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A Manifesto for
Artificial Intelligence in the Law
Professor Richard Susskind OBE
14 June 2017
@richardsusskind
four stages of acceptance
1. This is worthless
nonsense.
(1986)
2. This is an interesting
but perverse point of view.
(1996)
3. This is true
but quite unimportant.
(2006)
4. I have always said so.
(2016)
1980s
case study
AI Fallacy
recently
manifesto
1980s
1986
‘Expert Systems in Law’
• A jurisprudential inquiry into AI in law
• Exploring the limitations and implications
• Built on...
case study
‘Section 2 of this Act shall
not apply to an action to
which this section
applies’
‘a dense web of barely
intelligible interrelated
rules’
and yet of profound impact
ideal application area
the expert
the knowledge engineer
its function
statute and case law
self-knowledge
performance
surprise
memory
no ‘off days’
10 hours
10 minutes
more than
2 million paths
talked like a lawyer
in operation
10 minutes later
feedback
what did we expect?
what have we got?
so why are there not more?
don’t judge
too harshly
architectural
vs
functional
‘using computer technology to
make scarce expertise and
knowledge more widely
available and easily accessible’
nonetheless
law
medicine
tax
audit
consulting
costly to build
no incentives
the Web
6 August 1991
hypertext / web
AI Fallacy
‘there are lots of ways of being
smart that aren’t smart like us’
Patrick Winston
AI Fallacy
‘the mistaken assumption that the only
way to develop systems that perform
tasks at the level of experts or higher
is to r...
judgment
to what problem is
judgment the solution?
uncertainty
can machines think?
increasingly capable
non-thinking machines
second wave AI
hard-wired
vs
smart systems
recently
how
should
we
feel?
manifesto
policy and aims for the AI
and law research community
for the coming decade
(draft for discussion)
systems that undertake
tasks that traditionally
required human lawyers
NB tasks not jobs
15
1. Social Purpose
to use AI techniques and technologies
to increase access to law and access to justice
Before the law stands a gatekeeper.
A man from the country comes to
this gatekeeper and requests
admittance into the law. ...
2. Academic Orientation
to develop and test new theories,
techniques, methods, and systems
3. Contribution to AI
to contribute to work in the field of AI,
especially through research into various forms
of reasonin...
4. Contribution to Jurisprudence
to explore traditional questions of legal theory
using a new set of challenges and concep...
5. Scope
to focus on systems that engage in or support
legislating, learning, advising, drafting, analysing,
reasoning, an...
6. Both Generations
to engage in research into and development
of both the first and second waves of systems
7. Approach
to maintain a multi-disciplinary orientation,
involving (but not limited to) AI/law
specialists, lawyers, lega...
8. Collaboration
to work closely with those involved
with innovating in legal practice and in the
administration of justice
9. Spirit
to be bold and brave, pushing the
boundaries, challenging – activists as well as
theorists, but always sensitive
10. Method
to be unfailingly rigorous and responsible,
rooted
in robust theory and often in empirical evidence
11. Public and Accessible
to publish findings both as traditional
scholarship as well as in forms that are
accessible to n...
12. Commercial
to provide a stream of innovations that are
suitable for exploitation in the marketplace
13. Thought Leadership
to be the principal thought leaders
in the field, based on rigour and research
14. The Law of AI in the Law
to identify and assess the legal
implications of the technologies
15. Ethics of AI in Law
to articulate and debate the moral dilemmas
that might arise from the technologies
finally
Stage Three
Disruption
Stage Three
Disruption
Stage Two
Re-sourcing
Stage Two
Re-sourcing
Stage One
Denial
Stage One
Denial
‘The best way to predict the
future ...
… is to invent it’
richard@susskind.com
@richardsusskind
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017
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Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 1 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 2 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 3 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 4 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 5 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 6 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 7 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 8 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 9 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 10 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 11 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 12 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 13 Susskind, 'A 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ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 53 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 54 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 55 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 56 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 57 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 58 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 59 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 60 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 61 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 62 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 63 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 64 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017 Slide 65 Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, 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Keynote address at the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, June, London, including 15-point manifesto for the AI/Law research community.

