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Use of Force Protocols:Use of Force Protocols:
The Pepper Ball Gun &The Pepper Ball Gun &
Urban Riot DeploymentUrban Riot ...
Use of Force Protocol 2:Use of Force Protocol 2:
The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun
Urban Riot DeploymentUrban Riot De...
““The Art of Restraint”The Art of Restraint”
Use of Force ProtocolUse of Force Protocol
Lethal & Non LethalLethal & Non Le...
Leading the front lines:Leading the front lines:
Mission & Purpose:Mission & Purpose:
The primary purpose of this
training exercise is to:
1. Insure first, the safety of t...
Introduction:Introduction:
The purpose of this comprehensive training
module is to give public law enforcement and
private...
Introduction:Introduction:
This presentation will mainly deal with
several tools utilized and deployed by
Police & Securit...
The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun
The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun
What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball?
A pepper-spray projectile, also called a
pepper-spray ball, pepper-ball or pepp...
What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball?
The weapon is used generally in the role of,
where physical proximity to a susp...
What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball?
Although generally considered less-than-lethal
when properly used (targets shou...
The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700
The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700
The Pepper balls/ projectiles:The Pepper balls/ projectiles:
Definition:Definition:
Pepper Ball System:
Air-Powered launch device and projectiles
that are plastic spheres filled with ...
Definition:Definition:
Response to inhaling Pepper Ball
projectile OC powder varies greatly
among individuals. In most cas...
Acceptable uses of a
less lethal force:
To incapacitate a combative or
physically resistive person whose
conduct rises at ...
Acceptable uses of a
less lethal force:
This use of force option becomes
necessary when other force
options would be inapp...
Acceptable uses of a
less lethal force:
Active Aggression is defined as a
threat or overt act of an assault,
coupled with ...
Acceptable uses of a
less lethal force:
To incapacitate a suicidal
person who cannot be
safely controlled with other
force...
Proper use of the Pepperball GunProper use of the Pepperball Gun
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
Specific areas of the human body
must be avoided when deploying the
Pepper ball gun u...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
1.To the head, eyes,
throat, neck, breasts of a
female, genitalia or spinal
column.(e...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
2.To a pregnant female- if
the officer has knowledge
of the pregnancy- visual
or conv...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
3.On or in an open wound
if the law enforcement
officer or federal agent
has knowledg...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
Use of the Pepper Ball projectile
shall be considered a use of force
and must meet th...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
1A. Incapacitating a combative or
physically resistive person to the
point where they...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
B. The purpose is to neutralize
the person to the point they
can be safely controlled...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
C. When other force options would be
inappropriate or ineffective under the
circumsta...
Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment:
2. Situations when its use is likely
to prevent an officer or a third
person from bei...
Communication & medical response:Communication & medical response:
Officers shall communicate to other
officers that they ...
Communication & medical response:Communication & medical response:
Immediate evaluation by medical personnel
is required t...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
•Timothy Nelson, a UC Davis student, was shot in the
eye by a pepperball fire...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
Nelson sued, alleging that his
Fourth Amendment rights had
been violated. The...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed
the District Court, finding that ...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
The Court stated, “A reasonable officer
would have known that firing projecti...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
There are several passages within the decision
that should be of interest to ...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
• Although the officers had an interest in clearing
the apartment complex, th...
The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
The court ruling stated, “Individuals causing
the problems were not so numero...
The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball
impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
The following pict...
The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball
impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball
impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
This Police Lt. was unharmed-This Police Lt. was unharmed-
The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball
impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
Total Loss of Control:Total Loss of Control:
The Urban RiotThe Urban Riot
Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot:
Riots are complex events. Their
complexity lies not only i...
Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot:
This is further complicated by the
fact that they are tran...
Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot:
At the simplest level, riots can
result from the spontaneo...
Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot:
When dealing with a riot or any other
highly explosive sit...
Rioters at the DetroitRioters at the Detroit
1984 World Series1984 World Series
1984 Detroit Riot1984 Detroit Riot
•In October 1984, violence exploded
outside of Tiger Stadium in Detroit
after the Tiger...
Riot- Los Angeles, CaliforniaRiot- Los Angeles, California
Riot- Vancouver, May 2011Riot- Vancouver, May 2011
Aggressive Mobs…Aggressive Mobs…
Aggressive mobs engage in violent and lawless
behavior. Violence is usually transient and...
