Die Erste Spaltung im Liebe
Christi und seine
Folgenwirkungen
The first schism in the Body of the
Messiah and its conseque...
Outline
•
•
•
•

Personal introduction - reflection
The historical factors - rejection
The present situation - reconciliat...
Salomon Herz Hirschland
born Steinheim, Westphalia 1766
Essen 1812 – 1882
• Salomon (1799-1869) —
Veterinarian – father of
• Abraham (1801-1866) —
Merchant and Lottery Agent
• Le...
Brothers Hirschland, London
London 1884-2013
• Richard Hirschland
(1859-1936)
• Sydney Moses
Hirschland -> Harvey
(1895-1989)
• Anthony Adolph
Hirschl...
Outline
• Personal introduction - reflection

• The historical factors - rejection
• The present situation - reconciliatio...
The “Parting of the Ways” or the
“Ways that Never Parted”?

• The traditional view
(Parkes, Simon, Dunn)
• New understandi...
The Traditional View
•
•
•
•

Between 70 and 135
Destruction of Temple
Birkat Haminim c.90
Jerusalem becomes
Roman city
• ...
The Revisionist View
• Boyarin, Frederickson
• Separation of
Judaism and
Christianity
unsystematic,
sporadic and not
compl...
Key Periods in the history of Jewish
believers in Yeshua - Infancy









0-32The Messiah among us!
32c
Great Co...
Key Consequences
• Loss of Jewish
worldview in West
• Anti-Judaism in
Christian theology
• Supersessionism
• “When Judaism...
Synagogue

Without a home,
among the
people of Israel,
or in the Christian Church,
the Messianic Jewish
community ends up
...
Tertullian (165-220)
• The new law of peace
and love replaces the
law of retribution
• Israel cease to be
God’s chosen peo...
St John Chrysostom (350-407)
Bishop of Constantinople
• Chrysostom = Mouth of Gold
• 8 Homilies against the Jews and
Jewis...
St Augustine (354-430)
"...the Church admits and avows the Jewish
people to be cursed, because after killing
Christ they c...
Anti Jewish invective…
.. by early church fathers:
• St Augustine
• St Ambroise
• St John Chrysostom
• St Jerome
• Gregory...
Types of Supersessionism
φ Punitive supersessionism – Israel

to be punished for her rejection of
Jesus
φ Economic superse...
R K Soulen and the Reframing of the
Canonical Narrative
φ ‘The standard model drives a
historical wedge between the
gospel...
Messianic Jews challenge
Supersessionism
• One chair occupied by
Israel and taken over by
Christians
• One chair broken in...
Covenant in Jewish Thought
φ Election – the choice God made of

Israel to be his people
φ Covenant – the form of the
commu...
Key Consequences (2)
• Church without
Israel is incomplete
• Israel without
Messiah is
incomplete
• The mystery of the
Chu...
Luther on Law
• “The Law and the Gospel are two
doctrines that are absolutely
contrary.”
• “The Law is the Word of perditi...
Outline
• Personal introduction - reflection
• The historical factors - rejection

• The present situation - reconciliatio...
White Crucifixion
Marc Chagall, 1938
What is a lament?
• Passionate expression of grief

• Expression of deep regret or
sorrow for the loss of a
person or posi...
Lament Rhythm (3:2) - Ps.5:1-2
My-words give-earto, O LORD

Amarai Ha’azinah
YHWH

Give-heed-to mygroaning

Binah Hagigi

...
Elements of Laments (Psalm 54)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Call for vengeance
Complaint
Confession of sin
Exclamation of praise
Exp...
Lament tradition
• Frequent response to catastrophe,
meaninglessness, delay in
redemption of the faithful and
judgement on...
Sitting in Sadness – Turning the back
Reconciliation - Process and Product
Reconciliation goes
•beyond conflict resolution
•changing the motivations,
goals, bel...
Intra-Societal Reconciliation
Truth – open expression
of the past
Mercy - forgiveness to
enable new relations
Justice - re...
“The Place Called Reconciliation”
• Truth
–
–
–
–

