MANISHA TEACHER
AKASH CHANDRAN
RICHARD
&
HARRISON SIMON
Transmission Media
Transmission media or communication
channels of network meant that connecting
cables or connecting media, The cables that
...
Guided Media
Guided Media is that contain some conducting
material to carry data or signal. Many types of cable and
wires ...
Types of Guided Media
 Twisted Pair
 Coaxial Cable
Optical Fiber
 Microwave Transmission
 Radio waves Transmission
 ...
Twisted pair consists of two conductors
(normally copper), each with its own plastic
insulation, twisted together.
Twist...
UTP and STP

Unshielded twisted pair cable and
shielded twisted pair cable
Any medium can transmit only a fixed range of frequencies!
UTP cable is the most common type of telecommunication medium...
The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) has developed
standards to grade UTP.
1.Category 1. The basic twisted-pair cab...
Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables
Category

Bandwidth

Data Rate

Digital/Analog

Use

1

very low

< 100 kbps
...
UTP connectors
The most common UTP connector is RJ45 (RJ stands for
Registered Jack).
 STP cable has a metal foil or braided-mesh

covering that enhances each pair of insulated
conductors.
 The metal casing...
 Twisted-pair cables are used in telephones lines to provide

voice and data channels.
 The DSL lines that are used by t...
 This type of cable consist of a solid wire core

surrounded by one or more foil or wire shields, each
separated by some ...
Types of coaxial cables
Thicknet : this form of coaxial cables is thinnet.
The thicknet coaxial cable segments (while
joi...
Figure 7.7

Coaxial cable
Table 7.2 Categories of coaxial cables
Category

Impedance

Use

RG-59

75 W

Cable TV

RG-58

50 W

Thin Ethernet

RG-11
...
BNC Connectors
Figure 7.9

Coaxial cable performance
 Metal cables transmit signals in the form of electric

current.
 Optical fiber is made of glass or plastic and transmit...
Fiber construction
 There are two basic types of fiber: multimode fiber

and single-mode fiber.
 Multimode fiber is best designed for short...
 Current technology

supports two modes for
propagating light along
optical channels, each
requiring fiber with
different...
 Multimode: In this case multiple beams from a

light source move through the core in different
paths.
 In multimode ste...
Propagation Modes
 Single mode uses

step-index fiber and a
highly focused source
of light that limits
beams to a small range
of angles, al...
Light sources for optical fibers





The purpose of fiber-optic cable is to contain and
direct a beam of light from so...
Fiber-optic cable
connectors
The subscriber channel (SC) connector is used in cable TV. It
uses a push/pull locking system...
 The major advantages offered by fiber-optic cable

over twisted-pair and coaxial cable are noise
resistance, less signal...
 Less signal attenuation

Fiber-optic transmission distance is significantly greater
than that of other guided media. A s...
 The main disadvantages of fiber optics are

cost, installation/maintenance, and fragility.
 Cost. Fiber-optic cable is ...
Radio waves Transmission
•The Radio waves have frequencies between
3khz and1Ghz
•Radio waves are Omni direction
•Radio wav...
 Radio technology considers the earth as surrounded by

two layers of atmosphere: the troposphere and the
ionosphere.

 ...
Micro waves Transmission
•Micro waves electromagnetic waves having
frequency between 1 GHZ and 300 GHZ.
•There are two typ...
Unguided Media
It does not contain the signal in some
physical conductor or metal. Rather, it transport
electromagnetic si...
Infrared Waves


Electromagnetic waves having frequencies from 300 GHz to 400 THz are
called IR waves or Infrared waves.
...
Laser Transmission







This type of transmission use thin laser to transfer data up to few kilometers.
Laser beam...
WHAT DO YOU
KNOW ABOUT
COMMUNICATION
PROTOCOLS
 THIS MEANS THAT A FORMAL

DESCRIPTION OF MESSAGE FORMATS AND
THE RULES THAT TWO OR MORE
MACHINES MUST FOLLOW TO EXCHANGE...
COMMUNICATION
PROTOCOLS

HTTP

FTP

TCP/IP

SLIP/PPP
 HTTP : (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules

for transferring hypertext (i.e., text, graphics , image
sound...
 Wireless communication : Wireless communication is

simply data communication without the use of
landlines.
 Mobile com...
Wireless/ Mobile Computing Technologies