Aggressive Mobs…Aggressive Mobs…
 They have little emotional
investment and can be controlled
effectively by proper police...
Operational Response:Operational Response:
Police are good at responding tactically to
individual threats, and if need be ...
Operational Response:Operational Response:
The lack of appreciation and application of
police operations are unfortunate, ...
Riot- Athens, Greece 2011Riot- Athens, Greece 2011
Riot- Athens, Greece 2011Riot- Athens, Greece 2011
Religious Riot- Egypt, 2012Religious Riot- Egypt, 2012
Riot- London, England, 1999Riot- London, England, 1999
1999: The Battle in Seattle1999: The Battle in Seattle
2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot
2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot
Rioters at the DetroitRioters at the Detroit
1984 World Series1984 World Series
Deployment: Boston 2004Deployment: Boston 2004
Case point- Victoria SnelgroveCase point- Victoria Snelgrove
2004 Boston2004 Boston
Championship RiotChampionship Riot
Boston Red Sox fans rioted outside of Fenway
Park even before th...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
At the top lev...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
In Los Angeles...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
Poor coordinat...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
At the police ...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
At the level o...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
At the lowest ...
The social impact of theThe social impact of the
1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
During riot op...
Tactical and operational objectives:
Emergency response means far more than
riot gear and mass arrests. Tactical medical
r...
Tactical and operational objectives:
Tactical and operational objectives include
assessing the crowd/mob, containing and
i...
Tactical and operational objectives:
As in the Boston Police & Victoria
Snelgrove incident, Officers when
deployed in riot...
Tactical and operational objectives:
Use of pepperball guns and
bean bags shall be precisely aimed
at one target while adh...
Tactical and operational objectives:
It is equally also understood,
that one of the most dangerous
and stressful incidents...
Tactical and operational objectives:
Although use of force
protocols will apply, it is also
understood that much higher
le...
Tactical and operational objectives:
Much is at stake in terms of property
and human life that could be lost
during an urb...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Crowd control formations, when properly
employed and executed against a...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
For example, the first line of the formation
is armed with batons and t...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Crowd control formations may be employed
to disperse, contain, or block...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Small groups can initiate dispersed
riotous acts. Therefore, the use of...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Police Commanders must realize the
limitations of formations. Formation...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Even when a large mob has been split up,
the problem is not necessarily...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Rooftops must be secured to help prevent
sniper fire from these vantage...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Crowd control formations also may be used for
more than just dispersal ...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Police and or Incident Commanders analyze the
threat, the control force...
Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
Civil disturbance training must reiterate that
front line personnel und...
Types of Formations:Types of Formations:
Past civil disturbances indicate that the most
frequently used formations are the...
Types of Formations:Types of Formations:
The echelon is an offensive formation
used to turn or divert groups in either
ope...
Types of Formations:Types of Formations:
As a defensive formation, the
diamond is used when all-around
security is require...
The Diamond Formation:The Diamond Formation:
Hand Signal Formations:Hand Signal Formations:
Los Angeles Police in formation:Los Angeles Police in formation:
NATO Summit- Chicago Police:NATO Summit- Chicago Police:
Commands:Commands:
Commands can be given to crowd control units
in formation either orally or with hand signals.
The oral ...
Cadence:Cadence:
The usual cadence for moving riot
personnel into and out of crowd control
formations is double time. The ...
Cadence:Cadence:
For psychological effect, riot personnel
using the on-guard cadence may
accentuate each left-foot step wi...
Interval & Distance:Interval & Distance:
Interval is the lateral space between elements.
Distance is the space between ele...