Acknowledgment
Transparency
Revelation
Clarity

• Justice
–
–
–
–

Equa...
4. The MJM challenges Two
Covenant Theology
• Two chairs, no connection,
both equally comfortable, one
called Torah, one c...
Marquardt’s “Jewish ‘No!’ to Jesus”
• Text
Influencing Factors
• Rediscovery of the Jewishness of Jesus,
the Early Church, Paul
• Importance of Jewish background of
...
Outline
• Personal introduction - reflection
• The historical factors - rejection
• The present situation - reconciliation...
Godly and Worldly Grief
• For godly grief produces repentance which
leads to salvation and brings no regret –
but worldly ...
God is faithful!
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
Volkenroda composite 281013e
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Die Erste Spaltung im Liebe Christi und seine Folgenwirkungen
The first schism in the Body of the Messiah and its consequences

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  • Little boy at Sunday school, lerning about red sea – mum – what did you learn
    The Israelites left Egypt, pharaoh and army followed, not able to cross – moses took cell, phone, Israeli airforce bombed, army brought pontoon bridge – if I was to tell you what they really said you would not believe me!
  • The Hirschland family originated in the town of Steinheim in Westphalia in western Germany
  • Butcher, trader, religious teacher, cantor, prayer leader, treasurer and usher.
  • Little boy at Sunday school, lerning about red sea – mum – what did you learn
    The Israelites left Egypt, pharaoh and army followed, not able to cross – moses took cell, phone, Israeli airforce bombed, army brought pontoon bridge – if I was to tell you what they really said you would not believe me!
  • History of Jewish Believers in Jesus – Key Dates
     
    4bcBirth of the Messiah - first Gospel message of NT
    4-32 The Messiah is the Message
    32-45 To the Jew - only!
     
    32 - 1000 Infancy
     
    32cGreat Commission (Matthew 28)
    120c 14 Hebrew Christian Bishops of Jerusalem
    150c Justin Martyr’s “Dialogue with Trypho”
    170c Hegesippus “Memoirs of the History of the Church” in Eusebius
    180c Tertullian “Adversus Judaeos”
    200c Epiphanius “Panarion” against Ebionites
    400c Jerome translates NT with Hebrew Christian assistance
    5th-9th c - Evidence of Jewish-Christian groups in East, influencing Syriac church and Islam
     
    1000 - 1500 The Hidden Years?
     
    1070 Crispin’s Disputation
    1106 Dialogue of Pedro Alfonsi (Rabbi Moses of Huesca)
    1232 Domus Conversorum (Converts’ Homes) in London and Oxford
    1263 Paulus Christiani debates with Nachmanides in Barcelona
    1278 “Pugio Fidei (Dagger of Faith)” Raymundus Martini
    1351-1431 Paul of Burgos (Rabbi Solomon Levi) “Scrutinium Sacrarum Scriptuarium”
    1413-14 Tortosa Disputation
     
    1500 Reformation Hopes
     
    1554 “Catechism for Enquiring Jews” (Emanuel Tremellius)
    1660 Puritan hopes for re-admission of Jews to UK and Restoration
    1676 Synod of Netherlands considers need of Jewish Evangelism
    1720 Rabbi Judah Monis shares testimony in Boston
     
