SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 6
Download to read offline
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 1
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
Massachusetts Superior Court.
Frederick B. FINK, Plaintiff,
v.
Sylvia LaSELVA, Defendant.
No. 90-3186. | Jan. 15, 1999.
Opinion
MEMORANDUM OF DECISION AND ORDER ON
PLAINTIFF’S MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
INTRODUCTION
DOERFER.
*1 Plaintiff Frederick B. Fink brought the present action
against defendant Sylvia LaSelva for money had and
received. In a Memorandum of Decision and Order dated
August 19, 1998, this Court denied Fink’s motion for
summary judgment and entered judgment for LaSelva on
the ground that Fink’s claim for the $55,539 allegedly
wrongfully retained by LaSelva was barred by the
doctrine of res judicata. Fink now moves this Court
pursuant to Super.Ct.R. 9D for reconsideration of its
August 19, 1998 decision. For the reasons discussed
below, the plaintiff’s motion for reconsideration is
ALLOWED.
BACKGROUND
Plaintiff Frederick Fink (Fink) and Frederick LaSelva
(Frederick) were business partners and the principals and
sole shareholders of MEM, Inc., an office supply and
stationery company. Each man held 50% of MEM’s
stock. Under declaration of trust dated March 31, 1982,
they created the Province Street Trust to purchase,
develop, lease and operate commercial office space,
MEM’s office, on Washington Street in Boston. Frederick
was the sole trustee while Fink and Frederick were
co-beneficiaries. The declaration of trust provided that no
beneficial interest could be transferred without the written
consent of all other outstanding beneficial interests. Fink
and Frederick were also co-beneficiaries of the Canton
Centre Trust, which held title to two condominium units
constituting MEM’s warehouse facilities. Fink was a
personal guarantor of a mortgage on the condominiums.
In October of 1988, with Frederick being investigated on
federal extortion charges, Fink asked Frederick to buy
him out of MEM and the Canton Centre Trust. Shortly
before negotiations commenced, on September 15, 1988,
Frederick transferred his 50% beneficial interest in the
Province Street Trust to his wife, defendant Sylvia
LaSelva (LaSelva). This assignment was not recorded
until July 5, 1989, when Frederick filed a trustee’s
certificate.
In December of 1988 and January of 1989, Fink and
Frederick entered into a purchase and sale agreement in
which Frederick agreed to purchase Fink’s interest in the
Canton Centre Trust property for $284,000 and grant Fink
a security interest in said property. The agreement also
provided that Frederick would indemnify and hold Fink
harmless in the event that the mortgagee foreclosed on the
property. The men also entered into a purchase and sale
agreement for MEM which provided that Frederick would
pay Fink $5,000 for his entire stock interest, and that
Fink’s security interest in the Canton Centre Trust
property was security for the MEM stock buy-out as well.
In January of 1990, due to Frederick’s impending
incarceration on a federal extortion conviction, Fink
agreed to allow Frederick to withdraw as trustee of the
Province Street Trust and to be replaced by Fink and
LaSelva as co-trustees. LaSelva also served as controller,
collecting rents from tenants and paying dividends to the
beneficiaries. Between January of 1990 and December of
1995, LaSelva paid out half of Province Street Trust’s net
profits to herself, a sum in excess of $55,539.
*2 In April of 1990, Frederick breached the Canton
Center Trust purchase and sale agreement by failing to
make the necessary payments to Fink. As a result, Fink
was forced to pay the mortgagee and other creditors in
excess of $163,000 and incurred $85,000 in legal fees.
Accordingly, Fink filed the present action seeking to
recover approximately $500,000 from Frederick and to set
aside as fraudulent the September 15, 1988 transfer of
Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street
Trust to LaSelva.1
In March of 1991, Frederick filed a voluntary Chapter 7
petition in Bankruptcy Court, Case No. 91-11632-JNF,
and a suggestion of bankruptcy was filed in this case on
March 5, 1991. Frederick was discharged from
bankruptcy on August 5, 1991. However, the trustee in
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 2
bankruptcy, Joseph Butler, commenced an adversary
proceeding against Frederick and LaSelva in August of
1993 to set aside numerous alleged fraudulent
conveyances, including the September 1988 Province
Street Trust assignment. The bankruptcy trustee settled
the adversary proceeding against the LaSelvas in
November of 1995. Under the terms of the LaSelva
Settlement, LaSelva transferred her 50% beneficial
interest in the Province Street Trust, and Frederick
transferred any residual interest he possessed in the Trust,
to the bankruptcy trustee. LaSelva also resigned as
co-trustee of the Trust.
Thereafter, in December of 1995, Fink and the bankruptcy
trustee entered into a Stipulation and Agreement
regarding Fink’s claims against the bankruptcy estate.
Under this settlement (the Fink settlement), Fink’s claim
was allowed as a general, unsecured claim for $411,000,
and Fink agreed to release his attachment on the
Washington Street property and pay the bankruptcy
trustee $50,000. In exchange, the bankruptcy trustee
transferred to Fink the estate’s 50% beneficial interest in
the Province Street Trust. The LaSelva settlement and the
Fink settlement were approved by the Bankruptcy Court
(Feeney, J.) on February 27, 1996.
In February of 1997, this Court (Cowin, J.) allowed Fink
to file a Supplemental Complaint in the present action,
alleging a count for money had and received for the
$55,539 LaSelva disbursed, as trustee of the Province
Street Trust, to herself as co-beneficiary of the trust
between January of 1990 and December of 1995. In
September of 1997, LaSelva filed a counterclaim seeking
costs and fees under G.L. c. 231, § 6F in Count I and
alleging abuse of process in Count II. On January 16,
1998, Fink moved for summary judgment on his
complaint. In a Memorandum of Decision and Order
dated August 19, 1998, this Court denied Fink’s motion
for summary judgment and entered judgment in favor of
LaSelva on the ground that the LaSelva and Fink
settlements in the Bankruptcy Court constituted res
judicata with respect to Fink’s claim that the September
15, 1988 assignment of Frederick’s 50% interest in the
Province Street Trust to LaSelva was invalid such that
LaSelva wrongfully received the $55,539 in trust profits.
In so deciding, this Court concluded that the bankruptcy
trustee and Fink had identical interests in the settling
Fink’s claim.
*3 Meanwhile, on July 22, 1998, Frederick and LaSelva
moved for sanctions against Fink in the bankruptcy case,
No. 91-111632-JNF, for allegedly violating the automatic
stay and discharge injunction in those proceedings. In a
Memorandum of Decision and Order dated October 22,
1998 denying such sanctions, the Bankruptcy Court
(Feeney, J.) found:
the various stipulations between the
parties did not address, let alone resolve,
issues surrounding 1) the validity and
extent of Fink’s attachment against the
Province Street Trust, which attachment
was never formally challenged by the
Trustee; and 2) entitlement to the
dividends obtained by Sylvia LaSelva
when she purportedly owned a 50%
beneficial interest in the Province Street
Trust pursuant to the unrecorded
assignment of the Debtor’s 50%
beneficial interest.
...
Moreover, although the Trustee states in
his affidavit that he intended to release
his claim against Sylvia LaSelva for the
dividends she received from the
Province Street Trust, there is nothing in
his Complaint or the Court’s orders to
document that contention. Because the
Debtor’s transfer of his 50% beneficial
interest in the Province Street Trust to
the Trustee as part of the settlement of
Adv.P. No. 93-1128 obviated the
necessity of such a ruling-Fink’s claim
against Sylvia LaSelva for monies had
and received was more than colorable at
the time he filed his Supplemental
Complaint against her in the Norfolk
Superior Court.
Accordingly, Fink now moves for reconsideration of this
Court’s August 19, 1998 Memorandum of Decision and
Order.
DISCUSSION
Where there has been no material change in
circumstances, a court is not bound to reconsider a case,
issue, or question of law once decided. Peterson v.
Hopson, 306 Mass. 597, 599, 29 N.E.2d 140 (1940); King
v. Globe Newspaper Co., 400 Mass. 705, 707, 512 N.E.2d
241, cert. den., 485 U.S. 940, 108 S.Ct. 1121, 99 L.Ed.2d
281 (1987). Although the court has the power prior to
final judgment to reconsider an interlocutory ruling, such
power should be exercised only where there are
compelling reasons to do so, and a judge should hesitate
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 3
to undo his own work. Peterson v. Hopson, supra at 603,
29 N.E.2d 140; King v. Globe Newspaper Co., supra at
707-708, 512 N.E.2d 241. This Court has no duty to
reconsider its prior ruling based on the Bankruptcy
Court’s finding, in the context of a motion for sanctions
for violating the automatic stay, that the LaSelva and Fink
settlements did not resolve Fink’s claim against Sylvia
LaSelva for the $55,539 in trust profits she received.
Nonetheless, the Bankruptcy Court judge was in a
superior position to discern the scope of the prior
litigation and her comments, as brought to this Court’s