The Riot Objective:The Riot Objective:
Quiet & Safe streetsQuiet & Safe streets
USE OF FORCE PROTOCOLSUSE OF FORCE PROTOCOLS
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Use of Force Guidelines- Pepperball Gun- Urban Riot- Richard Garrity

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Use of Force Guidelines- Pepperball Gun- Urban Riot- Richard Garrity

  1. 1. Use of Force Protocols:Use of Force Protocols: The Pepper Ball Gun &The Pepper Ball Gun & Urban Riot DeploymentUrban Riot Deployment Part 2 of 2 SeriesPart 2 of 2 Series
  2. 2. Use of Force Protocol 2:Use of Force Protocol 2: The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun Urban Riot DeploymentUrban Riot Deployment This presentation is proprietary information and can’t be copied or reproduced in any fashion without consent from the publisher owner, Richard Garrity
  3. 3. ““The Art of Restraint”The Art of Restraint” Use of Force ProtocolUse of Force Protocol Lethal & Non LethalLethal & Non Lethal “Force is legitimate where gentleness avails not”. Pierre Corneille
  4. 4. Leading the front lines:Leading the front lines:
  5. 5. Mission & Purpose:Mission & Purpose: The primary purpose of this training exercise is to: 1. Insure first, the safety of the Officer 2. Insure the safety of the public 3. Insure the safety of the suspect (if necessary) 4. Reduce costly liability when applicable 5. Diminish the possibility of criminal charges or civil liability to the personnel involved
  6. 6. Introduction:Introduction: The purpose of this comprehensive training module is to give public law enforcement and private security personnel proper guidelines on the Use of Force, both lethal and non-lethal. It is vital that this training presentation be viewed as a supplement to your existing training and should not be construed as replacement for said training. Use of Force guidelines should always be universal in spirit and in actual current written procedure.
  7. 7. Introduction:Introduction: This presentation will mainly deal with several tools utilized and deployed by Police & Security: 1. Pepper Ball Gun Policies 2. Use of Force discretion 3. Urban Riot Guidelines
  8. 8. The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun
  9. 9. The Pepper Ball GunThe Pepper Ball Gun
  10. 10. What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball? A pepper-spray projectile, also called a pepper-spray ball, pepper-ball or pepper- spray pellet is a projectile weapon made up of a powdered chemical that irritates eyes and nose. These weapons launch a fragile projectile which breaks upon impact and releases an irritant payload.
  11. 11. What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball? The weapon is used generally in the role of, where physical proximity to a suspect is deemed dangerous but deadly force is not warranted. The systems are not limited to classic standoff situations and allow agents to apply as many rounds as required to bring individual suspects, multiple suspects, or crowds into compliance.
  12. 12. What is a Pepperball?What is a Pepperball? Although generally considered less-than-lethal when properly used (targets should exclude the face, eyes, throat or spine), deaths have occurred when they have been fired at inappropriate areas. In one well publicized incident in 2004, the Boston Police Department killed 21-year-old Victoria Snelgrove using a pepper-spray projectile weapon during a World Series crowd control situation.
  13. 13. The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700
  14. 14. The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700The Pepper ball Gun- The TAC 700
  15. 15. The Pepper balls/ projectiles:The Pepper balls/ projectiles:
  16. 16. Definition:Definition: Pepper Ball System: Air-Powered launch device and projectiles that are plastic spheres filled with powdered or liquid five (5) % Oleoresin Capsicum (OC). Projectiles burst on impact and release OC. Pepper Ball projectiles subdue by strongly irritating the nose, lungs and breathing.
  17. 17. Definition:Definition: Response to inhaling Pepper Ball projectile OC powder varies greatly among individuals. In most cases the symptoms last for a few minutes. The Pepper Ball can deliver projectiles with enough kinetic energy to produce abrasions, bruises, and/or welts.
  18. 18. Acceptable uses of a less lethal force: To incapacitate a combative or physically resistive person whose conduct rises at least to the level of Active Aggression. The purpose is to neutralize the person to the point they can be safely controlled and taken into custody.
  19. 19. Acceptable uses of a less lethal force: This use of force option becomes necessary when other force options would be inappropriate or ineffective under the circumstances and it is reasonable and necessary in order to attempt to avoid having to use deadly force.
  20. 20. Acceptable uses of a less lethal force: Active Aggression is defined as a threat or overt act of an assault, coupled with the present ability to carry out the threat or assault, which reasonably indicates that an assault or injury to any person is imminent.
  21. 21. Acceptable uses of a less lethal force: To incapacitate a suicidal person who cannot be safely controlled with other force options.
  22. 22. Proper use of the Pepperball GunProper use of the Pepperball Gun
  23. 23. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: Specific areas of the human body must be avoided when deploying the Pepper ball gun under acceptable and authorized conditions. These areas if violated could imminently cause death, therefore not regulated or authorized for that specific deployment. These areas are, in general:
  24. 24. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: 1.To the head, eyes, throat, neck, breasts of a female, genitalia or spinal column.(especially the eye area)
  25. 25. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: 2.To a pregnant female- if the officer has knowledge of the pregnancy- visual or conveyed to.
