Offshore Debris Disposal: a path to assist
Haiti Earthquake Reconstruction
Creating Artificial Reefs using
Clean Concrete Rubble and Debris
A Concept Presented by: Date:
Camilien J.W. Saint-Cyr – USAID 28 July 2010
Richard A. Benoit – USACE / Author
To deposit clean cement rubble created by the
12 Jan 10 earthquake at a designated site(s)
intending to create new marine life habitat; an
artificial reef, in greater Port au Prince Harbor.
For the past 17 years, the University of Florida has built & placed 26-miles of concrete
artificial reefs in the Gulf of Mexico to study impact on grouper, a popular food fish.
Why Artificial Reefs?
1. Assists earthquake recovery / reconstruction
by including an ocean-based rubble disposal option;
2. Does not require land to be taken from inventory;
3. It is environmentally friendly with positive impacts;
Why Artificial Reefs?
4. Relieves pressure on damaged natural coral reefs;
5. Assists and enhances local marine ecosystems;
6. Has a positive local economic impact:
A. Fishing – Additional habitat, enhances stocks;
B. Tourism – Develop diving / snorkeling industry.
Fishing Communities of
Petit Goave and L’Arcahaie
Where rubble is “Officially” disposed
Truitier, Truitier, Truitier
1. It’s Operational 1. Capacity unknown;
2. It’s Authorized 2. Not an engineered site;
3. It’s large (215 Hectares, 531 acres) 3. Distance from removal sites.
for .5-square mile ocean disposal area
(.5 square mile equals 320 acres or about 160 soccer fields)
1 acre, one foot deep = 43,560 cf / 27 = 1,613.3 cy
1,613 cy X 10 foot deep = 16,130 cy per acre
16,130 cy X 320 acres =
5,161,600 cubic yards
debris 10 feet high
* Does not factor 15% void / settlement factor
20 - 25,000,000 cubic yards of rubble
Where is it going to go? … How is it going to be disposed of?
Cost Estimates / Comparisons
LAND-BASED TOTAL 90 DAYS C&D DISPOSAL AND MITIGATION
379,242 CY X $73 per CY $27,684,666
OCEAN-BASED TOTAL 90 DAYS C & D DISPOSAL
379,242 CY X $40 per CY $15,169,680
SAVINGS UTILIZING Artificial Reef option $12,514,986
Location Survey Checklist
1. Away from navigation channels;
2. At a depth approximately 30 to 90 feet;
3. Away from live corals (at least one mile);
4. Away from areas where sedimentation will occur;
5. In areas of enriched nutrient tidal flow and current;
6. At a height approximately one-third the water column;
7. On a flat, hard-packed or silt bottom away from active growth.
Relieving Pressures on Natural Reefs
Source: World Resources Institute
1. Haiti - Coast of Arcadins, near Wahoo Beach
(Constructed in partnership among local fishing association, USAID / ASSET, UNDP)
2. Georgia – Off-shore Reef Network;
(24 permitted sites, 3 to 55 miles off shore, two square mile sites)
3. NY - Dept of Environmental Conservation;
(More than 300 reef sites, mostly made from rock, concrete, steel)
4. Cancun, Mexico – National Marine Park
(Utilizes man-made concrete “Reef Balls” for Rehab and Remediation)
A diver inspects an artificial reef made of about
4,000 concrete blocks at Loch Linnhe, the Isle of
Lismore, Scotland. At depths between 30 to 90 feet,
it created by the Scottish Association for Marine
Science to study man-made structures as habitat.
The Way Ahead
1. Engage GoH, UN, and Partners;
2. Identify funding streams;
3. Develop implementation strategy;
4. Identify artificial reef site(s);
5. Expedite site(s) evaluation and review process;
6. Identify debris removal, processing & transport sites;
(i.e. Port au Prince, Leogane, L’Arcahaie);
7. Begin program implementation (RFP, contract solicitation, etc.).