     
    1800-1939 The Growth of Jewish Missions
     
    1806 Auguste Neander baptised
    1809 London Society for the Promotion of Christianity amongst the Jews (CMJ) (Joseph Frey)
    1812 Lewis Way sees “Point of View” and involves himself in CMJ
    1813 Episcopal Beni Abraham (41 members)
    1817 Hebrew NT (CMJ)
    1819 Joseph Wolff joins CMJ
    1821 Stanstead House Missionary Training School (McCaul, Wolff, Nicholayson alumni), Yiddish NT (CMJ)1836 First edition “Old Paths” (Alexander McCaul)
    1837 Hebrew 1662 Prayer Book (CMJ)
    1839 “Narrative of a Mission of Enquiry to the Jews” (Andrew Bonar, Robert Murray McCheyne
    1841 Church of Scotland Jewish Mission, Michael Solomon Alexander made Bishop of Jerusalem
    1842 British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews (Ridley Haim Herschell)(BJS, now CWI)
    1845 Baptist Mission to the Jews, USA, Episcopal Church Mission to the Jews, USA
    1859 Pastor Faltin in Kishineff, Aaron Stern in Ethiopia
    1865 Norwegian Lutheran Mission - Paul Caspari
    1866 Hebrew Christian Alliance of Great Britain, Aaron Stern regularly preaches to 500 Jewish believers
    1876 Mildmay Mission (John Wilkinson)
    1878 “A Short And Easy Method With The Jews” (Charles Leslie)
    1879 Barbican Mission (Hebrew Christian)
    1880 Institutum Judaicum in Leipzig (becomes Delitzianum 1886)
    1881 “What I really wish” (Rabbi Isaac Lichtenstein)
    1883 Israelites of the New Covenant (Joseph Rabinowitz)
    1884 “Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah” (Alfred Edersheim)
    1889 “Israel My Glory” (John Wilkinson)
    1902 “Christian Evidences for Jewish People” (A. Lukyn Williams)
    1910 Meal of the Holy King, London (Paul Levertoff)
    1923 J.S. Conning advocates “Parish Approach”
    1925 International Hebrew Christian Alliance (Sir Leon Levison, Harcourt Samuel)
    1927 Budapest (95) and Warsaw (86) Conferences
    1928 Resolution on Hebrew Christian Church at Presbyterian Assembly
    1929 International Missionary Council forms IMCCAJ (International Missionary Council’s Committee on the Christian Approach to the Jew
    1933 “History of Jewish Christianity” (Hugh Schonfield)
    1934 First Hebrew Christian Church of Chicago (David Bronstein Sr)
    1936 Berger D’Israel, France (Henri Vincent)
    1937 Conference in Vienna, Richard Wurmbrand baptised
     
    1939-1945 Dismantling and Decline
     
    1948 British Jews Society(CWI) South Africa (Jack Mundel, Ernest Lloyd)
    1965 “The Jewish People and Jesus Christ” (Jacob Jocz)
    1965 Arnold Frank dies aged 106
     
    1970-1999 The New Dawn
     
    1974 HCAA becomes MJAA, Jews for Jesus independent of ABMJ
    1975 “Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation”
    1979 Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC)
    1980 LCJE 1 - Pattaya, Thailand (20), London Messianic Congregation
    1982 Messiah Has Come, London
    1984 “Evangelicals and Jews in an Age of Pluralism”
    1982 LCJE2 - Newmarket, UK
    1986 LCJE3 - Ware, UK, Helen Shapiro
    1992 LCJE4 - Zeist, Holland, Archbishop of Canterbury discontinues CMJ Patronage.
    1995 LCJE5 – Jerusalem,
    1999 LCJE 6 - New York
    2003 LCJE 7 - Helsinki
     