  26. 26. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: 3.On or in an open wound if the law enforcement officer or federal agent has knowledge of the open wound.
  27. 27. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: Use of the Pepper Ball projectile shall be considered a use of force and must meet the requirements of all Department policies and procedures. Acceptable uses of the Pepper Ball projectile may include:
  28. 28. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: 1A. Incapacitating a combative or physically resistive person to the point where they can be controlled and taken safely into custody. To incapacitate a combative or physically resistive person whose conduct rises at least to the level of Defensive Resistance.
  29. 29. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: B. The purpose is to neutralize the person to the point they can be safely controlled and taken into custody without using deadly force.
  30. 30. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: C. When other force options would be inappropriate or ineffective under the circumstances this, use of force option becomes necessary (Defensive resistance is defined as physical actions that attempt to prevent officer's control including flight or attempt to flee. But do not involve attempts to harm the officer.)
  31. 31. Proper Deployment:Proper Deployment: 2. Situations when its use is likely to prevent an officer or a third person from being injured. 3. When ordered by the field force commander or other command officer in crowd control or riot situations.
  32. 32. Communication & medical response:Communication & medical response: Officers shall communicate to other officers that they are about to discharge a less lethal weapon prior to its use or clearly and audibly announce the same to officers in the immediate area unless urgent circumstances prevent this from occurring.
  33. 33. Communication & medical response:Communication & medical response: Immediate evaluation by medical personnel is required to determine the degree of injury suffered by the suspect. This medical check shall be documented on your department’s incident report documentation. If the prisoner is jailed, the officer will notify detention facility personnel that a less lethal weapon was used.
  34. 34. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident:
  35. 35. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: •Timothy Nelson, a UC Davis student, was shot in the eye by a pepperball fired by a UC Davis officer’s gun, when UC Davis and City of Davis police attempted to clear an apartment complex of partying students in 2004. The officers didn’t properly warn the students prior to shooting, nor did they explain to Nelson’s group how to exit the complex prior to the police use of force. Nelson suffered “a permanent loss of visual acuity,” and had “multiple surgeries to repair the ocular injury he sustained.”
  36. 36. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: Nelson sued, alleging that his Fourth Amendment rights had been violated. The defendants moved for summary judgment based on qualified immunity. The District Court denied the motion.
  37. 37. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the District Court, finding that the officers’ actions amounted to an unconstitutional seizure. The Court held that the law at the time of the incident should have placed the officers on notice that shooting pepperballs under the circumstances in this case, was an act of excessive force.
  38. 38. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: The Court stated, “A reasonable officer would have known that firing projectiles, including pepper balls, in the direction of individuals suspected of, at most, minor crimes, who posed no threat to the officers or others, and who engaged in only passive resistance, was unreasonable.”
  39. 39. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: There are several passages within the decision that should be of interest to officers who might be engaged in the dispersal of large groups of individuals. It was argued that Nelson and his companions were trespassing, based on a willful refusal to leave. The Court stated that trespassing, while an offense, is a minor infraction that justifies, at most, only a minimal use of force.
  40. 40. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: • Although the officers had an interest in clearing the apartment complex, the “desire to do so quickly, in the absence of any actual exigency, cannot legitimize the application of force when it is not otherwise justified.” •While officers encountered individuals at various points during their sweeps of the complex who threw bottles or other debris at them, they did not see anyone in Nelson’s group engaging in such threatening or dangerous behavior.
  41. 41. The UC Davis Incident:The UC Davis Incident: The court ruling stated, “Individuals causing the problems were not so numerous that the two categories of partygoers were indistinguishable.” “Under these circumstances, the general disorder of the complex cannot be used to legitimize the use of pepperball projectiles against non-threatening individuals.”
  42. 42. The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball impact on the human body:impact on the human body: The following pictures/ images are from events during the Denver, Colorado “Occupy Movement” from 2011-2012. The last picture (of an injured protester-deviant) is from Tucson, Arizona, March 2014.
  43. 43. The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
  44. 44. The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
  45. 45. This Police Lt. was unharmed-This Police Lt. was unharmed-
  46. 46. The results of pepper ballThe results of pepper ball impact on the human body:impact on the human body:
  47. 47. Total Loss of Control:Total Loss of Control: The Urban RiotThe Urban Riot
  48. 48. Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot: Riots are complex events. Their complexity lies not only in the range of motivations, but the fact that riots or violent outbursts of mass action— occur within a spectrum of crowd and mob activity resulting from a variety of underlying and proximate causes.