attention, constitute a compelling reason to take a fresh
look at the issue of res judicata in the present case. It is
most important for a judge to do justice according to his
oath and his conscience and where further reflection
convinces him that he has erred in an announced decision,
he ought to correct it while he still has the power. Sheriff
v. Gillow, 320 Mass. 46, 49, 67 N.E.2d 754 (1946);
Franchi v. Stella, 42 Mass.App.Ct. 251, 258, 676 N.E.2d
56, rev. den., 424 Mass. 1109, 679 N.E.2d 558 (1997).
I. RES JUDICATA REVISITED
*4 Fink contends that his claim for monies had and
received is not precluded by the prior adversary
proceeding in the Bankruptcy Court because he was not in
privity with the bankruptcy trustee with respect to said
claim. A trustee in bankruptcy is a fiduciary representing
the estate and creditors. In re Medomak Canning, 922
F.2d 895, 901 (1st Cir.1990); Petitioning Creditors of
Melon Produce v. Braunstein, 112 F.3d 1232, 1240 (1st
Cir.1997). “In order efficiently to administer the estate, a
trustee’s court-approved settlement must have finality,
and settling parties must be assured that those the trustee
represents will not relitigate settled claims.” In re
Medomak Canning, supra at 901. For purposes of res
judicata, privity may be established by identification of
interests, even where representation of those interests is
not authorized. Id.; Petitioning Creditors of Melon
Produce v. Braunstein, supra at 1240. A bankruptcy
trustee acts as the virtual representative of creditors for
the purposes of settling common claims possessed by the
estate. Thus, for example, unsecured creditors are in
privity with the bankruptcy trustee for purposes of
compromising equitable subordination claims. In re
Medomak Canning, supra at 901-903; Petitioning
Creditors of Melon Produce v. Braunstein, supra at 1240.
Nonetheless, there may be claims that are personal to a
particular creditor with respect to which the bankruptcy
trustee cannot represent the creditor’s interest. In the
context of a statutory receiver, the SJC has noted that a
receiver may prosecute claims on behalf of creditors in
order to preserve the insolvent company’s assets, but may
not maintain such a suit in a representative capacity if it is
strictly personal in nature to an individual creditor. In the
Matter of the Liquidation of American Mutual Liability
Ins. Co., 417 Mass. 724, 731, 632 N.E.2d 1209 (1994).
The Court explained:
The dividing line is whether the cause of
action is one which is purely personal, in
which no other claimant or creditor of
the corporation has an interest, or
whether the cause of action is one in
favor of creditors in general ... Where
the injury alleged is primarily to the
corporation, and is an injury to the
plaintiff creditor only insofar as it
decreases the assets of the corporation to
which he must look for satisfaction of
his debt, then the suit is for a tort
suffered by the corporation, and
properly brought by the trustee; if there
is a special damage to the creditor suing,
not common to other creditors, then it is
a personal creditor action which the
trustee may not pursue.
Id. at 733, 632 N.E.2d 1209, citing In re W. World
Funding, Inc., 52 B.R. 743, 774-775 (Bankr.D.Nev.1985).
*5 In the present case, the bankruptcy trustee represented
all of Frederick LaSelva’s creditors in the adversary
proceeding insofar as they had a common interest in
avoiding allegedly fraudulent transfers, including the
September 15, 1988 Province Street Trust assignment,
which decreased the assets of the estate. However, Fink’s
present claim for money had and received involves an
injury personal to him as the beneficiary of the trust to
whom a fiduciary duty was allegedly owed, and as a
secured creditor with a purported attachment on trust
proceeds. The alleged injury is unique to Fink, rather than
common to all creditors and therefore, the bankruptcy
trustee did not represent Fink’s interest in this regard
during the adversary proceedings. Compare In re
Dominelli, 820 F.2d 313, 318 (9th Cir.1987) (noting that
if state law provided petitioner with a private cause of
action for usury, then bankruptcy trustee’s settlement with
debtor on estate’s usury claim would not constitute res
judicata). This conclusion comports with Judge Feeney’s
finding that the LaSelva and Fink settlements simply did
not address Fink’s entitlement to the dividends obtained
by Sylvia LaSelva when she purportedly owned a 50%
beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust. Hence,
Fink’s present action for money had and received is not
barred by the prior bankruptcy proceedings of debtor
Frederick LaSelva. Accordingly, this Court will address
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 4
the merits of Fink’s summary judgment motion.
II. FINK’S CLAIM FOR MONEY HAD &
RECEIVED
The right to recover in an action for money had and
received does not depend upon privity of contract. Flavin
v. Morrissey, 327 Mass. 217, 220, 97 N.E.2d 643 (1951).
Rather, such an action lies whenever there is money
which should not in justice be retained by the defendant
and which in equity and good conscience should be paid
to the plaintiff. Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. v.
First National Bank & Trust Co., 345 Mass. 1, 4, 184
N.E.2d 358 (1962); Blue Cross of Massachusetts Inc. v.
Travaline, 398 Mass. 582, 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195 (1986).
Money allegedly obtained through fraud or
misrepresentation may be recovered back in an action for
money had and received. Evatt v. Willard D. Martin, Inc.,,
302 Mass. 414, 417, 19 N.E.2d 729 (1939).
1. Claim as 50% Beneficiary of Province Street Trust
Fink contends that LaSelva wrongfully obtained $55,539
in profits as the purported owner of a 50% beneficial
interest in the Province Street Trust (the Trust), money to
which he is entitled. Fink argues that the purported
transfer of the beneficial interest from Frederick to
LaSelva was legally ineffective and that despite her
awareness of the same, LaSelva fraudulently distributed
50% of the trust profits to herself in breach of her
fiduciary duty as co-trustee of the Trust. Alternatively,
Fink argues that even if the assignment was valid, he has
an attachment on Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest
which is superior to LaSelva’s unperfected security
interest therein.
*6 The Assignment Agreement at issue provided in
relevant part:
FRED agrees to pay all monthly
expenses on the REAL ESTATE (the
LaSelva residence at 191 Farm Road,
Milton) from his funds. The monthly
expenses shall include, but shall not be
limited to, the monthly mortgage
payments, real estate taxes, insurance,
repairs, maintenance and capital
improvements.... FRED agrees to secure
his payment of the monthly expenses by
assigning to SYLVIA all of his right,
title and interest as a beneficiary of THE
PROVINCE STREET TRUST, created
under a Declaration of Trust dated
March 31, 1982, recorded with the
Suffolk County Registry of Deeds in
Book 9931, Page 504. FRED shall
instruct the Trustee of THE PROVINCE
STREET TRUST, in writing, to pay the
net monthly proceeds to which FRED is
entitled to SYLVIA.
Fink’s argument that this agreement evidences a lack of
valid consideration need not be addressed, in light of a
more fundamental problem. A beneficiary of a trust may
freely assign his interest therein absent trust language
restricting or prohibiting such alienation. Bank of New
England v. Strandlund, 402 Mass. 707, 709-710, 529
N.E.2d 394 (1988). Paragraph 1 of the Province Street
Trust states that “No beneficial interest hereunder may be
transferred without the prior written consent of all other
outstanding beneficial interests.” It is undisputed that Fink
did not consent in writing to the transfer of Frederick’s
50% beneficial interest to Sylvia LaSelva. Accordingly,
the assignment was not valid.2
Nonetheless, this Court concludes that Fink has no
reasonable expectation of prevailing at trial on his claim
for money had and received as a 50% beneficiary of the
Trust. No action for money had and received lies where
the plaintiff fails to demonstrate that he is entitled to the
money in the defendant’s hands. Stone & Webster
Engineering Corp. v. First National Bank & Trust Co.,
supra at 4, 184 N.E.2d 358; Blue Cross of Massachusetts
Inc. v. Travaline, supra at 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195. The
invalidity of the purported assignment of Frederick’s 50%
beneficial interest in the trust to LaSelva does not entitle
Fink to that portion of the profits. If the assignment was
invalid, then Frederick remained a 50% beneficiary of the
Trust and after March of 1991, his share of the profits
belonged to the bankruptcy estate. At no time prior to the
December 1995 bankruptcy settlement was Fink more
than a 50% beneficiary of the trust, entitled to half of the
trust profits. This Court concludes that Fink has failed to
demonstrate that the trust profits wrongfully paid to
LaSelva should in equity and good conscience be paid to
him.
However, Fink further argues that by distributing to
herself 50% of the trust profits pursuant to the invalid
assignment, LaSelva breached the fiduciary duty owed to
him as a co-beneficiary. Fink thus contends that this Court
should impose a constructive trust in his favor on the
$55,539 received by LaSelva. As a co-trustee of the Trust,
LaSelva had a fiduciary duty of honesty and undivided
loyalty to Fink as a co-beneficiary of the trust. See
