Skyscraper Security Mgt- Part vii- Building Systems- Building Designs

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  • Skyscraper Security Mgt- Part vii- Building Systems- Building Designs

    1. 1. Skyscraper Security Mgt. Part VII- Building Systems & Designs By, Richard Garrity
    2. 2. This presentation is proprietary information and can’t be copied or reproduced in any fashion without consent from the publisher owner, Richard Garrity
    3. 3. Building Systems Building Designs
    4. 4. John Hancock Building, Boston Massachusetts (Back Bay)
    5. 5. 5 Technicians working near the top ofTechnicians working near the top of the Empire State Building antenna~the Empire State Building antenna~
    6. 6. The Center for Life Sciences,The Center for Life Sciences, BostonBoston Sgt. Dennis Reardon- left foregroundSgt. Dennis Reardon- left foreground
    7. 7. 7 Your most valuable asset resource:Your most valuable asset resource: “The Security Officer”“The Security Officer”
    8. 8. 8 Supplement:Supplement: Dig Safe (811)Dig Safe (811) Guidelines & RulesGuidelines & Rules
    9. 9. 9 Supplement:Supplement: Mechanical &Mechanical & Building Systems AwarenessBuilding Systems Awareness
    10. 10. 10 Special Supplement:Special Supplement: HVAC Glossary termsHVAC Glossary terms
    11. 11. 11 Why do I need to know aboutWhy do I need to know about mechanical equipment?mechanical equipment? I amI am not a building engineer….not a building engineer….
    12. 12. High Rise Access ControlHigh Rise Access Control Supplement: Mechanical & BuildingSupplement: Mechanical & Building SystemsSystems AwarenessAwareness Building security personnel who conduct high rise access control procedures also execute many other related duties while in the performance of their daily activity. As we have touched on previously in this presentation, one of the most dangerous & costly incidents that can happen in a high rise building, is mechanical failures within the interior facility.
    13. 13. High Rise Access ControlHigh Rise Access Control Supplement: Mechanical & BuildingSupplement: Mechanical & Building SystemsSystems AwarenessAwareness When a mechanical failure has occurred, weather it be a broken water pipe, a short circuit, a malfunctioning air handler, or a chiller valve that is exceeding it’s pressure limits, it is the amount of “time” that has elapsed since the initial failure that makes all the difference in terms of the extent of damage and potential injury to other individuals in the vicinity.
    14. 14. 14 HVAC:HVAC: Cooling TowersCooling Towers
    15. 15. What is a cooling tower?What is a cooling tower? Cooling towersCooling towers are heatare heat removal devices used toremoval devices used to transfer process waste heat totransfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towersthe atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporationmay either use the evaporation of water to remove process heatof water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid toand cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb airnear the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case oftemperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry coolingclosed circuit dry cooling towerstowers, rely solely on air to cool, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near thethe working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.dry-bulb air temperature.
    16. 16. What is a cooling tower?What is a cooling tower? Cooling towers are generally found on the roof of your building. They are especially vital in terms of air conditioning for the building. During your tours and inspections of the building, it is imperative that scheduled water level checks of cooling towers are made.
    17. 17. 17 The standard buildingThe standard building “air handler”“air handler” that distributes fresh air throughoutthat distributes fresh air throughout the facilitythe facility
    18. 18. 18 Building Air Handlers:Building Air Handlers: HowHow “Air”“Air” is movedis moved
    19. 19. 19 Emergency shut-off valves:Emergency shut-off valves:
    20. 20. 20 Knowledge & locations ofKnowledge & locations of hot waterhot water supply valves &supply valves & chilled waterchilled water valvesvalves are enormously helpful in the eventare enormously helpful in the event of anof an emergencyemergency shutoff scenario. Itshutoff scenario. It is highly unlikely that you wouldis highly unlikely that you would have to do this but if your buildinghave to do this but if your building engineer is not on-duty, yourengineer is not on-duty, your knowledge would be helpful.knowledge would be helpful. Emergency shut-off valves:Emergency shut-off valves:
    21. 21. 21 Pressure gauges:Pressure gauges: During your buildingDuring your building rounds their maybe certain gauges torounds their maybe certain gauges to check and record temperature variances.check and record temperature variances.