  49. 49. Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot: This is further complicated by the fact that they are transient events that generally occur at low frequency making preparedness problematic for both political and security/ police authorities.
  50. 50. Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot: At the simplest level, riots can result from the spontaneous convergence of a number of contributory factors fueled by the acute interaction of precipitating events with a specific catalyst at a specific flashpoint
  51. 51. Defining & understandingDefining & understanding a Riot:a Riot: When dealing with a riot or any other highly explosive situation that Officers maybe faced with, always remember: “PPP” “Proper Police Procedure”
  52. 52. Rioters at the DetroitRioters at the Detroit 1984 World Series1984 World Series
  53. 53. 1984 Detroit Riot1984 Detroit Riot •In October 1984, violence exploded outside of Tiger Stadium in Detroit after the Tigers beat the San Diego Padres in the World Series. Some say, this riot was the one that kicked off all the ones that we see these days as part of victory celebrations.
  54. 54. Riot- Los Angeles, CaliforniaRiot- Los Angeles, California
  55. 55. Riot- Vancouver, May 2011Riot- Vancouver, May 2011
  56. 56. Aggressive Mobs…Aggressive Mobs… Aggressive mobs engage in violent and lawless behavior. Violence is usually transient and can be directed against persons or property. These are primarily emotion-driven and can trigger sustained rioting. Expressive mobs view violence as a legitimate tool of rebellion, resistance, or protest. Acquisitive mobs seek to acquire something. They can be looters exploiting chaos or confusion.
  57. 57. Aggressive Mobs…Aggressive Mobs…  They have little emotional investment and can be controlled effectively by proper police intervention. The final mob type is the escape mob, or persons fleeing imminent danger. These are extremely difficult to control since they are sustained by fear.
  58. 58. Operational Response:Operational Response: Police are good at responding tactically to individual threats, and if need be flooding an entire city with numbers if they can afford them. Yet high-impact violence geographically distributed across a large urban operational space and in some cases several cities at once, imposes massive coordination costs on a threadbare command and control system optimized for dealing with one incident at a time.
  59. 59. Operational Response:Operational Response: The lack of appreciation and application of police operations are unfortunate, as riot response is one of the most important truly “operational” police situations. The defense of a large, complex capital city or urban center—such as London, the District of Columbia, or Los Angeles—bridges policy and strategy concerns with very minute and detailed tactical maneuvers and movements.
  60. 60. Riot- Athens, Greece 2011Riot- Athens, Greece 2011
  61. 61. Riot- Athens, Greece 2011Riot- Athens, Greece 2011
  62. 62. Religious Riot- Egypt, 2012Religious Riot- Egypt, 2012
  63. 63. Riot- London, England, 1999Riot- London, England, 1999
  64. 64. 1999: The Battle in Seattle1999: The Battle in Seattle
  65. 65. 2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot
  66. 66. 2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot2011- Vancouver Canucks Riot
  67. 67. Rioters at the DetroitRioters at the Detroit 1984 World Series1984 World Series
  68. 68. Deployment: Boston 2004Deployment: Boston 2004
  69. 69. Case point- Victoria SnelgroveCase point- Victoria Snelgrove
  70. 70. 2004 Boston2004 Boston Championship RiotChampionship Riot Boston Red Sox fans rioted outside of Fenway Park even before the World Series began. After dramatically coming from behind and beating the New York Yankees, fans took to the streets, trying to burn down Kenmore Square. Police used "pepper guns" to control the mob. Unfortunately, Emerson College student Victoria Snelgrove was killed by a pepper filled paintball- like projectile that hit her in the eye.
  71. 71. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots
  72. 72. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  73. 73. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  74. 74. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  75. 75. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  76. 76. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  77. 77. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  78. 78. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  79. 79. Images from the 65’ & 92’ RiotsImages from the 65’ & 92’ Riots
  80. 80. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots At the top level, strong political direction is needed to contain social upheaval. Policing, always a high-stress endeavor, is also an outgrowth of municipal politics.
  81. 81. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots In Los Angeles, the impact of the Rodney King beating induced excessive political caution that impeded the ability of the Los Angeles police department to train effectively for civil disturbances that might result afterwards and restrained police from deploying in strength during the riot.