3G and
EDGE

GSM

CDMA
VOICE
MAIL

EMAIL

SMS

WLL
CHAT

VIDEO
CONFERENCING
 GSM : (Global System for Mobile) GSM uses narrow

band TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) , which
allows 8 simultaneou...
 WLL : (Wireless in Local Loop) is a system that

connects subscribers to the public switched telephone
network (PSTN) us...
 SMS : (Short Message Service) is the transmission of

short text messages to and from a mobile phone , fax
machine and/o...
()
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
Transmission media and communication protocols
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Transmission media and communication protocols

  1. 1. MANISHA TEACHER
  2. 2. AKASH CHANDRAN
  3. 3. RICHARD & HARRISON SIMON
  4. 4. Transmission Media
  5. 5. Transmission media or communication channels of network meant that connecting cables or connecting media, The cables that connect you mean by transmission media What dotwo or more workstations are the communication channels. The transmission media are of mainly two types.
  6. 6. Guided Media Guided Media is that contain some conducting material to carry data or signal. Many types of cable and wires fall under this category. Each of them has its own characteristics like transmission speed, effects of noise. Guided media is also known as wired media. In this we will use wires to send our data from one place to other place.
  7. 7. Types of Guided Media  Twisted Pair  Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber  Microwave Transmission  Radio waves Transmission  Satellite Transmission
  8. 8. Twisted pair consists of two conductors (normally copper), each with its own plastic insulation, twisted together. Twisted-pair cable comes in two forms: unshielded and shielded The twisting helps to reduce the interference (noise) and crosstalk.
  9. 9. UTP and STP Unshielded twisted pair cable and shielded twisted pair cable
  10. 10. Any medium can transmit only a fixed range of frequencies! UTP cable is the most common type of telecommunication medium in use today. The range is suitable for transmitting both data and video. Advantages of UTP are its cost and ease of use. UTP is cheap, flexible, and easy to install.
  11. 11. The Electronic Industries Association (EIA) has developed standards to grade UTP. 1.Category 1. The basic twisted-pair cabling used in telephone systems. This level of quality is fine for voice but inadequate for data transmission. 2.Category 2. This category is suitable for voice and data transmission of up to 2Mbps. 3.Category 3.This category is suitable for data transmission of up to 10 Mbps. It is now the standard cable for most telephone systems. 4.Category 4. This category is suitable for data transmission of up to 20 Mbps. 5.Category 5. This category is suitable for data transmission of up to 100 Mbps.
  12. 12. Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables Category Bandwidth Data Rate Digital/Analog Use 1 very low < 100 kbps Analog Telephone 2 < 2 MHz 2 Mbps Analog/digital T-1 lines 3 16 MHz 10 Mbps Digital LANs 4 20 MHz 20 Mbps Digital LANs 5 100 MHz 100 Mbps Digital LANs 6 (draft) 200 MHz 200 Mbps Digital LANs 7 (draft) 600 MHz 600 Mbps Digital LANs
  13. 13. UTP connectors The most common UTP connector is RJ45 (RJ stands for Registered Jack).
  14. 14.  STP cable has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that enhances each pair of insulated conductors.  The metal casing prevents the penetration of electromagnetic noise.  Materials and manufacturing requirements make STP more expensive than UTP but less susceptible to noise.
  15. 15.  Twisted-pair cables are used in telephones lines to provide voice and data channels.  The DSL lines that are used by the telephone companies to provide high data rate connections also use the highbandwidth capability of unshielded twisted-pair cables.  Local area networks, such as 10Base-T and 100Base-T, also used UTP cables.
  16. 16.  This type of cable consist of a solid wire core surrounded by one or more foil or wire shields, each separated by some kind of plastic insulators.  Inner core carries the signal, and the shield provides the ground.  Coaxial cable carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable.  Coaxial Cable standards: RG-8, RG-9, RG-11 are used in thick Ethernet RG-58 Used in thin Ethernet RG-59 Used for TV
  17. 17. Types of coaxial cables Thicknet : this form of coaxial cables is thinnet. The thicknet coaxial cable segments (while joining nodes of a network) can be up to 500 meters long. Thinnet : this form of coaxial cable is thinner and it can have maximum segment length of 185 meters that is using this cables, nodes having maximum distance of 185 meters can be joined.
  18. 18. Figure 7.7 Coaxial cable
  19. 19. Table 7.2 Categories of coaxial cables Category Impedance Use RG-59 75 W Cable TV RG-58 50 W Thin Ethernet RG-11 50 W Thick Ethernet
  20. 20. BNC Connectors
  21. 21. Figure 7.9 Coaxial cable performance