    22. 22. 22 Refrigerant Monitors:Refrigerant Monitors:
    23. 23. 23 Cooling TowerCooling Tower Pressure Monitor:Pressure Monitor:
    24. 24. 24 Know the location of yourKnow the location of your buildingbuilding emergency generatoremergency generator
    25. 25. 25 An emergency power system is a standby generator which may include lighting, electric generators, fuel cells, uninterruptible power supplys and other apparatus, to provide backup power resources in a crisis or when regular systems fail. Emergency Power Generator:Emergency Power Generator:
    26. 26. 26 Emergency Lights & Exits:Emergency Lights & Exits:
    27. 27. 27 Emergency lighting is not a type of light fixture; it is a pattern of the building's normal lights that provides a path of lights to allow for safe exit, or lights up service areas such as mechanical rooms and electric rooms. Emergency Power Generator:Emergency Power Generator:
    28. 28. 28 Exit signs, Fire alarm systems (that are not on back up batteries) and the electric motor pumps for the fire sprinklers are almost always on emergency power. Emergency Power Generator:Emergency Power Generator:
    29. 29. 29 A backup power fuel cell for telecom & internet applications
    30. 30. 30 Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    31. 31. 31 Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    32. 32. 32 When it comes to preventing the tragic consequences of an explosion, time is the most important factor. Explosion Suppression systems are designed to detect and chemically suppress an explosion in its earliest stages. Explosion pressures reach dangerous levels in less than 50 milliseconds Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    33. 33. 33 If the building you work in createsIf the building you work in creates or handles dust during any phase ofor handles dust during any phase of your program, you most likely are atyour program, you most likely are at risk for an explosion, and may notrisk for an explosion, and may not even know it. Since 1980 there haveeven know it. Since 1980 there have been overbeen over 350 REPORTED350 REPORTED combustible dust explosions whichcombustible dust explosions which have killedhave killed 133133 people and injuredpeople and injured hundreds more.hundreds more. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    34. 34. 34 Contrary to many people's opinionsContrary to many people's opinions and beliefs, dust explosions areand beliefs, dust explosions are preventable and avoidable. The U.S.preventable and avoidable. The U.S. Chemical Safety Board, which is anChemical Safety Board, which is an independent federal agency whichindependent federal agency which investigates chemical accidents,investigates chemical accidents, has produced a video detailing ahas produced a video detailing a massive sugar dust explosion.massive sugar dust explosion. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    35. 35. 35 This explosion occurred in February 2008 atThis explosion occurred in February 2008 at the Imperial Sugar refinery northwest ofthe Imperial Sugar refinery northwest of Savannah, Georgia, causingSavannah, Georgia, causing 14 deaths14 deaths andand injuring 38 others. The explosion was fueledinjuring 38 others. The explosion was fueled by massiveby massive accumulationsaccumulations of combustibleof combustible sugar dust throughout the packagingsugar dust throughout the packaging building. Although it would be rare to comebuilding. Although it would be rare to come across dangerous & explosive dust clouds oracross dangerous & explosive dust clouds or contained dust accumulations in a high risecontained dust accumulations in a high rise office tower or similar structure,office tower or similar structure, Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    36. 36. 36 it is possible depending on theit is possible depending on the mechanical systems and scope ofmechanical systems and scope of the building’s machinerythe building’s machinery operations. Therefore, it is vitaloperations. Therefore, it is vital that you are educated and mostthat you are educated and most importantly,importantly, awareaware of suchof such conditions as well as theconditions as well as the Explosion Suppression SystemsExplosion Suppression Systems that maybe activated due tothat maybe activated due to unsafe dust accumulations.unsafe dust accumulations. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    37. 37. 37 Dust Buster?Dust Buster? An industrial shredderAn industrial shredder machine in Holliston, Massachusettsmachine in Holliston, Massachusetts