  82. 82. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots Poor coordination and distrust between the mayor and the police chief also resulted in a confused and disaggregated planning and response. This condition is totally unacceptable.
  83. 83. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots At the police executive level, systematic training and drills on both agency and multi-agency levels for civil disturbances and mass arrest situations are essential. Specific plans for civil unrest must be communicated, and the police executive must command in person.
  84. 84. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots At the level of the emergency operations command, a breakdown in both the physical and human elements of command and control networks are often decisive as police commanders find themselves isolated and overwhelmed by operational frictions.
  85. 85. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots At the lowest level, proper personnel, equipment, logistical and technical support, and a willingness to engage emerging incidents are essential tactical elements of riot response.
  86. 86. The social impact of theThe social impact of the 1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots1965 & 1992 Los Angeles Riots During riot operations, officers, without firm operational direction, revert to a reactive tactical mode. A lack of direction and coordination results in excessive force, poor discipline, tactical timidity in the face of danger, and poor force flow to trouble spots.
  87. 87. Tactical and operational objectives: Emergency response means far more than riot gear and mass arrests. Tactical medical response, fire control, aerial reconnaissance, bomb squad, and counter-explosive operations are only a sampling of the many functions that civil authorities must deal with in high-intensity riot situations. Obviously the key to employing them is a resilient and effective organization and command and control organization.
  88. 88. Tactical and operational objectives: Tactical and operational objectives include assessing the crowd/mob, containing and isolating disruptive activity, and dispersal of violent and unlawful actors. Tactically, this demands an assessment of alternative dispersal routes, knowledge of crowd composition and dynamics (including focal/convergence points and axis of crowd movement), and a description of closed areas.
  89. 89. Tactical and operational objectives: As in the Boston Police & Victoria Snelgrove incident, Officers when deployed in riot like conditions, shall never fire indiscriminately (i.e. firearms, pepperball guns) into crowds unless there direct safety is threatened or the crowd is advancing upon them in a menacing manor.
  90. 90. Tactical and operational objectives: Use of pepperball guns and bean bags shall be precisely aimed at one target while adhering to specific areas of the body that are authorized to take a pepperball & beanbag direct hit. Use of force protocols generally apply in riot conditions, there is no deviation.
  91. 91. Tactical and operational objectives: It is equally also understood, that one of the most dangerous and stressful incidents a Police Officer can endure, is the urban riot. It is chaotic, it is uncontrolled, and it is down right scary.
  92. 92. Tactical and operational objectives: Although use of force protocols will apply, it is also understood that much higher levels of use of force have to be applied to gain control of the situation.
  93. 93. Tactical and operational objectives: Much is at stake in terms of property and human life that could be lost during an urban riot. Officers must quell a riot almost from the time it starts so that the riot itself does not spread, like a virus, to other pockets of the urban landscape.
  94. 94. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations:
  95. 95. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Crowd control formations, when properly employed and executed against a crowd of limited size, are one of the most practical methods of crowd control. In selecting force options, the riot baton generally is the main weapon of the control force. If the situation is serious, the commander may consider employing a mix of batons, pepper ball guns, or rifles.
  96. 96. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: For example, the first line of the formation is armed with batons and the second or supporting ranks are armed with pepper ball guns and or rifles, but NO bayonets are permitted during the course & deployment of quelling a U.S. urban riot. Bayonets are strictly for military use during combat and or foreign crowd control only.
  97. 97. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Crowd control formations may be employed to disperse, contain, or block a crowd. When employed to disperse a crowd, they are particularly effective in urban areas because they enable the control force to split a crowd into smaller segments. When a crowd has been dispersed, the control force must not assume that they have capitulated and returned to peaceful activities.
  98. 98. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Small groups can initiate dispersed riotous acts. Therefore, the use of formations is only a part of the total dispersal effort. If the crowd refuses to move, the control force may have to employ other techniques, such as riot control agents or apprehensions.
  99. 99. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Police Commanders must realize the limitations of formations. Formations are not the answer to all civil disturbance situations. The commander must not subject his officers to unnecessary violence simply to impress the crowd with a show of force. When small, dispersed mobs are rampant in an area, formations are of little value.
