The Kipling-Zachman lens


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  • Thanks Sally. I acknowledge your input to Slide 3, and I have added a credit.
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  • I gave a presentation to the ZIFA Forum in 2003 which included a question about which of the delegates were operating in each of the 3 modes in Slide 3 (but not with these nice names). The vast majority were using it as a lens and only 3 people claimed to be following the 'Doctrine'. The Doctrine is not only about the columns satisfying the domain - it also about ensuring that all composite models are constructed from primitive elements that conform to the Zachman Standards.
    Sally Bean
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  • The Kipling-Zachman lens

    1. 1. The Kipling-Zachman Lens A personal interpretation by Richard Veryard <ul><li>“ I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who.” </li></ul>Do you know which of Kipling’s characters says this?
    2. 2. Context <ul><li>The Elephant’s Child … was full of 'satiable curtiosity, and that means he asked ever so many questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudyard Kipling </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Six Questions in the Zachman Framework <ul><li>Each of the six questions defines a column in the Zachman Matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>The six questions / columns can be used in three ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Zachman Lens </li></ul><ul><li>as a thinking and discovery device </li></ul><ul><li>Zachman Bingo </li></ul><ul><li>as a classification scheme for architecture documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Zachman Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>as a world view in which the six columns completely satisfy the architecture domain </li></ul>Thanks to Sally Bean and John Devadoss for contributions to this slide.
    4. 4. Questions about Questions <ul><li>In this presentation, I’m going to be asking WHAT-WHY etc. questions about the Kipling-Zachman questions themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Firstly, I want to ask the WHAT ELSE question for each of the six questions. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, what else might this question include (beyond the conventional interpretation)? </li></ul>
    5. 5. WHAT <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>THINGS objects, nouns MATTER problem, symptom DATA “ that which is given” CONTENT material cause
    6. 6. WHAT MAKES THINGS DIFFERENT <ul><li>Bateson defines information as &quot;a difference that makes a difference&quot;. Hold your hand perfectly still, palm upwards and resting comfortably on a table. With your other hand, drop a small coin into the palm. You will feel the impact, and if the coin is cold, you will feel the coldness of the metal. Soon however, you will feel nothing. The nerve cells don't bother repeating themselves. They will only report to the brain when something changes. Information is difference. </li></ul><ul><li>A lizard hunting insects operates on the same principle. The lizard's eye only reports movement to the lizard's brain. If the hunted insect settles on a leaf, the lizard literally cannot see it. But the moment the insect starts to move, whop, the lizard can see it again, and the tongue flickers out and catches it. </li></ul><ul><li>But there are differences and differences. Information is difference that makes a difference. You were probably aware, as you dropped the coin into your palm, your eyes told you automatically, without your brain even asking, what the value of the coin was; but you were probably not aware what date it was minted. This is because (unless you are a numismatist) the value of the coin makes a difference to you whereas its date doesn't. </li></ul><ul><li>What is it that makes a difference to a lizard, to a numismatist, to you? Surely not the same things. What is information for the lizard is not information for you, and what is information for you is not information for the lizard. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why the perspective of information is important. Perspective defines what counts as information at all, perspective defines to whom the information makes a difference. </li></ul>
    7. 7. WHY <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>GOAL END problem solved VALUE PURPOSE final cause
    8. 8. WHY <ul><li>Avowed Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Declared intentions </li></ul><ul><li>De Facto Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>POSIWID – the purpose of a system is what is does </li></ul>
    9. 9. WHEN <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>TIME events, sequence TIMING tipping point EVENTS signals, triggers PACE how quickly
    10. 10. WHEN <ul><li>Simple notions of time </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Complex notions of time </li></ul><ul><li>Procrastination and haste – the moment to conclude </li></ul><ul><li>Tipping point / critical mass / catastrophe or crisis </li></ul>
    11. 11. DIFFERENTIAL RATES OF CHANGE <ul><li>Pace Layering </li></ul><ul><li>Shearing layers tear complex artefacts apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture based on differential rates of change can be more adaptable. </li></ul><ul><li>The slow-moving layers dominate the fast-moving layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Duffy / Brand </li></ul>
    12. 12. HOW <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>PROCESS verbs PRACTICE efficient cause formal cause POLICY rules MANNER adverbs
    13. 13. HOW <ul><li>Discourse of the Master </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Obediently </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse of the Hysteric </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfully </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastically </li></ul><ul><li>Joyfully </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    14. 14. WHERE <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>PLACE geography MAPS plotting SPACE Cartesian NETWORK cyberspace