    38. 38. 38 Explosion Suppression System:Explosion Suppression System:
    39. 39. 39 As we stated earlier, Explosion SuppressionAs we stated earlier, Explosion Suppression systems are designed to detect andsystems are designed to detect and chemically suppress an explosion in itschemically suppress an explosion in its earliest stages to prevent the development ofearliest stages to prevent the development of destructive pressures or catastrophicdestructive pressures or catastrophic explosions, whereas Explosion Isolationexplosions, whereas Explosion Isolation systems detect and mechanically orsystems detect and mechanically or chemically block the flame pathways,chemically block the flame pathways, preventing the spread of an explosion frompreventing the spread of an explosion from one part of the process to another. It is yourone part of the process to another. It is your responsibility to beresponsibility to be acquaintedacquainted of suchof such systems if they are present and operational.systems if they are present and operational. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    40. 40. 40 As for Imperial Sugar, in a settlementAs for Imperial Sugar, in a settlement with OSHA regulators, the companywith OSHA regulators, the company agreed to payagreed to pay $4 million$4 million for safetyfor safety violations at Port Wentworth. The finesviolations at Port Wentworth. The fines were part of a $6 million settlement thatwere part of a $6 million settlement that also included $2 million for violations atalso included $2 million for violations at the company refinery in Gramercy, La.the company refinery in Gramercy, La. In separate actions, the state has finedIn separate actions, the state has fined the company $86,000 for air and waterthe company $86,000 for air and water quality violations at Port Wentworth.quality violations at Port Wentworth. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    41. 41. 41 And OSHA fined it $12,000 in 2010And OSHA fined it $12,000 in 2010 for additional violations atfor additional violations at Gramercy. UnderGramercy. Under federal law,federal law, employers whose willful violation ofemployers whose willful violation of an OSHA rule causes the death of aan OSHA rule causes the death of a worker face up to six months inworker face up to six months in prison. Individuals can be fined upprison. Individuals can be fined up to $250,000 and organizations up toto $250,000 and organizations up to $500,000.$500,000. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    42. 42. 42 ImperialImperial “cut corners”“cut corners” on safetyon safety “to“to save money,”save money,” U.S. DeputyU.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of LaborAssistant Secretary of Labor Jordan Barab said in 2010. DespiteJordan Barab said in 2010. Despite repeated warnings, documentsrepeated warnings, documents showed, Imperial did little to abateshowed, Imperial did little to abate the chronic clouds of sugar dustthe chronic clouds of sugar dust that can — and eventually did —that can — and eventually did — explode like dynamite.explode like dynamite. Explosion Suppression Systems:Explosion Suppression Systems:
    43. 43. 43 Imperial Sugar Plant, GeorgiaImperial Sugar Plant, Georgia
    44. 44. 44 Imperial Sugar- Enhanced PixImperial Sugar- Enhanced Pix
    45. 45. 45 Dangerous chemicals inDangerous chemicals in your building?your building? Be ALERTBe ALERT
    46. 46. 46 Dangerous Gases inDangerous Gases in your building?your building? Be ALERTBe ALERT
    47. 47. SIGNSSIGNS are meant to beare meant to be READREAD
    48. 48. 48 Building Designs:Building Designs:
    49. 49. 49 How does it not fall down?How does it not fall down?