  • Little boy at Sunday school, lerning about red sea – mum – what did you learn
    The Israelites left Egypt, pharaoh and army followed, not able to cross – moses took cell, phone, Israeli airforce bombed, army brought pontoon bridge – if I was to tell you what they really said you would not believe me!
  • In the White Crucifixion of 1938, Marc Chagall depicted Jesus wearing a head-cloth and a loincloth made from a prayer shawl. He is lit from on high by a ray of light and from below by a menora. He is mourned by the Jewish patriarchs and a matriarch, and surrounded by scenes of pogroms, in which Jews attempt to flee as Nazis burn their Torah Ark and books.
  • Reconciliation goes beyond …conflict resolution to changing the motivations, goals, beliefs, attitudes and emotions of the great majority of the society members regarding the conflict, the nature of the relationships between the parties, and the parties themselves. These changes take shape via the reconciliation process, promote the peace as a new form of intergroup relations, and serve as stable foundations for cooperative and friendly acts that symbolize these relations (Bar-Tal and Gemma H. Bennink 2004:12)
  • Our starting point for the Reconciliation Resource is John Paul Lederach's seminal concept of reconciliation (based on Psalm 85: 10) as the creation of a meeting place where the relationships and paradoxes between mercy, truth, justice and peace are negotiated.
    We find this understanding of reconciliation gives us a robust framework for the Resource:
    Key concepts / ideas
    e.g.’s / practice
    Skills / Training
    Truth
    Contested history Many truths New narrative Identity Deliberative Space
    Memory/Information Recovery
    TRC’s
    Institute for the Healing of Memories
    Healing through remembering (NI)
    Storytelling
    Authentic Communication Skills
    Disagreeing agreeably Discernment
    Mercy
    (Un)Forgiveness Compassion Amnesty Apology
    Melanesian Brothers Forgiveness Project
    Forgiveness Power of apology How to be merciful
    Justice
    Restorative justice Structural justice Accountability Reparation
    Chilean Truth Commission Cambodia trials Gacaca
    Mediation Dialogue & facilitation skills
    Peace
    Positive & negative Disarmament/ Security Interdependence Right livelihood
    The new creation
    Violence and the Sacred (Girard)
    Gandhi/King/Bamba San Egidio
    Non Violent Communication
    Nonviolence Peace from within
  • Restoration – putting things right
  • Nahum Glatzer - “What the day [Yom Kippur] conveyed to him was that essential as a mediator may be in the Christian experience, the Jew stands in no need of mediation. God is near to man and desires his undeviated devotion.”
  • Little boy at Sunday school, lerning about red sea – mum – what did you learn
    The Israelites left Egypt, pharaoh and army followed, not able to cross – moses took cell, phone, Israeli airforce bombed, army brought pontoon bridge – if I was to tell you what they really said you would not believe me!
  • Volkenroda composite 281013e