  22. 22.  Metal cables transmit signals in the form of electric current.  Optical fiber is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light.  Light, a form of electromagnetic energy, travels at 300,000 Kilometers/second ( 186,000 miles/second), in a vacuum.  The speed of the light depends on the density of the medium through which it is traveling ( the higher density, the slower the speed).
  23. 23. Fiber construction
  24. 24.  There are two basic types of fiber: multimode fiber and single-mode fiber.  Multimode fiber is best designed for short transmission distances, and is suited for use in LAN systems and video surveillance.  Single-mode fiber is best designed for longer transmission distances, making it suitable for longdistance telephony and multichannel television broadcast systems.
  25. 25.  Current technology supports two modes for propagating light along optical channels, each requiring fiber with different physical characteristics: Multimode and Single Mode.  Multimode, in turn, can be implemented in two forms: step-index or graded index.
  26. 26.  Multimode: In this case multiple beams from a light source move through the core in different paths.  In multimode step-index fiber, the density of the core remains constant from the center to the edges. A beam of light moves through this constant density in a straight line until it reaches the interface of the core and cladding. At the interface there is an abrupt change to a lower density that alters the angle of the beam’s motion.  In a multimode graded-index fiber the density is highest at the center of the core and decreases gradually to its lowest at the edge.
  27. 27. Propagation Modes
  28. 28.  Single mode uses step-index fiber and a highly focused source of light that limits beams to a small range of angles, all close to the horizontal. Type 50/1 25 Core 50 Claddi ng Mode 125 Multimode, gradedindex 125 Multimode, gradedindex  Fiber Sizes Optical fibers are defined by the ratio of the diameter of their core to the diameter of their cladding, both expressed in microns (micrometers) 62.5/ 125 62.5 100/ 125 100 125 Multimode, gradedindex 7/12 5 7 125 Singlemode
  29. 29. Light sources for optical fibers    The purpose of fiber-optic cable is to contain and direct a beam of light from source to target. The sending device must be equipped with a light source and the receiving device with photosensitive cell (called a photodiode) capable of translating the received light into an electrical signal. The light source can be either a light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection laser diode.
  30. 30. Fiber-optic cable connectors The subscriber channel (SC) connector is used in cable TV. It uses a push/pull locking system. The straight-tip (ST) connector is used for connecting cable to networking devices. MT-RJ is a new connector with the same size as RJ45.
  31. 31.  The major advantages offered by fiber-optic cable over twisted-pair and coaxial cable are noise resistance, less signal attenuation, and higher bandwidth.  Noise Resistance: Because fiber-optic transmission uses light rather than electricity, noise is not a factor. External light, the only possible interference, is blocked from the channel by the outer jacket.
  32. 32.  Less signal attenuation Fiber-optic transmission distance is significantly greater than that of other guided media. A signal can run for miles without requiring regeneration.  Higher bandwidth Currently, data rates and bandwidth utilization over fiberoptic cable are limited not by the medium but by the signal generation and reception technology available.
  33. 33.  The main disadvantages of fiber optics are cost, installation/maintenance, and fragility.  Cost. Fiber-optic cable is expensive. Also, a laser light source can cost thousands of dollars, compared to hundreds of dollars for electrical signal generators.  Installation/maintenance  Fragility. Glass fiber is more easily broken than wire, making it less useful for applications where hardware portability is required.
  34. 34. Radio waves Transmission •The Radio waves have frequencies between 3khz and1Ghz •Radio waves are Omni direction •Radio waves can penetrate buildings easily, so that are widely use for communication both indoors outdoors. •They also absorbed by rains •At high frequency, radio wave tends to travel in straight line and bounces off the obstacles.
  35. 35.  Radio technology considers the earth as surrounded by two layers of atmosphere: the troposphere and the ionosphere.  The troposphere is the portion of the atmosphere extending outward approximately 30 miles from the earth's surface.  The troposphere contains what we generally think of as air. Clouds, wind, temperature variations, and weather in general occur in the troposphere.  The ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere but below space.
  36. 36. Micro waves Transmission •Micro waves electromagnetic waves having frequency between 1 GHZ and 300 GHZ. •There are two types of micro waves data communication system : terrestrial and satellite •Micro waves are widely used for one to one communication between sender and receiver, cellular phone, satellite networks and in wireless LANs.