Gagnon v. Coombs, 39 Mass.App.Ct. 144, 154-156, 654
N.E.2d 54, rev. den., 421 Mass. 1106, 657 N.E.2d 1272
(1995); Shear v. Gabovitch, 43 Mass.App.Ct. 650, 682,
685 N.E.2d 1168, rev. den.,
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 5
973 (1997). A fiduciary at all times owes a beneficiary a
duty of full disclosure. Sher v. Sandler, 325 Mass. 348,
353, 90 N.E.2d 536 (1950). Fink thus argues that
LaSelva’s transfers as co-trustee of the Trust of half the
profits to herself as beneficiary without informing Fink of
the unauthorized assignment of Frederick’s 50% interest
constituted a breach of her fiduciary duty to him.
*7 Assuming without deciding that LaSelva did indeed
breach her fiduciary duty to Fink, this Court nonetheless
concludes that he is not entitled to the imposition of a
constructive trust in his favor. Under Massachusetts law, a
court will declare one party a constructive trustee of
property for the benefit of another if he acquired the
property through fraud, mistake, breach of fiduciary duty,
or in other circumstances indicating that he would be
unjustly enriched at the other’s expense. Kelly v. Kelly,
358 Mass. 154, 156, 260 N.E.2d 659 (1970). A
constructive trust thus restores to the beneficiary that of
which he has been deprived by the fiduciary’s breach of
her duty. Sher v. Sandler, 325 Mass. 348, 353, 90 N.E.2d
536 (1950); Fortin v. Roman Catholic Bishop of
Worcester, 416 Mass. 781, 789, 625 N.E.2d 1352 (1994);
Judge v. Gallagher, 17 Mass.App.Ct. 636, 643, 461
N.E.2d 261, rev. den., 392 Mass. 1102, 465 N.E.2d 261
(1984). Fink, however, has simply failed to demonstrate
any specific damages suffered by him as a result of
LaSelva’s improper distribution of the trust profits to
herself. Compare Judge v. Gallagher, supra at 643, 461
N.E.2d 261 (concluding that where defendant breached
fiduciary duty to plaintiffs by depriving them of an
opportunity to invest in certain stock at a reduced rate, the
remedy was to award the plaintiffs the value of said
stock); Gagnon v. Coombs, supra at 159, 654 N.E.2d 54
(concluding that where trustee breached fiduciary duty by
conveying trust property to herself, remedy was to impose
constructive trust and order reconveyance of property to
beneficiary).
This Court does not doubt that the distribution of the
proceeds to LaSelva, rather than to Frederick and the
subsequent bankruptcy estate, may have injured the Trust
and Fink as a 50% beneficiary thereof; however, Fink has
failed to meet his burden of producing evidence to
establish the amount of such injury. In order to prevail in
this action, Fink must demonstrate not just that LaSelva
was unjustly enriched by her breach of fiduciary duty, but
that she was enriched in a particular amount at Fink’s
expense. Accordingly, Fink is not entitled to judgment as
a matter of law on his supplemental complaint for money
had and received with respect to any claim in his capacity
as a 50% beneficiary of the Trust.
2. Claim as Successor to Frederick’s 50% Beneficial
Interest
As of the date of the present summary judgment motion,
Fink held 100% of the beneficial interest in the Trust as
result of the LaSelva and Fink settlements in the
bankruptcy proceeding. As discussed above, the purported
September 15, 1988 assignment of Frederick’s 50%
interest in the Province Street Trust to LaSelva violated
the terms of the Trust, which required the written consent
of the other beneficial interests prior to any such transfer,
and was therefore invalid. Accordingly, Frederick
remained a 50% beneficiary of the Trust and after March
of 1991, his share of the profits belonged to the
bankruptcy estate. It is undisputed that both Frederick and
LaSelva transferred any rights they might have had in the
other 50% beneficial interest in the Trust to the
bankruptcy trustee as part of the LaSelva settlement. In
turn, the bankruptcy trustee sold the estate’s 50%
beneficial interest in the Trust to Fink in December of
1995.
*8 LaSelva argues, based on the January 8, 1998 affidavit
of bankruptcy trustee Joseph Butler, that any claim by the
bankruptcy estate in the $55,539 received by her as a
purported beneficiary of the Trust was dismissed with
prejudice as part of the LaSelva settlement, and thus could
not have been transferred to Fink in the later Fink
settlement. However, according to Judge Feeney, who
presided over the bankruptcy case and approved the
settlements at issue, the resolution of the adversary
proceeding simply presented no occasion to pass on the
validity of the purported assignment and LaSelva’s
receipt of 50% of the profits. This Court must defer to the
determination of the bankruptcy judge concerning the
scope of the litigation rather than to the subjective opinion
of the trustee. Thus, Fink is indeed the owner of
Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest in the trust and his
right to the $55,539 in profits wrongfully distributed to
LaSelva. Whether viewed as funds obtained by deceit or
funds merely mistakenly paid to the wrong party, the
$55,539 is money which in equity and good conscience
should be paid to the plaintiff. See Stone & Webster
Engineering Corp. v. First National Bank & Trust Co.,
supra at 4, 184 N.E.2d 358; Blue Cross of Massachusetts
Inc. v. Travaline, supra at 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195. Thus,
Fink has met his burden of demonstrating that he is
entitled as a matter of law to recover from LaSelva the
$55,539 had and received.
Finally, although there is no motion pending before the
court, in the interests of judicial economy this Court will
dispose of LaSelva’s counterclaim against Fink, Count I
of which seeks legal fees and expenses pursuant to G.L. c.
231, § 6F and Count II of which alleges abuse of process.
Chapter 231 section 6F provides in relevant part:
Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999)
9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365
© 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 6
Upon motion of any party in any civil
action ... the court may determine ... that
all or substantially all of the claims,
defenses, setoffs or counterclaims,
whether of a factual, legal or mixed
nature, made by any party who was
represented by counsel during most or
all of the proceeding, were wholly
insubstantial, frivolous and not
advanced in good faith.... If such a
finding is made with respect to a party’s
claims, the court shall award to each
party against whom such claims were
asserted an amount representing the
reasonable counsel fees and other costs
and expenses incurred in defending
against such claims. G.L. c. 231, § 6F
(1994).
Given that Fink has prevailed on his claim for money had
and received, his pursuit of the supplemental complaint
cannot be deemed insubstantial or frivolous. Accordingly,
Sylvia is not entitled to recover fees and costs under
Chapter 231, section 6F.
Count II of the counterclaim alleges that Fink’s claim for
money had and received lacked a basis in law or fact and
was brought solely to cause LaSelva emotional and
financial damage. To establish an action for abuse of
process, the plaintiff must demonstrate that process was
used for some ulterior purpose for which it was not
designed or intended. Ladd v. Polidoro, 424 Mass. 196,
198, 675 N.E.2d 382 (1997). However, proof of
groundlessness or lack of merit is not an essential element
of an action for abuse of process. Dangel v. Offset
Printing, Inc., 342 Mass. 170, 171, 172 N.E.2d 610
(1961); Fishman v. Brooks, 396 Mass. 643, 652, 487
N.E.2d 1377 (1986). “To suffer an abuse of process is to
suffer the consequences of legal actions which while
having an adequate basis in law and fact are nonetheless
manipulation by the defendant to secure a collateral
advantage not within the scope of the law.” Britton v.
Maloney, 981 F.Supp. 25, 55 (D.Mass.1997).
Accordingly, LaSelva’s counterclaim for abuse of process
cannot be dismissed at this stage of the proceedings.
ORDER
*9 For the foregoing reasons, it is hereby ORDERED that
Fink’s motion for reconsideration be ALLOWED. Upon
reconsideration, it is hereby ORDERED that Fink’s
motion for summary judgment on the supplemental
complaint be ALLOWED. { (({ { It is further
ORDERED that judgment enter in favor of Frederick B.
Fink in the amount of fifty-five thousand, five hundred
and thirty-nine dollars ($55,539.00) against Sylvia
LaSelva.} } }
It is hereby ORDERED that judgment enter in favor of
Frederick B. Fink on Count I of Sylvia LaSelva’s
counterclaim.
Parallel Citations
1999 WL 26900 (Mass.Super.)
Footnotes
1 Other aspects of Fink’s claim are not relevant to the present motion.
2 Fink argues that because the assignment agreement did not contain a present intent to effect an assignment, it is merely a security
interest, which LaSelva did not perfect and which is thus subordinate to Fink’s attachment. This Court need not address the parties’
arguments concerning the priority of their respective claims under the UCC because Fink’s assertion that he is a secured creditor
with respect to Frederick’s 50% of the trust profits lacks merit. The November 30, 1990 Writ of Attachment provides for a
$280,000 attachment in “Frederick LaSelva’s interest in the real estate at 333 Washington St., Unit 110.” This attachment as to real
estate does not extend to the trust profits; pursuant to Mass.R.Civ.P. 4.1, property to be attached must be identified as specifically
as possible in a writ of attachment.
End of Document © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