    1. 1. Die Erste Spaltung im Liebe Christi und seine Folgenwirkungen The first schism in the Body of the Messiah and its consequences www.mmjt.eu richardsharvey@gmail.com
    2. 2. Outline • • • • Personal introduction - reflection The historical factors - rejection The present situation - reconciliation The future prospect - rejoicing
    3. 3. Salomon Herz Hirschland born Steinheim, Westphalia 1766
    4. 4. Essen 1812 – 1882 • Salomon (1799-1869) — Veterinarian – father of • Abraham (1801-1866) — Merchant and Lottery Agent • Levi (1804-1863) — Weaver, Butcher & Banker • Simon (1807-1885) –Banker & Trader • Moses (1810-1888) — Doctor of Medicine
    5. 5. Brothers Hirschland, London
    6. 6. London 1884-2013 • Richard Hirschland (1859-1936) • Sydney Moses Hirschland -> Harvey (1895-1989) • Anthony Adolph Hirschland -> Harvey (1923-2012) • Richard Simon Harvey (1956-)
    7. 7. Outline • Personal introduction - reflection • The historical factors - rejection • The present situation - reconciliation • The future prospect - rejoicing
    8. 8. The “Parting of the Ways” or the “Ways that Never Parted”? • The traditional view (Parkes, Simon, Dunn) • New understandings (Boyarin, Frederickson) • Contemporary significance • Inventiing Jewish and Christian idenities http://jewishstudies.eteacherbiblical.com/2013/06/inventing-christian-id ) 15
    9. 9. The Traditional View • • • • Between 70 and 135 Destruction of Temple Birkat Haminim c.90 Jerusalem becomes Roman city • Jewish believers flee to Pella • Bar Kocheba revolt
    10. 10. The Revisionist View • Boyarin, Frederickson • Separation of Judaism and Christianity unsystematic, sporadic and not complete until 4th/5th c • Partitioning of Jewish Christianity to define borders
    11. 11. Key Periods in the history of Jewish believers in Yeshua - Infancy         0-32The Messiah among us! 32c Great Commission (Matthew 28) 120c 14 Jewish Bishops of Jerusalem 150c Justin Martyr’s “Dialogue with Trypho” 170c Hegesippus “Memoirs of the History of the Church” in Eusebius 200c Epiphanius “Panarion” against Ebionites 400c Jerome translates NT with Messianic Jewish assistance 5th-9th c - Evidence of Jewish-Christian groups in East, influencing Syriac church and Islam 18
    12. 12. Key Consequences • Loss of Jewish worldview in West • Anti-Judaism in Christian theology • Supersessionism • “When Judaism and Christianity parted company, the truth was divided”
    13. 13. Synagogue Without a home, among the people of Israel, or in the Christian Church, the Messianic Jewish community ends up in the no-man’s land in-between Church
    14. 14. Tertullian (165-220) • The new law of peace and love replaces the law of retribution • Israel cease to be God’s chosen people. • Rebecca, Esau and Jacob. • Esau = Israel; Jacob = Church
    15. 15. St John Chrysostom (350-407) Bishop of Constantinople • Chrysostom = Mouth of Gold • 8 Homilies against the Jews and Jewish Christians • "Shall I tell you of their plundering, their covetousness, their abandonment of the poor, their thefts, their cheating in trade? The whole day long will not be enough to give you an account of these things. But do their festivals have something solemn and great about them? They have shown that these, too, are impure." (Homily I,
    16. 16. St Augustine (354-430) "...the Church admits and avows the Jewish people to be cursed, because after killing Christ they continue to till the ground of an earthly circumcision, an earthly Sabbath, an earthly passover, while the hidden strength or virtue of making known Christ, which this tilling contains, is not yielded to the Jews while they continue in impiety and unbelief, for it is revealed in the New Testament. While they will not turn to God, the veil which is on their minds in reading the Old Testament is not taken away... the Jewish people, like Cain, continue tilling the ground, in the carnal observance of the law, which does not yield to them its strength, because they do not perceive in it the grace of Christ"
    17. 17. Anti Jewish invective… .. by early church fathers: • St Augustine • St Ambroise • St John Chrysostom • St Jerome • Gregory of Nyssus • Many others
    18. 18. Types of Supersessionism φ Punitive supersessionism – Israel to be punished for her rejection of Jesus φ Economic supersessionism – Israel no longer needed in the purposes of God – no continuing theological significance outside the Church φ Structural supersessionism – the Christian reading of the biblical canonical narrative goes from Creation and Fall to Redemption and Consummation omitting Election of Israel as Blessing to the Nations 25
    19. 19. R K Soulen and the Reframing of the Canonical Narrative φ ‘The standard model drives a historical wedge between the gospel and the God of Israel by collapsing God’s covenant with Israel into the economy of redemption in its prefigurative form’ (1996:110) φ Economy of Creation, Fall, Election of Israel, Redemption, Restoration 26