  100. 100. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Even when a large mob has been split up, the problem is not necessarily solved. The small elements that break away from the large mob may engage in small-mob tactics, such as sniping, looting, and burning. Commanders then, of necessity, must revert to area control measures, such as building searches, saturation patrolling, and other tactics.
  101. 101. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Rooftops must be secured to help prevent sniper fire from these vantage points. Helicopter observation is one method of visually securing rooftops. Occupation of the rooftops is another. When Officers are stationed in high buildings or on rooftops, all other personnel must be informed of this to avoid the possibility of control force members being mistaken for snipers.
  102. 102. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Crowd control formations also may be used for more than just dispersal operations. If the decision is made to apprehend crowd members, the crowd control formation may be used as a blocking formation. Apprehension teams then escort apprehended crowd members back through the formation. A crowd control formation also may be used to aid containment operations by using blocking, flanking, and confrontation elements of the formation.
  103. 103. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Police and or Incident Commanders analyze the threat, the control force's missions, and how crowd control formations can be used to aid mission accomplishment. Experience has shown that the formations, to be effective, must be tailored to meet the situation. Whatever the modification, deployed personnel must be proficient in the basic formation movements to be able to react or adjust to a changing situation.
  104. 104. Crowd Control Formations:Crowd Control Formations: Civil disturbance training must reiterate that front line personnel understand the need to ensure stay in formation. Riot Officers are much more vulnerable to attack when individual Officers break ranks and chase after crowd members. The individual Officers place themselves in danger, and the entire formation may be threatened if it begins to break down.
  105. 105. Types of Formations:Types of Formations: Past civil disturbances indicate that the most frequently used formations are the line, the wedge, and the echelon. The line formation is used more often because of its offensive and defensive applications. As an offensive formation, the line is used to push or drive crowds straight back, across an open area, or up a city street. As a defensive formation, the line is used to hold the crowd or to deny access to restricted streets or areas.
  106. 106. Types of Formations:Types of Formations: The echelon is an offensive formation used to turn or divert groups in either open or built-up areas and to move crowds away from buildings, fences, and walls. The wedge is an offensive formation that is used to penetrate and split crowds. The diamond, as an offensive formation, is used to enter a crowd and is suitable for apprehending ring leaders.
  107. 107. Types of Formations:Types of Formations: As a defensive formation, the diamond is used when all-around security is required. The circular formation may be used for the same purposes as the diamond. The decision to use either the diamond or the circle is based on the conformation of the crowd.
  108. 108. The Diamond Formation:The Diamond Formation:
  109. 109. Hand Signal Formations:Hand Signal Formations:
  110. 110. Los Angeles Police in formation:Los Angeles Police in formation:
  111. 111. NATO Summit- Chicago Police:NATO Summit- Chicago Police:
  112. 112. Commands:Commands: Commands can be given to crowd control units in formation either orally or with hand signals. The oral commands for safe port, safeguard, and on guard are given in one count. All other commands are given in two counts, a preparatory command followed by an execution command. Oral commands cannot be relied on completely. Incident Commanders must plan to use alternate methods for relaying commands. When it is necessary, commanders use hand and arm signals with oral commands.
  113. 113. Cadence:Cadence: The usual cadence for moving riot personnel into and out of crowd control formations is double time. The riot personnel are at safe port when performing these maneuvers. When riot personnel in a crowd control formation are moving in the safeguard position, the usual cadence is quick time. When they are moving in the on-guard position, the usual cadence is 60 steps per minute.
  114. 114. Cadence:Cadence: For psychological effect, riot personnel using the on-guard cadence may accentuate each left-foot step with a stomp. The commander may increase or decrease the cadence, depending on the situation. For example, the commander may call a quick-time cadence to keep pressure on a crowd that is withdrawing.
  115. 115. Interval & Distance:Interval & Distance: Interval is the lateral space between elements. Distance is the space between elements in a column. The usual interval and distance between riot officers in crowd control formations are one pace or 30 inches. Interval and distance can be adjusted for particular situations. The 30- inch interval may not be sufficient in some situations. It may have to be lengthened. Some police forces have found that a greater interval makes formation members less vulnerable to thrown objects.
  116. 116. The Riot Objective:The Riot Objective: Quiet & Safe streetsQuiet & Safe streets
  117. 117. USE OF FORCE PROTOCOLSUSE OF FORCE PROTOCOLS Thank you for attending today’s presentation on Use of Force protocols~

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