More Related Content

What's hot

1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray
1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray
1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murraymalp2009
 
Perkins v. commissioner
Perkins v. commissionerPerkins v. commissioner
Perkins v. commissionerjrbampfield
 
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.Marcellus Drilling News
 
Abdullah; complaint; rapper
Abdullah; complaint; rapperAbdullah; complaint; rapper
Abdullah; complaint; rapperLegal Remedy
 
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceeding
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceedingDoc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceeding
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceedingmalp2009
 
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial Tyranny
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial TyrannyWATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial Tyranny
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial TyrannyZurich Files
 
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edtedhomeworkping3
 
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court Decision
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court DecisionArmstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court Decision
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court DecisionMarcellus Drilling News
 
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - FinalVogelDenise
 
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-casehomeworkping7
 
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty Company
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty CompanyPA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty Company
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty CompanyMarcellus Drilling News
 
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1homeworkping7
 
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causa
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causaLawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causa
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causaLaw Web
 
Posecion insular y dominio en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potencias
Posecion insular y dominio  en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potenciasPosecion insular y dominio  en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potencias
Posecion insular y dominio en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potenciasRuben Reyes
 
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarke
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarkeB178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarke
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarkejamesmaredmond
 
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...Marcellus Drilling News
 

What's hot (18)

1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray
1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray
1376 final order forfeiture_rings_lisa murray
 
Perkins v. commissioner
Perkins v. commissionerPerkins v. commissioner
Perkins v. commissioner
 
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.
Ohio Court Case: Bilbaran Farm, Inc. v. Bakerwell, Inc.
 
Abdullah; complaint; rapper
Abdullah; complaint; rapperAbdullah; complaint; rapper
Abdullah; complaint; rapper
 
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceeding
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceedingDoc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceeding
Doc723 motion to vacate claims & stay further proceeding
 
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial Tyranny
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial TyrannyWATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial Tyranny
WATERSHED: Trillion-Dollar Lawsuit Could End Financial Tyranny
 
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted
147028237 oblicon-cases-from-1168-to-1170edted
 
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court Decision
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court DecisionArmstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court Decision
Armstrong v. Chesapeake Exploration Court Decision
 
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final
071015 - NOTICE OF CONFLICT REGARDING 072315 HEARING - Final
 
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case
205811403 fuentes-v-shevin-original-case
 
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty Company
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty CompanyPA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty Company
PA Superior Court Decision: Northern Forests II, Inc. v. Keta Realty Company
 
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1
159343618 sales-case-digests-set1-1
 
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causa
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causaLawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causa
Lawweb.in uk high courts judgment on modern perspective of donatio mortis causa
 
The Dragon Family Lawsuit
The Dragon Family Lawsuit The Dragon Family Lawsuit
The Dragon Family Lawsuit
 
Posecion insular y dominio en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potencias
Posecion insular y dominio  en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potenciasPosecion insular y dominio  en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potencias
Posecion insular y dominio en el pasifico suplemento cuatro potencias
 
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarke
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarkeB178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarke
B178942 sulphur v knapp petersen clarke
 
PIOGA v. Pennsylvania DEP
PIOGA v. Pennsylvania DEPPIOGA v. Pennsylvania DEP
PIOGA v. Pennsylvania DEP
 
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...
PA Superior Court Ruling in Patricia Wright v. Misty Mountain, LLC and Shirle...
 