    20. 20. Messianic Jews challenge Supersessionism • One chair occupied by Israel and taken over by Christians • One chair broken in two • William Temple - “When Judaism and Christianity parted company, the truth was divided”
    21. 21. Covenant in Jewish Thought φ Election – the choice God made of Israel to be his people φ Covenant – the form of the communal relationship He calls them into φ Redemption – the goal, promise and ultimate universal purpose towards which election and covenant move 28
    22. 22. Key Consequences (2) • Church without Israel is incomplete • Israel without Messiah is incomplete • The mystery of the Church is bound inextricably to the mystery of Israel
    23. 23. Luther on Law • “The Law and the Gospel are two doctrines that are absolutely contrary.” • “The Law is the Word of perdition, the Word of wrath, the Word of sadness, the Word of pain, the voice of the Judge,” while • The Gospel “is the Word of salvation, the Word of grace, the Word of comfort, the Word of joy.” • What Luther Says, An Anthology, vol. 2, comp. Ewald M. Plass (St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia, 1959), 733
    24. 24. Outline • Personal introduction - reflection • The historical factors - rejection • The present situation - reconciliation • The future prospect - rejoicing
    25. 25. White Crucifixion Marc Chagall, 1938
    26. 26. What is a lament? • Passionate expression of grief • Expression of deep regret or sorrow for the loss of a person or position • Means of invoking the presence of God within a situation of distress • Sub-types: funeral dirge, city, communal, individual laments • Heb: qinâ - dirge (2 Sam. 1:17, Amos 8:10) tefillah lament • A phonetic illustration of suffering
    27. 27. Lament Rhythm (3:2) - Ps.5:1-2 My-words give-earto, O LORD Amarai Ha’azinah YHWH Give-heed-to mygroaning Binah Hagigi Listen to-the-soundof my-cry Hakshivah L’qol shav’i My-king and-my-God Malki v’Elohai
    28. 28. Elements of Laments (Psalm 54) • • • • • • • • • Call for vengeance Complaint Confession of sin Exclamation of praise Expression of trust Grounds for Petition Invocation of God Petition Protestation of innocence • Vow • • • • • • • 1 invocation 2 petition 3 complaint 4 trust 5 vengeance 6 vow 7 praise
    29. 29. Lament tradition • Frequent response to catastrophe, meaninglessness, delay in redemption of the faithful and judgement on the wicked (Lamentations, Pss. 44; 137) • God called to account • Lament form allows arguing with good, bad theology and expression of anger • ‘The lament does not solve all of the sufferer’s intellectual questions about the origin and meaning of the suffering, but does provide a structured way for the faithful to bring their suffering to God’s attention and to cope with it.’ (ABD VI:222)
    30. 30. Sitting in Sadness – Turning the back
    31. 31. Reconciliation - Process and Product Reconciliation goes •beyond conflict resolution •changing the motivations, goals, beliefs, attitudes and emotions •the nature of the relationships between the parties • the parties themselves (Bar-Tal and Gemma H. Bennink 2004:12)
    32. 32. Intra-Societal Reconciliation Truth – open expression of the past Mercy - forgiveness to enable new relations Justice - restitution and social restructuring Peace – a common future, wellbeing, and security for all the parties. (Lederach, 1997)
    33. 33. “The Place Called Reconciliation” • Truth – – – – Acknowledgment Transparency Revelation Clarity • Justice – – – – Equality Right relationships Restoration Restitution Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other. (Psalm 85:10) • Mercy – – – – – Acceptance Forgiveness Support Compassion Healing • Peace – – – – – Harmony Unity Well-being Security Respect
    34. 34. 4. The MJM challenges Two Covenant Theology • Two chairs, no connection, both equally comfortable, one called Torah, one called Yeshua • Franz Rosenzweig (1886– 1929) – “Judaism is the Sun, Christianity the rays” • The Jewish ‘no’ to Jesus?
    35. 35. Marquardt’s “Jewish ‘No!’ to Jesus” • Text
    36. 36. Influencing Factors • Rediscovery of the Jewishness of Jesus, the Early Church, Paul • Importance of Jewish background of Scripture • Significance of land and people of Israel today • The Charismatic/Prophetic dimensions of Restoration and Reconciliation 43 43
    37. 37. Outline • Personal introduction - reflection • The historical factors - rejection • The present situation - reconciliation • The future prospect - rejoicing
    38. 38. Godly and Worldly Grief • For godly grief produces repentance which leads to salvation and brings no regret – but worldly grief produces death. (2 Cor. 7:10) • Repentance – Reconciliation – Restoration – Rejoicing!
    39. 39. God is faithful!

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