Lecture 16: Preserving
Biodiversity
Covers Chapter 30
Vocabulary
• Conservation Biology: branch of biology
dedicated to understanding and preserving
Earth’s biological diversit...
Preserve diversity at different levels*
• Conservation biologists are striving to study and preserve
biodiversity at diffe...
Ecosystem services*
• The ecosystem serves HUMANS!
– Purify the air and water: forests absorb CO2, return water to the
atm...
Is biodiversity diminishing?
• Biodiversity is crucial to the ability of
ecosystems to provide their services
– *Redundanc...
Extinction
• A natural process
• Elimination of an ENTIRE species*
• We have had 5 mass extinctions on earth,
the last one...
Scientists Warn of Next Possible
Mass Extinction
• You Tube: Fox News Insider
IUCN: International Union for
Conservation of Nature
• Publishes lists of at-risk species
– Critically endangered
– Endang...
The Most Endangered Species
List
• You Tube: SourceFed
We are depleting biodiversity
• Increasing use of resources to support
humans
• Direct impact of human activities on
biodi...
How are we depleting
biodiversity?
• Ecological footprint: estimate of the area of
Earth’s surface required to produce res...
Human Demand Exceeds Earth’s Estimated
Biocapacity
Fig. 30-6
world biocapacity
human footprint
Habitat Destruction
• Temperate forests are rebounding from our
destruction, but tropical rain forests are
being cut down ...
Overexploitation
• Hunting or harvesting natural populations at
a rate that exceeds their ability to replenish
their numbe...
Pollution
• Mining
• Burning fossil fuel
• Pesticides
• All release chemicals into the air, water and
soil
What can be done?
• Core reserves and wildlife corridors
• Sustainable development
• Sustainable agriculture
Core Reserves/Wildlife Corridors
• Core Reserve: protected natural areas that
exclude all but low-impact human activities
...
Corridors Connect Reserves
Fig. 30-11
core
reserve
core
reserve
small
reservebuffer zones
corridors
Wildlife Corridors Connect
Habitats
Fig. 30-12
Sustainable Development
• Resource use aims to meet human needs
while ensuring the sustainability of natural
systems and t...
Biosphere Reserves divided into 3 areas
– Central core: protected area at center of reserve.
Animal monitoring and LOW-IMP...
A Unique Biosphere Reserve
Fig. 30-14
Sustainable agriculture*
• No-till: leaves remnants of harvested crops
in field to form mulch for next year’s crop
• Use a...
What can you do?
• Recycle
• Reduce Fossil Fuel Usage
• Reduce the impact of meat consumption
• Educate yourself and other...
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Lecture 16

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Lecture 16

  1. 1. Lecture 16: Preserving Biodiversity Covers Chapter 30
  2. 2. Vocabulary • Conservation Biology: branch of biology dedicated to understanding and preserving Earth’s biological diversity • Biodiversity*: the variety of living organisms on Earth
  3. 3. Preserve diversity at different levels* • Conservation biologists are striving to study and preserve biodiversity at different levels: – Genetic diversity: survival of a species depends on variety of alleles in each species gene pool – Species diversity: variety of different species that make up a community are important for survival of the community – Ecosystem diversity: variety of both communities and the nonliving environment on which communities depend
  4. 4. Ecosystem services* • The ecosystem serves HUMANS! – Purify the air and water: forests absorb CO2, return water to the atmosphere – Replenish oxygen: Forests produce O2 – Detoxifying wastes: bacteria in soil recycle nutrient – Controlling erosion and flooding: plants block wind and roots stabilize soil – Controlling pests: many organisms eat pests – Provide recreation: coral reefs, rain forests, national parks – Regulate climate: Trees, forests provide shade, reduce temps
  5. 5. Is biodiversity diminishing? • Biodiversity is crucial to the ability of ecosystems to provide their services – *Redundancy hypothesis: if a few species are eliminated, the remaining species in that ecosystem may be able to provide the same services to maintain that ecosystem – BUT if that ecosystem is stressed, remaining species may not thrive well enough to provide any services
  6. 6. Extinction • A natural process • Elimination of an ENTIRE species* • We have had 5 mass extinctions on earth, the last one 65 million years ago (dinosaurs) • Sudden changes in the environment seem to cause them • Some believe we are headed towards the sixth!
  7. 7. Scientists Warn of Next Possible Mass Extinction • You Tube: Fox News Insider
  8. 8. IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature • Publishes lists of at-risk species – Critically endangered – Endangered – Vulnerable – Threatened • Totals for all lists: – Mammals 25% – Birds 13% – Amphibians 41% – Trees 41%
  9. 9. The Most Endangered Species List • You Tube: SourceFed
  10. 10. We are depleting biodiversity • Increasing use of resources to support humans • Direct impact of human activities on biodiversity:* – Habitat destruction – Overexploitation of species (hunting, etc) – Pollution – Global warming
  11. 11. How are we depleting biodiversity? • Ecological footprint: estimate of the area of Earth’s surface required to produce resources we need and absorb wastes we make • Biocapacity: estimate of sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity (given in area) • In 2005, footprint was 6.7 acres PER PERSON but biocapacity was 5.2 acres PER PERSON!
  12. 12. Human Demand Exceeds Earth’s Estimated Biocapacity Fig. 30-6 world biocapacity human footprint
  13. 13. Habitat Destruction • Temperate forests are rebounding from our destruction, but tropical rain forests are being cut down 50,000 square miles per year…why? – Converted to agriculture to supply us with • Beef • Coffee • Soybeans • Sugar
  14. 14. Overexploitation • Hunting or harvesting natural populations at a rate that exceeds their ability to replenish their numbers – Some scientists say that 70% of (edible) fish are overexploited
  15. 15. Pollution • Mining • Burning fossil fuel • Pesticides • All release chemicals into the air, water and soil
  16. 16. What can be done? • Core reserves and wildlife corridors • Sustainable development • Sustainable agriculture
  17. 17. Core Reserves/Wildlife Corridors • Core Reserve: protected natural areas that exclude all but low-impact human activities • Wildlife Corridors: strips of protected land that link core reserves and allow animals safe passage between habitats separated by human activities
  18. 18. Corridors Connect Reserves Fig. 30-11 core reserve core reserve small reservebuffer zones corridors
  19. 19. Wildlife Corridors Connect Habitats Fig. 30-12
  20. 20. Sustainable Development • Resource use aims to meet human needs while ensuring the sustainability of natural systems and the environment. • Biosphere reserves are areas on Earth where scientists are maintaining biodiversityand evaluating techniques for sustainable development
  21. 21. Biosphere Reserves divided into 3 areas – Central core: protected area at center of reserve. Animal monitoring and LOW-IMPACT development only – Buffer zone: research is carried out on how to preserve biodiversity, tourism, education, and LOW-IMPACT development only – Transition area: development, tourism, sustainable fishing and agriculture only – THERE ARE 530 BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN 105 COUNTRIES TODAY!
  22. 22. A Unique Biosphere Reserve Fig. 30-14
  23. 23. Sustainable agriculture* • No-till: leaves remnants of harvested crops in field to form mulch for next year’s crop • Use animal waste to fertilize fields • Modern irrigation that will reduce evaporation and delivers water only where and when needed • Alternate crops and plant wider variety of crops to reduce insect infestation
  24. 24. What can you do? • Recycle • Reduce Fossil Fuel Usage • Reduce the impact of meat consumption • Educate yourself and others • Vote

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