Similar to 42 - Fink v LaSelva

Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. Davis
Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. DavisKnow about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. Davis
Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. DavisEarl R. Davis
 
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...malp2009
 
Stern motion for stay of mandate
Stern   motion for stay of mandateStern   motion for stay of mandate
Stern motion for stay of mandateJRachelle
 
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of Appeal
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of AppealFleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of Appeal
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of AppealLegalDocsPro
 
Essential characteristics of sales
Essential characteristics of salesEssential characteristics of sales
Essential characteristics of salesNichaelMadria
 
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4jamesmaredmond
 
citimortgage robo signers
citimortgage robo signerscitimortgage robo signers
citimortgage robo signerstsimmonsia
 
Franklin USDC Appellate Decision
Franklin USDC Appellate DecisionFranklin USDC Appellate Decision
Franklin USDC Appellate DecisionLinda Tirelli
 
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awayDoc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awaymalp2009
 
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awayDoc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awaymalp2009
 
3-19-2013 La S ct opn
3-19-2013 La S ct opn3-19-2013 La S ct opn
3-19-2013 La S ct opnTommy Overton
 
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdfJackTucker22
 
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczek
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczekDoc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczek
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczekmalp2009
 
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767jamesmaredmond
 
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421Roger Valdez
 
Motionto remand
Motionto remandMotionto remand
Motionto remandmzamoralaw
 
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENT
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENTIN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENT
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENTBernard W Heinze
 

Similar to 42 - Fink v LaSelva (20)

Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. Davis
Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. DavisKnow about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. Davis
Know about the case of Herman Durand filed by Earl R. Davis
 
Life After Milne
Life After MilneLife After Milne
Life After Milne
 
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...
Doc1037 robert oneil paul ballard_todd hickman_seeking approval_settlement & ...
 
Divorce: Cancel that line of credit
Divorce: Cancel that line of credit Divorce: Cancel that line of credit
Divorce: Cancel that line of credit
 
Stern motion for stay of mandate
Stern   motion for stay of mandateStern   motion for stay of mandate
Stern motion for stay of mandate
 
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of Appeal
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of AppealFleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of Appeal
Fleet v. Bank of America case from California Court of Appeal
 
Essential characteristics of sales
Essential characteristics of salesEssential characteristics of sales
Essential characteristics of sales
 
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4
Gaggero/Mooring/Walters/Praske/Chatfield/Sulphur County Records/Cases 4
 
Taylor v Duke
Taylor v DukeTaylor v Duke
Taylor v Duke
 
citimortgage robo signers
citimortgage robo signerscitimortgage robo signers
citimortgage robo signers
 
Franklin USDC Appellate Decision
Franklin USDC Appellate DecisionFranklin USDC Appellate Decision
Franklin USDC Appellate Decision
 
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awayDoc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
 
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk awayDoc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
Doc1060 william maxwell motion for settlement_walk away
 
3-19-2013 La S ct opn
3-19-2013 La S ct opn3-19-2013 La S ct opn
3-19-2013 La S ct opn
 
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf
5.+Hamer+v+Sidway+1891+NYCA.pdf
 
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczek
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczekDoc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczek
Doc1029 settlement $550_k_buckno lisicky buczek
 
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767
Sulphur Moutain vs. John Redmond, et al - B238767
 
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421
King county-superior-court-order-on-rha-v-city-of-seattle-22421
 
Motionto remand
Motionto remandMotionto remand
Motionto remand
 
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENT
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENTIN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENT
IN THE NORTHERN CAPE HIGH COURT HEADS OF ARGUMENT
 

More from Richard Goren

7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO
7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO
7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINORichard Goren
 
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINORichard Goren
 
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMYRichard Goren
 
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATIONRichard Goren
 
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)Richard Goren
 
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISIONRUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISIONRichard Goren
 

More from Richard Goren (6)

7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO
7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO
7-25-13 (PAPER 86) SURREPLY D'AGOSTINO
 
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO
6-24-13 OPPOSITION TO BOA MOTION TO DISMISS -D'AGOSTINO
 
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY
11-27-13 ORDER GRANTING MOTION TO DISMISS SWAMY
 
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
10-31-14 ORDER GRANTING MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION
 
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)
D'Agostino v Federal Ins Co , 969 F. Supp. 2d 116 (D. Mass. 2013)
 
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISIONRUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
RUBIN v MURRAY MEMORANDUM OF DECISION
 