    50. 50. Colonel William Starrett:Colonel William Starrett:
    51. 51. 51 Building Designs:Building Designs: Colonel William A. Starrett, one of the builders of the Empire State Building in New York City, once famously stated and compared constructing high rise towers to a military operation: “Building skyscrapers is the nearest peace- time equivalent of war” * 1928
    52. 52. Primary structural support beam, Center for Life Science- Boston
    53. 53. 53 The design and construction of skyscrapers involves creating safe, habitable spaces in very tall buildings. The buildings must support their weight, resist wind and earthquakes, and protect occupants from fire. Yet they must also be conveniently accessible, even on the upper floors, and provide utilities and a comfortable climate for the occupants. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: Tube Structure vs. Curtain WallTube Structure vs. Curtain Wall
    54. 54. 54 The problems posed in skyscraper design are considered among the most complex encountered given the balances required between economics, engineering, and construction management. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: Tube Structure vs. Curtain WallTube Structure vs. Curtain Wall
    55. 55. 55 The 2 most common methods toThe 2 most common methods to building a skyscraper in the Unitedbuilding a skyscraper in the United States are the steel framed (curtainStates are the steel framed (curtain wall construction) buildings like thewall construction) buildings like the Empire State building and theEmpire State building and the Chrysler tower in NYC and theChrysler tower in NYC and the relatively new design known as therelatively new design known as the tube structuretube structure design introduced indesign introduced in 1963 by Fazlur Khan.1963 by Fazlur Khan. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    56. 56. 56 The Twin Towers in New York,The Twin Towers in New York, the Sears Tower in Chicago, andthe Sears Tower in Chicago, and the Petronas Towers in Indonesiathe Petronas Towers in Indonesia areare tube structuretube structure in design.in design. Both designs (curtain wall vs.Both designs (curtain wall vs. tube structure) are vastlytube structure) are vastly different from an engineering &different from an engineering & architectural standpoint.architectural standpoint. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    57. 57. Iron worker manuallyIron worker manually boltingbolting exteriorexterior columns on the Empire State Buildingcolumns on the Empire State Building
    58. 58. Skyscraper random fact:Skyscraper random fact: 17 workers were17 workers were killedkilled building the Twin Towers. 11 ofbuilding the Twin Towers. 11 of those workers fell down elevator shaftsthose workers fell down elevator shafts~~
    59. 59. Skyscraper random fact:Skyscraper random fact: John Hancock Tower- Boston:John Hancock Tower- Boston: The building's upper-floorThe building's upper-floor occupants suffered from motionoccupants suffered from motion sicknesssickness when the buildingwhen the building swayedswayed in the wind. To counter this, two 300 ton weightsin the wind. To counter this, two 300 ton weights were put on either end of the 58were put on either end of the 58thth floor!floor!
    60. 60. Skyscraper random fact:Skyscraper random fact: The Lorraine Kowalski MysteryThe Lorraine Kowalski Mystery
    61. 61. 61 In the late 1960’s after the JohnIn the late 1960’s after the John Hancock’s completion, a 29-year-oldHancock’s completion, a 29-year-old Chicago woman named LorraineChicago woman named Lorraine Kowalski fell to her death from herKowalski fell to her death from her boyfriend’s 90th-floor Hancock Centerboyfriend’s 90th-floor Hancock Center apartment. To this day, detectives areapartment. To this day, detectives are dumbfounded by the event; thedumbfounded by the event; the building’s windows are capable ofbuilding’s windows are capable of withstanding more thanwithstanding more than 200 pounds200 pounds ofof pressure per square foot and winds ofpressure per square foot and winds of more thanmore than 150 miles per hour!150 miles per hour! John Hancock Tower-John Hancock Tower- ChicagoChicago::
    62. 62. 62 Point of interest:Point of interest: The General Electric Plant built a newThe General Electric Plant built a new facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts infacility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1940. The builders, Karl Koch Erecting1940. The builders, Karl Koch Erecting Company (builders of the World TradeCompany (builders of the World Trade Center- 1973) built that GE facilityCenter- 1973) built that GE facility devoid of any bolting of steel beams ordevoid of any bolting of steel beams or columns. It was the first building in thecolumns. It was the first building in the nation to be completelynation to be completely welded,welded, like thelike the World Trade Center.World Trade Center. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    63. 