  37. 37. Unguided Media It does not contain the signal in some physical conductor or metal. Rather, it transport electromagnetic signal through air. It is also known as wireless media. Because in this we are not using any king of cable.
  38. 38. Infrared Waves  Electromagnetic waves having frequencies from 300 GHz to 400 THz are called IR waves or Infrared waves.  IR waves are used for short range communication and use line of sigh propagation.  Infrared waves cannot pass through solid objects, like walls and be easil contained in a room.  They are cheap, easy to build and do not require any government license to use them.  IR waves offer very bandwidth for use.
  39. 39. Laser Transmission       This type of transmission use thin laser to transfer data up to few kilometers. Laser beams are unidirectional, therefore this type of transmission system use line of sight propagation. In such a transmission system, a photo detector and laser is set on both sender and receiver side. Such a system offer very high band width at a very low cost. Other disadvantage is that on hot sunny days these waves are affected by hot turbulent air and miss the detector. The major problem in this transmission system is that laser beams cannot penetrate rain or thick fog.
  40. 40. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS
  41. 41.  THIS MEANS THAT A FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF MESSAGE FORMATS AND THE RULES THAT TWO OR MORE MACHINES MUST FOLLOW TO EXCHANGE THOSE MESSAGES.
  42. 42. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS HTTP FTP TCP/IP SLIP/PPP
  43. 43.  HTTP : (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the set of rules for transferring hypertext (i.e., text, graphics , image sound ,video etc.) on WWW (World Wide Web).  FTP : (File Transfer Protocol) is a standard for the exchange of files across internet.  TCP/IP : (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet protocol) is the base communication protocol of the internet. IP part of TCP/IP uses numeric IP addresses to join network segments and TCP part of TCP/IP provides reliable delivery of messages between networked computers  SLIP/PPP : SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) is for delivering IP packets over dial-up lines; PPP (Point to Point Protocols) is for transmitting IP packets over serial lines
  44. 44.  Wireless communication : Wireless communication is simply data communication without the use of landlines.  Mobile computing : Mobile computing means that the computing device is not continuously connected to the base or central network. WIRELESS VS MOBILE EXAMPLES Stationary computer Notebook is hotel Wireless LANs in historic buildings Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Smart phones, pagers
  45. 45. Wireless/ Mobile Computing Technologies 3G and EDGE GSM CDMA VOICE MAIL EMAIL SMS WLL CHAT VIDEO CONFERENCING
  46. 46.  GSM : (Global System for Mobile) GSM uses narrow band TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) , which allows 8 simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. To connect to the specific service providers in these different countries , GSM uses simply switch subscriber identification module (SIM) cards.  CDMA : (Code- Division Multiple Access) uses a spread-spectrum technique where data is sent in small pieces over a number of discrete frequencies available for use. Each users signal is spread over the entire band width by unique spreading code. At the receiver and, the same unique code is used to recover the signal.
  47. 47.  WLL : (Wireless in Local Loop) is a system that connects subscribers to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) using radio signals as a substitute for other connecting media.  3G and EDGE : (3rd Generation) and (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) 3G mobile communications technology is a broadband, packetbased transmission of text, digitized voice, video and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 megabits per second (Mbps), offering a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users no matter where they are located in the world. EDGE is considered an intermediate step in the evolution of 3G WCDMA (Wideband CDMA ),although some carriers are expected to stop short of that final step
  48. 48.  SMS : (Short Message Service) is the transmission of short text messages to and from a mobile phone , fax machine and/or IP address. Once a message is sent, it is received by Short Message Service Center (SMSC), which must then get it to the appropriate mobile device.  E-mail : (Electronic Mail) is sending and receiving messages by computer.  Voice Mail : The voice-mail refers to e-mail systems that supports audio.  CHAT : Online textual talk, in real time, is called chatting.  Video Conferencing : A two-way videophone conversation among multiple participants is called video conferencing.
  49. 49. ()

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