42 - Fink v LaSelva

  • 1. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 1 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 Massachusetts Superior Court. Frederick B. FINK, Plaintiff, v. Sylvia LaSELVA, Defendant. No. 90-3186. | Jan. 15, 1999. Opinion MEMORANDUM OF DECISION AND ORDER ON PLAINTIFF’S MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION INTRODUCTION DOERFER. *1 Plaintiff Frederick B. Fink brought the present action against defendant Sylvia LaSelva for money had and received. In a Memorandum of Decision and Order dated August 19, 1998, this Court denied Fink’s motion for summary judgment and entered judgment for LaSelva on the ground that Fink’s claim for the $55,539 allegedly wrongfully retained by LaSelva was barred by the doctrine of res judicata. Fink now moves this Court pursuant to Super.Ct.R. 9D for reconsideration of its August 19, 1998 decision. For the reasons discussed below, the plaintiff’s motion for reconsideration is ALLOWED. BACKGROUND Plaintiff Frederick Fink (Fink) and Frederick LaSelva (Frederick) were business partners and the principals and sole shareholders of MEM, Inc., an office supply and stationery company. Each man held 50% of MEM’s stock. Under declaration of trust dated March 31, 1982, they created the Province Street Trust to purchase, develop, lease and operate commercial office space, MEM’s office, on Washington Street in Boston. Frederick was the sole trustee while Fink and Frederick were co-beneficiaries. The declaration of trust provided that no beneficial interest could be transferred without the written consent of all other outstanding beneficial interests. Fink and Frederick were also co-beneficiaries of the Canton Centre Trust, which held title to two condominium units constituting MEM’s warehouse facilities. Fink was a personal guarantor of a mortgage on the condominiums. In October of 1988, with Frederick being investigated on federal extortion charges, Fink asked Frederick to buy him out of MEM and the Canton Centre Trust. Shortly before negotiations commenced, on September 15, 1988, Frederick transferred his 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust to his wife, defendant Sylvia LaSelva (LaSelva). This assignment was not recorded until July 5, 1989, when Frederick filed a trustee’s certificate. In December of 1988 and January of 1989, Fink and Frederick entered into a purchase and sale agreement in which Frederick agreed to purchase Fink’s interest in the Canton Centre Trust property for $284,000 and grant Fink a security interest in said property. The agreement also provided that Frederick would indemnify and hold Fink harmless in the event that the mortgagee foreclosed on the property. The men also entered into a purchase and sale agreement for MEM which provided that Frederick would pay Fink $5,000 for his entire stock interest, and that Fink’s security interest in the Canton Centre Trust property was security for the MEM stock buy-out as well. In January of 1990, due to Frederick’s impending incarceration on a federal extortion conviction, Fink agreed to allow Frederick to withdraw as trustee of the Province Street Trust and to be replaced by Fink and LaSelva as co-trustees. LaSelva also served as controller, collecting rents from tenants and paying dividends to the beneficiaries. Between January of 1990 and December of 1995, LaSelva paid out half of Province Street Trust’s net profits to herself, a sum in excess of $55,539. *2 In April of 1990, Frederick breached the Canton Center Trust purchase and sale agreement by failing to make the necessary payments to Fink. As a result, Fink was forced to pay the mortgagee and other creditors in excess of $163,000 and incurred $85,000 in legal fees. Accordingly, Fink filed the present action seeking to recover approximately $500,000 from Frederick and to set aside as fraudulent the September 15, 1988 transfer of Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust to LaSelva.1 In March of 1991, Frederick filed a voluntary Chapter 7 petition in Bankruptcy Court, Case No. 91-11632-JNF, and a suggestion of bankruptcy was filed in this case on March 5, 1991. Frederick was discharged from bankruptcy on August 5, 1991. However, the trustee in
  • 2. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 2 bankruptcy, Joseph Butler, commenced an adversary proceeding against Frederick and LaSelva in August of 1993 to set aside numerous alleged fraudulent conveyances, including the September 1988 Province Street Trust assignment. The bankruptcy trustee settled the adversary proceeding against the LaSelvas in November of 1995. Under the terms of the LaSelva Settlement, LaSelva transferred her 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust, and Frederick transferred any residual interest he possessed in the Trust, to the bankruptcy trustee. LaSelva also resigned as co-trustee of the Trust. Thereafter, in December of 1995, Fink and the bankruptcy trustee entered into a Stipulation and Agreement regarding Fink’s claims against the bankruptcy estate. Under this settlement (the Fink settlement), Fink’s claim was allowed as a general, unsecured claim for $411,000, and Fink agreed to release his attachment on the Washington Street property and pay the bankruptcy trustee $50,000. In exchange, the bankruptcy trustee transferred to Fink the estate’s 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust. The LaSelva settlement and the Fink settlement were approved by the Bankruptcy Court (Feeney, J.) on February 27, 1996. In February of 1997, this Court (Cowin, J.) allowed Fink to file a Supplemental Complaint in the present action, alleging a count for money had and received for the $55,539 LaSelva disbursed, as trustee of the Province Street Trust, to herself as co-beneficiary of the trust between January of 1990 and December of 1995. In September of 1997, LaSelva filed a counterclaim seeking costs and fees under G.L. c. 231, § 6F in Count I and alleging abuse of process in Count II. On January 16, 1998, Fink moved for summary judgment on his complaint. In a Memorandum of Decision and Order dated August 19, 1998, this Court denied Fink’s motion for summary judgment and entered judgment in favor of LaSelva on the ground that the LaSelva and Fink settlements in the Bankruptcy Court constituted res judicata with respect to Fink’s claim that the September 15, 1988 assignment of Frederick’s 50% interest in the Province Street Trust to LaSelva was invalid such that LaSelva wrongfully received the $55,539 in trust profits. In so deciding, this Court concluded that the bankruptcy trustee and Fink had identical interests in the settling Fink’s claim. *3 Meanwhile, on July 22, 1998, Frederick and LaSelva moved for sanctions against Fink in the bankruptcy case, No. 91-111632-JNF, for allegedly violating the automatic stay and discharge injunction in those proceedings. In a Memorandum of Decision and Order dated October 22, 1998 denying such sanctions, the Bankruptcy Court (Feeney, J.) found: the various stipulations between the parties did not address, let alone resolve, issues surrounding 1) the validity and extent of Fink’s attachment against the Province Street Trust, which attachment was never formally challenged by the Trustee; and 2) entitlement to the dividends obtained by Sylvia LaSelva when she purportedly owned a 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust pursuant to the unrecorded assignment of the Debtor’s 50% beneficial interest. ... Moreover, although the Trustee states in his affidavit that he intended to release his claim against Sylvia LaSelva for the dividends she received from the Province Street Trust, there is nothing in his Complaint or the Court’s orders to document that contention. Because the Debtor’s transfer of his 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust to the Trustee as part of the settlement of Adv.P. No. 93-1128 obviated the necessity of such a ruling-Fink’s claim against Sylvia LaSelva for monies had and received was more than colorable at the time he filed his Supplemental Complaint against her in the Norfolk Superior Court. Accordingly, Fink now moves for reconsideration of this Court’s August 19, 1998 Memorandum of Decision and Order. DISCUSSION Where there has been no material change in circumstances, a court is not bound to reconsider a case, issue, or question of law once decided. Peterson v. Hopson, 306 Mass. 597, 599, 29 N.E.2d 140 (1940); King v. Globe Newspaper Co., 400 Mass. 705, 707, 512 N.E.2d 241, cert. den., 485 U.S. 940, 108 S.Ct. 1121, 99 L.Ed.2d 281 (1987). Although the court has the power prior to final judgment to reconsider an interlocutory ruling, such power should be exercised only where there are compelling reasons to do so, and a judge should hesitate