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Susskind, 'A Manifesto for AI in the Law' ICAIL 2017, London, 2017

  1. 1. A Manifesto for Artificial Intelligence in the Law Professor Richard Susskind OBE 14 June 2017 @richardsusskind
  2. 2. four stages of acceptance
  3. 3. 1. This is worthless nonsense. (1986)
  4. 4. 2. This is an interesting but perverse point of view. (1996)
  5. 5. 3. This is true but quite unimportant. (2006)
  6. 6. 4. I have always said so. (2016)
  7. 7. 1980s case study AI Fallacy recently manifesto
  8. 8. 1980s
  9. 9. 1986
  10. 10. ‘Expert Systems in Law’ • A jurisprudential inquiry into AI in law • Exploring the limitations and implications • Built on consensus in analytical jurisprudence • A rule-based deductive model • Inspired by Hart, Raz, Harris, Kelsen, and others • ‘Clear cases of the expert domain’
  11. 11. case study
  12. 12. ‘Section 2 of this Act shall not apply to an action to which this section applies’
  13. 13. ‘a dense web of barely intelligible interrelated rules’
  14. 14. and yet of profound impact
  15. 15. ideal application area
  16. 16. the expert the knowledge engineer its function statute and case law self-knowledge
  17. 17. performance surprise memory no ‘off days’
  18. 18. 10 hours 10 minutes
  19. 19. more than 2 million paths
  20. 20. talked like a lawyer
  21. 21. in operation
  22. 22. 10 minutes later
  23. 23. feedback
  24. 24. what did we expect?
  25. 25. what have we got?
  26. 26. so why are there not more?
  27. 27. don’t judge too harshly
  28. 28. architectural vs functional
  29. 29. ‘using computer technology to make scarce expertise and knowledge more widely available and easily accessible’
  30. 30. nonetheless
  31. 31. law medicine tax audit consulting
  32. 32. costly to build no incentives the Web
  33. 33. 6 August 1991
  34. 34. hypertext / web
  35. 35. AI Fallacy
  36. 36. ‘there are lots of ways of being smart that aren’t smart like us’ Patrick Winston
  37. 37. AI Fallacy
  38. 38. ‘the mistaken assumption that the only way to develop systems that perform tasks at the level of experts or higher is to replicate the thinking processes of human specialists’
  39. 39. judgment
  40. 40. to what problem is judgment the solution?
  41. 41. uncertainty
  42. 42. can machines think?
  43. 43. increasingly capable non-thinking machines
  44. 44. second wave AI
  45. 45. hard-wired vs smart systems
  46. 46. recently
  47. 47. how should we feel?
  48. 48. manifesto
  49. 49. policy and aims for the AI and law research community for the coming decade (draft for discussion)
  50. 50. systems that undertake tasks that traditionally required human lawyers NB tasks not jobs
  51. 51. 15
  52. 52. 1. Social Purpose to use AI techniques and technologies to increase access to law and access to justice
  53. 53. Before the law stands a gatekeeper. A man from the country comes to this gatekeeper and requests admittance into the law. But the gatekeeper says that he cannot grant him admittance right now … The man from the country had not expected such difficulties; after all, he thinks, the law should be accessible to everyone at all times. (Kafka)
  54. 54. 2. Academic Orientation to develop and test new theories, techniques, methods, and systems
  55. 55. 3. Contribution to AI to contribute to work in the field of AI, especially through research into various forms of reasoning and problem-solving
  56. 56. 4. Contribution to Jurisprudence to explore traditional questions of legal theory using a new set of challenges and concepts
  57. 57. 5. Scope to focus on systems that engage in or support legislating, learning, advising, drafting, analysing, reasoning, and problem-solving
  58. 58. 6. Both Generations to engage in research into and development of both the first and second waves of systems
  59. 59. 7. Approach to maintain a multi-disciplinary orientation, involving (but not limited to) AI/law specialists, lawyers, legal theorists, computer and AI scientists, behavioural and cognitive psychologists
  60. 60. 8. Collaboration to work closely with those involved with innovating in legal practice and in the administration of justice
  61. 61. 9. Spirit to be bold and brave, pushing the boundaries, challenging – activists as well as theorists, but always sensitive
  62. 62. 10. Method to be unfailingly rigorous and responsible, rooted in robust theory and often in empirical evidence
  63. 63. 11. Public and Accessible to publish findings both as traditional scholarship as well as in forms that are accessible to non-technical audiences
  64. 64. 12. Commercial to provide a stream of innovations that are suitable for exploitation in the marketplace
  65. 65. 13. Thought Leadership to be the principal thought leaders in the field, based on rigour and research
  66. 66. 14. The Law of AI in the Law to identify and assess the legal implications of the technologies
  67. 67. 15. Ethics of AI in Law to articulate and debate the moral dilemmas that might arise from the technologies
  68. 68. finally
  69. 69. Stage Three Disruption Stage Three Disruption Stage Two Re-sourcing Stage Two Re-sourcing Stage One Denial Stage One Denial
  70. 70. ‘The best way to predict the future ...
  71. 71. … is to invent it’
  72. 72. richard@susskind.com @richardsusskind
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Keynote address at the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, June, London, including 15-point manifesto for the AI/Law research community.

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