What is waste?• -Any material that is discarded and is  no longer useful or any remains at the            end of a process
Kinds of Wastes-Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes       Examples:    plastics, containers, bottles,...
Sources of Wastes                    4
Sources of WastesAgricultureFisheries                                  5
•   Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from    industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes.•...
Water - Impurities          Air - CO, CO2, SO2,               dust, etc.,Land - Waste from Agriculture     , sewage, etc.,...
• The pneumonic plaque that broke out in  November 1994 in India is a typical  example of solid waste mismanagement.
Non-degradable or persistent in nature;Biologically modified;Highly toxic and even lethal at low concentration;Create ...
Domestic wasteWastes          Food wastes, paper, cardboard,generated due   plastics, textiles, leatherto domestic     , w...
Examples:                            • Chemicals, paints , sandThese are waste from                             paper or a...
Different industries and waste products  Source  Mining           Waste generated         Some mining process . Large     ...
• Extensive use of chemicals for  industrial and agricultural purposes .• Detergents, Fertilizers, Toxic metals in  indust...
The three general types are      Municipal or urban wastes Industrial wastes             Hazardous wastes
Municipal wasteBio-degradable    can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)Non-biodegradable    cannot be degraded (...
Field residue                 Process residue• Materials left in an           • Materials left after the  agricultural fie...
Bio medical waste
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE   • treatment                    • diagnosis ( process of                      attempting to determine  ...
Bio-medical wastes include• Needles , syringes  , pathological wastes ( blood  , body fluids ,body parts etc)• Waste form ...
Why great care should be taken while disposing bio-                  medical waste?• If the bio-medical wastes are not  pr...
PRECAUTIONS:•• All the disposable items      • Bio-medical Waste  other than waste                must be kept in  sharps(...
• It is a waste generated by the nuclear energy  industry and include substances which are used  in cooling & storing nucl...
Nuclear fuel process
Nuclear fuel          What is it?           Radio active elements• (Nuclear fuel is a material  that can be consumed by  n...
How is it harmful ?• It is harmful as it percolates   down through the soil into  groundwater reservoirs or is    carried ...
Why there is a need tohandle radio-active waste        carefully?                            • Nuclear wastes             ...
Waste management   copy (2)
Waste management   copy (2)
Waste management   copy (2)
Waste management   copy (2)
Waste management   copy (2)
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Waste management copy (2)

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Waste management copy (2)

  1. 1. What is waste?• -Any material that is discarded and is no longer useful or any remains at the end of a process
  2. 2. Kinds of Wastes-Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes Examples: plastics, containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources 3
  3. 3. Sources of Wastes 4
  4. 4. Sources of WastesAgricultureFisheries 5
  5. 5. • Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes.• a hillock of waste matter from coal mining, etc: slag heap• are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction(tailing)• A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement
  6. 6. Water - Impurities Air - CO, CO2, SO2, dust, etc.,Land - Waste from Agriculture , sewage, etc., Food - Adulterants Disposed plastics
  7. 7. • The pneumonic plaque that broke out in November 1994 in India is a typical example of solid waste mismanagement.
  8. 8. Non-degradable or persistent in nature;Biologically modified;Highly toxic and even lethal at low concentration;Create danger to the living community, immediately or over a period of time & are hazardous
  9. 9. Domestic wasteWastes Food wastes, paper, cardboard,generated due plastics, textiles, leatherto domestic , wood, glass, metals, ashes, .activities bottles ,cotton, rags or any kitchen waste
  10. 10. Examples: • Chemicals, paints , sandThese are waste from paper or any industrial by-various industries (small productsor large scale) .Sulphur dioxide ,nitrogen dioxideThese waste are emissions cause healthconsidered useless duringa manufacturing process hazards
  11. 11. Different industries and waste products Source Mining Waste generated Some mining process . Large during mining & volumes of chemicals and excavation liquids. Leaching of metals operations. These are add metal content into rivers toxic & hazardous ground water etc cement -- Produce coarse and Dust emitted is a health fine particles hazard Construction Waste generation Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, and Demolition due to demolition of pipes, rubble, bricks etc. buildings. Oil refineries waste generated Sulphur compounds &hydro from petrochemical carbons plant & refineries6/34
  12. 12. • Extensive use of chemicals for industrial and agricultural purposes .• Detergents, Fertilizers, Toxic metals in industrial waste and Soil based technology are the main source.• Cadmium, Mercury, Chromium, lead, Ars enic and Barium are some of the toxic pollutants
  13. 13. The three general types are Municipal or urban wastes Industrial wastes Hazardous wastes
  14. 14. Municipal wasteBio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, containers and others) 15
  15. 15. Field residue Process residue• Materials left in an • Materials left after the agricultural field after the crops are being crops are harvested processed into some useful products. • Examples• Wheat,barley stalks from • Examples corn etc • Bagasse : left over after the cane is crushed , molasses, seeds
  16. 16. Bio medical waste
  17. 17. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE • treatment • diagnosis ( process of attempting to determine or identify a possible disease or disorder) or • immunization( process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine)
  18. 18. Bio-medical wastes include• Needles , syringes , pathological wastes ( blood , body fluids ,body parts etc)• Waste form surgery or autopsy (An autopsy—also known as a postmortem examination)• Discarded medical instruments
  19. 19. Why great care should be taken while disposing bio- medical waste?• If the bio-medical wastes are not properly managed and disposed off, they can lead to further spread of the diseases.• The disease risk from these wastes increases also the risks of chemical pollution increases.
  20. 20. PRECAUTIONS:•• All the disposable items • Bio-medical Waste other than waste must be kept in sharps(device used to segregated storage in puncture the skin), saline coloured plastic bags bottles, I-V (intra venous) with mouths securely fluid bottles(used for the tied and infusion of liquid • transfer it to the substances directly into central intermediate a vein). etc. shall be storage room located punctured before being in a convenient sent for treatment. position of the health• care unit.
  21. 21. • It is a waste generated by the nuclear energy industry and include substances which are used in cooling & storing nuclear fuels• The radiations from radioactive substances – prolonged exposure results in damage to the living organisms and they contaminate air, water and land.
  22. 22. Nuclear fuel process
  23. 23. Nuclear fuel What is it? Radio active elements• (Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed by nuclear fission( nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts) or fusion to derive nuclear energy. The most common are uranium-235 (235U) Plutonium 239 and plutonium-239)
  24. 24. How is it harmful ?• It is harmful as it percolates down through the soil into groundwater reservoirs or is carried into streams and rivers • Radiation emissions are extremely harmful/injurious
  25. 25. Why there is a need tohandle radio-active waste carefully? • Nuclear wastes must be handled properly as these radiations when emitted remain may prove to be dangerous for thousands of years.

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