  • 3. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 3 to undo his own work. Peterson v. Hopson, supra at 603, 29 N.E.2d 140; King v. Globe Newspaper Co., supra at 707-708, 512 N.E.2d 241. This Court has no duty to reconsider its prior ruling based on the Bankruptcy Court’s finding, in the context of a motion for sanctions for violating the automatic stay, that the LaSelva and Fink settlements did not resolve Fink’s claim against Sylvia LaSelva for the $55,539 in trust profits she received. Nonetheless, the Bankruptcy Court judge was in a superior position to discern the scope of the prior litigation and her comments, as brought to this Court’s attention, constitute a compelling reason to take a fresh look at the issue of res judicata in the present case. It is most important for a judge to do justice according to his oath and his conscience and where further reflection convinces him that he has erred in an announced decision, he ought to correct it while he still has the power. Sheriff v. Gillow, 320 Mass. 46, 49, 67 N.E.2d 754 (1946); Franchi v. Stella, 42 Mass.App.Ct. 251, 258, 676 N.E.2d 56, rev. den., 424 Mass. 1109, 679 N.E.2d 558 (1997). I. RES JUDICATA REVISITED *4 Fink contends that his claim for monies had and received is not precluded by the prior adversary proceeding in the Bankruptcy Court because he was not in privity with the bankruptcy trustee with respect to said claim. A trustee in bankruptcy is a fiduciary representing the estate and creditors. In re Medomak Canning, 922 F.2d 895, 901 (1st Cir.1990); Petitioning Creditors of Melon Produce v. Braunstein, 112 F.3d 1232, 1240 (1st Cir.1997). “In order efficiently to administer the estate, a trustee’s court-approved settlement must have finality, and settling parties must be assured that those the trustee represents will not relitigate settled claims.” In re Medomak Canning, supra at 901. For purposes of res judicata, privity may be established by identification of interests, even where representation of those interests is not authorized. Id.; Petitioning Creditors of Melon Produce v. Braunstein, supra at 1240. A bankruptcy trustee acts as the virtual representative of creditors for the purposes of settling common claims possessed by the estate. Thus, for example, unsecured creditors are in privity with the bankruptcy trustee for purposes of compromising equitable subordination claims. In re Medomak Canning, supra at 901-903; Petitioning Creditors of Melon Produce v. Braunstein, supra at 1240. Nonetheless, there may be claims that are personal to a particular creditor with respect to which the bankruptcy trustee cannot represent the creditor’s interest. In the context of a statutory receiver, the SJC has noted that a receiver may prosecute claims on behalf of creditors in order to preserve the insolvent company’s assets, but may not maintain such a suit in a representative capacity if it is strictly personal in nature to an individual creditor. In the Matter of the Liquidation of American Mutual Liability Ins. Co., 417 Mass. 724, 731, 632 N.E.2d 1209 (1994). The Court explained: The dividing line is whether the cause of action is one which is purely personal, in which no other claimant or creditor of the corporation has an interest, or whether the cause of action is one in favor of creditors in general ... Where the injury alleged is primarily to the corporation, and is an injury to the plaintiff creditor only insofar as it decreases the assets of the corporation to which he must look for satisfaction of his debt, then the suit is for a tort suffered by the corporation, and properly brought by the trustee; if there is a special damage to the creditor suing, not common to other creditors, then it is a personal creditor action which the trustee may not pursue. Id. at 733, 632 N.E.2d 1209, citing In re W. World Funding, Inc., 52 B.R. 743, 774-775 (Bankr.D.Nev.1985). *5 In the present case, the bankruptcy trustee represented all of Frederick LaSelva’s creditors in the adversary proceeding insofar as they had a common interest in avoiding allegedly fraudulent transfers, including the September 15, 1988 Province Street Trust assignment, which decreased the assets of the estate. However, Fink’s present claim for money had and received involves an injury personal to him as the beneficiary of the trust to whom a fiduciary duty was allegedly owed, and as a secured creditor with a purported attachment on trust proceeds. The alleged injury is unique to Fink, rather than common to all creditors and therefore, the bankruptcy trustee did not represent Fink’s interest in this regard during the adversary proceedings. Compare In re Dominelli, 820 F.2d 313, 318 (9th Cir.1987) (noting that if state law provided petitioner with a private cause of action for usury, then bankruptcy trustee’s settlement with debtor on estate’s usury claim would not constitute res judicata). This conclusion comports with Judge Feeney’s finding that the LaSelva and Fink settlements simply did not address Fink’s entitlement to the dividends obtained by Sylvia LaSelva when she purportedly owned a 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust. Hence, Fink’s present action for money had and received is not barred by the prior bankruptcy proceedings of debtor Frederick LaSelva. Accordingly, this Court will address
  • 4. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 4 the merits of Fink’s summary judgment motion. II. FINK’S CLAIM FOR MONEY HAD & RECEIVED The right to recover in an action for money had and received does not depend upon privity of contract. Flavin v. Morrissey, 327 Mass. 217, 220, 97 N.E.2d 643 (1951). Rather, such an action lies whenever there is money which should not in justice be retained by the defendant and which in equity and good conscience should be paid to the plaintiff. Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. v. First National Bank & Trust Co., 345 Mass. 1, 4, 184 N.E.2d 358 (1962); Blue Cross of Massachusetts Inc. v. Travaline, 398 Mass. 582, 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195 (1986). Money allegedly obtained through fraud or misrepresentation may be recovered back in an action for money had and received. Evatt v. Willard D. Martin, Inc.,, 302 Mass. 414, 417, 19 N.E.2d 729 (1939). 1. Claim as 50% Beneficiary of Province Street Trust Fink contends that LaSelva wrongfully obtained $55,539 in profits as the purported owner of a 50% beneficial interest in the Province Street Trust (the Trust), money to which he is entitled. Fink argues that the purported transfer of the beneficial interest from Frederick to LaSelva was legally ineffective and that despite her awareness of the same, LaSelva fraudulently distributed 50% of the trust profits to herself in breach of her fiduciary duty as co-trustee of the Trust. Alternatively, Fink argues that even if the assignment was valid, he has an attachment on Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest which is superior to LaSelva’s unperfected security interest therein. *6 The Assignment Agreement at issue provided in relevant part: FRED agrees to pay all monthly expenses on the REAL ESTATE (the LaSelva residence at 191 Farm Road, Milton) from his funds. The monthly expenses shall include, but shall not be limited to, the monthly mortgage payments, real estate taxes, insurance, repairs, maintenance and capital improvements.... FRED agrees to secure his payment of the monthly expenses by assigning to SYLVIA all of his right, title and interest as a beneficiary of THE PROVINCE STREET TRUST, created under a Declaration of Trust dated March 31, 1982, recorded with the Suffolk County Registry of Deeds in Book 9931, Page 504. FRED shall instruct the Trustee of THE PROVINCE STREET TRUST, in writing, to pay the net monthly proceeds to which FRED is entitled to SYLVIA. Fink’s argument that this agreement evidences a lack of valid consideration need not be addressed, in light of a more fundamental problem. A beneficiary of a trust may freely assign his interest therein absent trust language restricting or prohibiting such alienation. Bank of New England v. Strandlund, 402 Mass. 707, 709-710, 529 N.E.2d 394 (1988). Paragraph 1 of the Province Street Trust states that “No beneficial interest hereunder may be transferred without the prior written consent of all other outstanding beneficial interests.” It is undisputed that Fink did not consent in writing to the transfer of Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest to Sylvia LaSelva. Accordingly, the assignment was not valid.2 Nonetheless, this Court concludes that Fink has no reasonable expectation of prevailing at trial on his claim for money had and received as a 50% beneficiary of the Trust. No action for money had and received lies where the plaintiff fails to demonstrate that he is entitled to the money in the defendant’s hands. Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. v. First National Bank & Trust Co., supra at 4, 184 N.E.2d 358; Blue Cross of Massachusetts Inc. v. Travaline, supra at 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195. The invalidity of the purported assignment of Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest in the trust to LaSelva does not entitle Fink to that portion of the profits. If the assignment was invalid, then Frederick remained a 50% beneficiary of the Trust and after March of 1991, his share of the profits belonged to the bankruptcy estate. At no time prior to the December 1995 bankruptcy settlement was Fink more than a 50% beneficiary of the trust, entitled to half of the trust profits. This Court concludes that Fink has failed to demonstrate that the trust profits wrongfully paid to LaSelva should in equity and good conscience be paid to him. However, Fink further argues that by distributing to herself 50% of the trust profits pursuant to the invalid assignment, LaSelva breached the fiduciary duty owed to him as a co-beneficiary. Fink thus contends that this Court should impose a constructive trust in his favor on the $55,539 received by LaSelva. As a co-trustee of the Trust, LaSelva had a fiduciary duty of honesty and undivided loyalty to Fink as a co-beneficiary of the trust. See Gagnon v. Coombs, 39 Mass.App.Ct. 144, 154-156, 654 N.E.2d 54, rev. den., 421 Mass. 1106, 657 N.E.2d 1272 (1995); Shear v. Gabovitch, 43 Mass.App.Ct. 650, 682, 685 N.E.2d 1168, rev. den.,
