What is waste?• -Any material that is discarded and is no longer useful or any remains at the end of a process
Kinds of Wastes-Solid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes Examples: plastics, containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources 3
• Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes.• a hillock of waste matter from coal mining, etc: slag heap• are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction(tailing)• A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement
Water - Impurities Air - CO, CO2, SO2, dust, etc.,Land - Waste from Agriculture , sewage, etc., Food - Adulterants Disposed plastics
• The pneumonic plaque that broke out in November 1994 in India is a typical example of solid waste mismanagement.
Non-degradable or persistent in nature;Biologically modified;Highly toxic and even lethal at low concentration;Create danger to the living community, immediately or over a period of time & are hazardous
Domestic wasteWastes Food wastes, paper, cardboard,generated due plastics, textiles, leatherto domestic , wood, glass, metals, ashes, .activities bottles ,cotton, rags or any kitchen waste
Examples: • Chemicals, paints , sandThese are waste from paper or any industrial by-various industries (small productsor large scale) .Sulphur dioxide ,nitrogen dioxideThese waste are emissions cause healthconsidered useless duringa manufacturing process hazards
Different industries and waste products Source Mining Waste generated Some mining process . Large during mining & volumes of chemicals and excavation liquids. Leaching of metals operations. These are add metal content into rivers toxic & hazardous ground water etc cement -- Produce coarse and Dust emitted is a health fine particles hazard Construction Waste generation Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, and Demolition due to demolition of pipes, rubble, bricks etc. buildings. Oil refineries waste generated Sulphur compounds &hydro from petrochemical carbons plant & refineries6/34
• Extensive use of chemicals for industrial and agricultural purposes .• Detergents, Fertilizers, Toxic metals in industrial waste and Soil based technology are the main source.• Cadmium, Mercury, Chromium, lead, Ars enic and Barium are some of the toxic pollutants
The three general types are Municipal or urban wastes Industrial wastes Hazardous wastes
Municipal wasteBio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, containers and others) 15
Field residue Process residue• Materials left in an • Materials left after the agricultural field after the crops are being crops are harvested processed into some useful products. • Examples• Wheat,barley stalks from • Examples corn etc • Bagasse : left over after the cane is crushed , molasses, seeds
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE • treatment • diagnosis ( process of attempting to determine or identify a possible disease or disorder) or • immunization( process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine)
Bio-medical wastes include• Needles , syringes , pathological wastes ( blood , body fluids ,body parts etc)• Waste form surgery or autopsy (An autopsy—also known as a postmortem examination)• Discarded medical instruments
Why great care should be taken while disposing bio- medical waste?• If the bio-medical wastes are not properly managed and disposed off, they can lead to further spread of the diseases.• The disease risk from these wastes increases also the risks of chemical pollution increases.
PRECAUTIONS:•• All the disposable items • Bio-medical Waste other than waste must be kept in sharps(device used to segregated storage in puncture the skin), saline coloured plastic bags bottles, I-V (intra venous) with mouths securely fluid bottles(used for the tied and infusion of liquid • transfer it to the substances directly into central intermediate a vein). etc. shall be storage room located punctured before being in a convenient sent for treatment. position of the health• care unit.
• It is a waste generated by the nuclear energy industry and include substances which are used in cooling & storing nuclear fuels• The radiations from radioactive substances – prolonged exposure results in damage to the living organisms and they contaminate air, water and land.
Nuclear fuel What is it? Radio active elements• (Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed by nuclear fission( nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts) or fusion to derive nuclear energy. The most common are uranium-235 (235U) Plutonium 239 and plutonium-239)
How is it harmful ?• It is harmful as it percolates down through the soil into groundwater reservoirs or is carried into streams and rivers • Radiation emissions are extremely harmful/injurious
Why there is a need tohandle radio-active waste carefully? • Nuclear wastes must be handled properly as these radiations when emitted remain may prove to be dangerous for thousands of years.