    15. 15. Is There Anything Wrong With Geography? <ul><li>Geographical location is less important than it was; sometimes we don’t even know it. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, we are interested in the distance between two locations, rather than the locations themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance will often be measured in travel time or cost rather than kilometres. </li></ul><ul><li>Other kinds of abstract location and distance may be more important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonging to the same community and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing a common language or worldview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These distances between people are often more significant than physical distance. </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Network is the World <ul><li>A university professor may spend more quality time with people elsewhere in the world in her academic field than with people in the same university building. </li></ul><ul><li>So, what kind of map are you going to draw, to show the topography of social interaction and collaborative research? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Two alternative perspectives <ul><li>Flat Earth Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Modern technology has eliminated geography. </li></ul><ul><li>Space is homogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Except for a few specialist applications, the WHERE question is no longer interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between people and organizations occupies a complex and heterogeneous space. </li></ul><ul><li>The WHERE question allows us to explore the boundaries and gradients within this space. </li></ul>
    18. 18. The complexity of “WHERE” – two examples <ul><li>Telecoms Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile signals are affected by physical geography (mountains) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile pricing is affected by national borders (roaming charges) </li></ul><ul><li>An intelligent telco needs to manage the differences between these two maps. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Influence </li></ul><ul><li>My ability to persuade a CEO depends on many types of WHERE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I in the same elevator? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I in the same conversations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I on the same page? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A political map shows power, proximity, interest, and trust. </li></ul>
    19. 19. And remember … <ul><li>THE   P I$ ∏  T THE T€RRIT  R  </li></ul>
    20. 20. WHO <ul><li>Traditional Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Interpretation </li></ul>PEOPLE roles WHO for WHOM ORG UNITS STAKE Customer, Actor, Owner
    21. 21. The Struggle <ul><li>&quot;Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways. The point is, to change it.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Marx </li></ul><ul><li>“ Who? Whom?” </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul>
    22. 22. Instead of extending the original questions perhaps we could add more questions … <ul><li>For Whom? </li></ul><ul><li>How Much? </li></ul><ul><li>How Many? </li></ul><ul><li>What Else? </li></ul>
    23. 23. How should we go about extending a lens? <ul><li>What difference does it make whether we … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>add FOR WHOM as an extra question (column)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extend WHO to include FOR WHOM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or perhaps FOR WHOM really belongs under WHY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and include HOW MUCH within every other column? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The choice of formalism matters only if it changes the overall effectiveness of the lens. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of any lens is to help us pay attention to the right things in the right way. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Binocular Vision and Triangulation <ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>We have two eyes, so we can see things in three dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Triangulation (Denzin) </li></ul><ul><li>Data triangulation: involves time, space, and persons </li></ul><ul><li>Investigator triangulation: involves multiple researchers in an investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Theory triangulation: involves using more than one theoretical scheme in the interpretation of the phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Methodological triangulation: involves using more than one method to gather data. </li></ul>
    25. 25. We need to achieve a balance between looking through the lens and looking at the lens itself. <ul><li>Using the lens to explore real problems and issues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for value. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding how using a particular lens in a particular way affects how we see real problems and issues. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for distortion. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Summary of Options <ul><li>Option One </li></ul><ul><li>Use the lens as a prescriptive method. Stick to the conventional interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Option Two </li></ul><ul><li>Polish the lens. Find an interpretation that makes sense in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Option Three </li></ul><ul><li>Extend the lens. Combine it with other lenses to produce a more powerful instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>Option Four </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the limitations of any lens. Don’t use it all the time. Don’t use it at all if it doesn’t suit your eyes. </li></ul>
    27. 27. And finally … <ul><li>Another of Kipling’s characters possesses “infinite resource and sagacity”. He had his mummy’s leave to paddle. Do you? </li></ul>
    28. 28. For more material by Richard Veryard … <ul><li>… please read my blog </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>… browse my articles </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>… or visit my wiki </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>