  • 5. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 5 973 (1997). A fiduciary at all times owes a beneficiary a duty of full disclosure. Sher v. Sandler, 325 Mass. 348, 353, 90 N.E.2d 536 (1950). Fink thus argues that LaSelva’s transfers as co-trustee of the Trust of half the profits to herself as beneficiary without informing Fink of the unauthorized assignment of Frederick’s 50% interest constituted a breach of her fiduciary duty to him. *7 Assuming without deciding that LaSelva did indeed breach her fiduciary duty to Fink, this Court nonetheless concludes that he is not entitled to the imposition of a constructive trust in his favor. Under Massachusetts law, a court will declare one party a constructive trustee of property for the benefit of another if he acquired the property through fraud, mistake, breach of fiduciary duty, or in other circumstances indicating that he would be unjustly enriched at the other’s expense. Kelly v. Kelly, 358 Mass. 154, 156, 260 N.E.2d 659 (1970). A constructive trust thus restores to the beneficiary that of which he has been deprived by the fiduciary’s breach of her duty. Sher v. Sandler, 325 Mass. 348, 353, 90 N.E.2d 536 (1950); Fortin v. Roman Catholic Bishop of Worcester, 416 Mass. 781, 789, 625 N.E.2d 1352 (1994); Judge v. Gallagher, 17 Mass.App.Ct. 636, 643, 461 N.E.2d 261, rev. den., 392 Mass. 1102, 465 N.E.2d 261 (1984). Fink, however, has simply failed to demonstrate any specific damages suffered by him as a result of LaSelva’s improper distribution of the trust profits to herself. Compare Judge v. Gallagher, supra at 643, 461 N.E.2d 261 (concluding that where defendant breached fiduciary duty to plaintiffs by depriving them of an opportunity to invest in certain stock at a reduced rate, the remedy was to award the plaintiffs the value of said stock); Gagnon v. Coombs, supra at 159, 654 N.E.2d 54 (concluding that where trustee breached fiduciary duty by conveying trust property to herself, remedy was to impose constructive trust and order reconveyance of property to beneficiary). This Court does not doubt that the distribution of the proceeds to LaSelva, rather than to Frederick and the subsequent bankruptcy estate, may have injured the Trust and Fink as a 50% beneficiary thereof; however, Fink has failed to meet his burden of producing evidence to establish the amount of such injury. In order to prevail in this action, Fink must demonstrate not just that LaSelva was unjustly enriched by her breach of fiduciary duty, but that she was enriched in a particular amount at Fink’s expense. Accordingly, Fink is not entitled to judgment as a matter of law on his supplemental complaint for money had and received with respect to any claim in his capacity as a 50% beneficiary of the Trust. 2. Claim as Successor to Frederick’s 50% Beneficial Interest As of the date of the present summary judgment motion, Fink held 100% of the beneficial interest in the Trust as result of the LaSelva and Fink settlements in the bankruptcy proceeding. As discussed above, the purported September 15, 1988 assignment of Frederick’s 50% interest in the Province Street Trust to LaSelva violated the terms of the Trust, which required the written consent of the other beneficial interests prior to any such transfer, and was therefore invalid. Accordingly, Frederick remained a 50% beneficiary of the Trust and after March of 1991, his share of the profits belonged to the bankruptcy estate. It is undisputed that both Frederick and LaSelva transferred any rights they might have had in the other 50% beneficial interest in the Trust to the bankruptcy trustee as part of the LaSelva settlement. In turn, the bankruptcy trustee sold the estate’s 50% beneficial interest in the Trust to Fink in December of 1995. *8 LaSelva argues, based on the January 8, 1998 affidavit of bankruptcy trustee Joseph Butler, that any claim by the bankruptcy estate in the $55,539 received by her as a purported beneficiary of the Trust was dismissed with prejudice as part of the LaSelva settlement, and thus could not have been transferred to Fink in the later Fink settlement. However, according to Judge Feeney, who presided over the bankruptcy case and approved the settlements at issue, the resolution of the adversary proceeding simply presented no occasion to pass on the validity of the purported assignment and LaSelva’s receipt of 50% of the profits. This Court must defer to the determination of the bankruptcy judge concerning the scope of the litigation rather than to the subjective opinion of the trustee. Thus, Fink is indeed the owner of Frederick’s 50% beneficial interest in the trust and his right to the $55,539 in profits wrongfully distributed to LaSelva. Whether viewed as funds obtained by deceit or funds merely mistakenly paid to the wrong party, the $55,539 is money which in equity and good conscience should be paid to the plaintiff. See Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. v. First National Bank & Trust Co., supra at 4, 184 N.E.2d 358; Blue Cross of Massachusetts Inc. v. Travaline, supra at 588, 499 N.E.2d 1195. Thus, Fink has met his burden of demonstrating that he is entitled as a matter of law to recover from LaSelva the $55,539 had and received. Finally, although there is no motion pending before the court, in the interests of judicial economy this Court will dispose of LaSelva’s counterclaim against Fink, Count I of which seeks legal fees and expenses pursuant to G.L. c. 231, § 6F and Count II of which alleges abuse of process. Chapter 231 section 6F provides in relevant part:
  • 6. Fink v. LaSelva, Not Reported in N.E.2d (1999) 9 Mass.L.Rptr. 365 © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. 6 Upon motion of any party in any civil action ... the court may determine ... that all or substantially all of the claims, defenses, setoffs or counterclaims, whether of a factual, legal or mixed nature, made by any party who was represented by counsel during most or all of the proceeding, were wholly insubstantial, frivolous and not advanced in good faith.... If such a finding is made with respect to a party’s claims, the court shall award to each party against whom such claims were asserted an amount representing the reasonable counsel fees and other costs and expenses incurred in defending against such claims. G.L. c. 231, § 6F (1994). Given that Fink has prevailed on his claim for money had and received, his pursuit of the supplemental complaint cannot be deemed insubstantial or frivolous. Accordingly, Sylvia is not entitled to recover fees and costs under Chapter 231, section 6F. Count II of the counterclaim alleges that Fink’s claim for money had and received lacked a basis in law or fact and was brought solely to cause LaSelva emotional and financial damage. To establish an action for abuse of process, the plaintiff must demonstrate that process was used for some ulterior purpose for which it was not designed or intended. Ladd v. Polidoro, 424 Mass. 196, 198, 675 N.E.2d 382 (1997). However, proof of groundlessness or lack of merit is not an essential element of an action for abuse of process. Dangel v. Offset Printing, Inc., 342 Mass. 170, 171, 172 N.E.2d 610 (1961); Fishman v. Brooks, 396 Mass. 643, 652, 487 N.E.2d 1377 (1986). “To suffer an abuse of process is to suffer the consequences of legal actions which while having an adequate basis in law and fact are nonetheless manipulation by the defendant to secure a collateral advantage not within the scope of the law.” Britton v. Maloney, 981 F.Supp. 25, 55 (D.Mass.1997). Accordingly, LaSelva’s counterclaim for abuse of process cannot be dismissed at this stage of the proceedings. ORDER *9 For the foregoing reasons, it is hereby ORDERED that Fink’s motion for reconsideration be ALLOWED. Upon reconsideration, it is hereby ORDERED that Fink’s motion for summary judgment on the supplemental complaint be ALLOWED. { (({ { It is further ORDERED that judgment enter in favor of Frederick B. Fink in the amount of fifty-five thousand, five hundred and thirty-nine dollars ($55,539.00) against Sylvia LaSelva.} } } It is hereby ORDERED that judgment enter in favor of Frederick B. Fink on Count I of Sylvia LaSelva’s counterclaim. Parallel Citations 1999 WL 26900 (Mass.Super.) Footnotes 1 Other aspects of Fink’s claim are not relevant to the present motion. 2 Fink argues that because the assignment agreement did not contain a present intent to effect an assignment, it is merely a security interest, which LaSelva did not perfect and which is thus subordinate to Fink’s attachment. This Court need not address the parties’ arguments concerning the priority of their respective claims under the UCC because Fink’s assertion that he is a secured creditor with respect to Frederick’s 50% of the trust profits lacks merit. The November 30, 1990 Writ of Attachment provides for a $280,000 attachment in “Frederick LaSelva’s interest in the real estate at 333 Washington St., Unit 110.” This attachment as to real estate does not extend to the trust profits; pursuant to Mass.R.Civ.P. 4.1, property to be attached must be identified as specifically as possible in a writ of attachment. End of Document © 2012 Thomson Reuters. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.