Can be created by “pre running” common queries and storing them as tables in the database Denormalized Spatial data relationships can be warehoused as well. Geospatial
  51. 51. CAD Standards Use CAD Standards to help with design Layers are the most common method to segregate data in AutoCAD drawings Including the standards during the design process is a good way to ensure compatibility between systems Geospatial
  52. 52. Object Classification allows the creation of object classes that represent real-world artifacts The Object Class will include defined data standards, as well as drawing properties Classes can match database elements to provide a common structure across data formats Let’s look at an example – Utility Toolkits Geospatial
  53. 53. Documentation Keeping a record of the entities, attributes, domains and other elements Create a data dictionary describing data elements After some time goes by, the meaning of cryptic attribute names becomes forgotten Geospatial
  54. 54. Application Design GIS exists to solve some business problem Application design will heavily impact database design Application needs assessment Determine Potential Applications Identify target attributes Review user work requirements Identify targets of opportunities where GIS applications can solve specific problems or increase user productivity Specific tools will dictate model requirements Geospatial
  55. 55. Integrating Across Systems Top 10 applications across utilities 1.Landbase Model 2.Work Management 3.Facility Model Analysis/Planning 4.Operations and Maintenance 5.Document Management 6.Customer Information Systems 7.Workforce Automation 8.Regulatory Reporting 9.Environmental Testing 10.Marketing Geospatial
  56. 56. Integration Integration can be accomplished through programming Using developer kits to write programs to share information with other systems Geospatial
  57. 57. Integration through HTML Integration can take place through internet links Calls to documents or Active Server Pages (or other web interfaces) can be attributes Geospatial
  58. 58. Example (Maricopa County Assessor’s GIS) Geospatial
  59. 59. Example (Maricopa County Assessor’s GIS) Selecting the parcel 151-06-010, the following link is submitted to the system: Geospatial
  60. 60. Design Integration Business challenge rather than technical challenge Scale, generalization, granularity, and others that make the integration difficult Graphic entities may need to be replaced or adjusted upon entry into the GIS Ensure design standards are appropriately matched with GIS standards Geospatial
  61. 61. Application Examples (by industry) Workflows Common (across industries and government) Scheduled Maintenance Customer Notifications New Installs Dig Tickets/Clearances Facility replacements Geospatial
  62. 62. Application Examples (by industry) Electric Outage Cable Sag Pole Spacing Geospatial
  63. 63. Application Examples (by industry) Water Valve Turning Hydrant Maintenance Flow Geospatial
  64. 64. Application Examples (by industry) Sanitary Flow Cleanout (pigs) Geospatial
  65. 65. Application Examples (by industry) Storm 100-year flow rates 500-year flow rates Geospatial
  66. 66. Application Examples (by industry) -Communications Signal Levels Switching Geospatial
  67. 67. Application Examples (by industry) -Land Management Ownership Parcel Split/Merges Geospatial
  68. 68. Thanks! Richard Chappell Geospatial Application Engineer CADsoft Consulting, Inc 1295 W. Washington St., Suite 201, Tempe, AZ 85281 480-820-0408 Geospatial
  69. 69. Geospatial