63. 63 TheThe classic concept of a skyscraper is a large steel box with many small boxes inside it. The genius of the steel frame is its simplicity. By eliminating the inefficient part of a shear wall, the central portion, and consolidating support members in a much stronger material, steel, a skyscraper could be built with both horizontal and vertical supports throughout. This method, though simple, has drawbacks Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    64. 64. 64 All this may sound complicated, soAll this may sound complicated, so we will simplify the designwe will simplify the design differences. The Empire Statedifferences. The Empire State building, for instance, is dense withbuilding, for instance, is dense with steel and framing. It is one huge steelsteel and framing. It is one huge steel skeletal frame. Such older buildingsskeletal frame. Such older buildings were said to be ofwere said to be of “curtain wall”“curtain wall” construction because their exteriorconstruction because their exterior walls didn’t do much more thanwalls didn’t do much more than keepkeep rain out and people in..rain out and people in.. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    65. 65. 65 Picture a huge steel framed buildingPicture a huge steel framed building and throwing a “curtain” over it fromand throwing a “curtain” over it from the top all the way to the bottom. Thethe top all the way to the bottom. The exterior is the finishing touch andexterior is the finishing touch and offers no structural supportoffers no structural support whatsoever. By the 1960’s,whatsoever. By the 1960’s, skyscraper design had evolved intoskyscraper design had evolved into what became known aswhat became known as “tube“tube structure”structure” in which the load wasin which the load was shared by heavy steel exteriorshared by heavy steel exterior columns and a central core.columns and a central core. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    66. 66. 66 These newer buildings were lessThese newer buildings were less expensive to put up because theyexpensive to put up because they required less of everything:required less of everything: Modern structural steel wasModern structural steel was stronger, so a building could dostronger, so a building could do with less of it. Less steel meantwith less of it. Less steel meant less riveting, bolting, and on-siteless riveting, bolting, and on-site welding. Because the tubewelding. Because the tube construction shifted more of theconstruction shifted more of the load to the exterior walls……load to the exterior walls…… Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: The steel frame designThe steel frame design
    67. 67. 67 ……making them something moremaking them something more than skin, it reduced the need forthan skin, it reduced the need for interior support columns, freeing upinterior support columns, freeing up more useable space for tenants.more useable space for tenants. Basically, in the Twin Towers ofBasically, in the Twin Towers of New York (110 stories- 1,368 feetNew York (110 stories- 1,368 feet tall) if some buildings had a curtaintall) if some buildings had a curtain wall, the Trade Center would havewall, the Trade Center would have an “iron curtain”.an “iron curtain”. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: Tube structure designTube structure design
    68. 68. 68 The Twin Towers did not collapseThe Twin Towers did not collapse because of poor design, or what wasbecause of poor design, or what was called inferior & weak floorcalled inferior & weak floor trussestrusses.. Although lighter than standard steelAlthough lighter than standard steel columns, it was the very design of thecolumns, it was the very design of the World Trade Center, this super structureWorld Trade Center, this super structure of steel, welding, and Alcoa aluminumof steel, welding, and Alcoa aluminum exterior columns thatexterior columns that preventedprevented thethe Towers from collapsing during the initialTowers from collapsing during the initial impact of a fuel laden 767 jumbo jet.impact of a fuel laden 767 jumbo jet. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: Vierendeel steel trussesVierendeel steel trusses
    69. 69. 69 The primary reason that the TwinThe primary reason that the Twin Towers collapsed, was simplyTowers collapsed, was simply thousands of gallons of high grade jetthousands of gallons of high grade jet fuel burning at temperatures well overfuel burning at temperatures well over 1000 degrees1000 degrees for anfor an unsustainableunsustainable amount of time. The shear explosion ofamount of time. The shear explosion of the jetliners actually blew off most of thethe jetliners actually blew off most of the fire retardant that was sprayed on thefire retardant that was sprayed on the beams and floor trusses. This allowedbeams and floor trusses. This allowed the trusses to deform & buckle.the trusses to deform & buckle. Building DesignsBuilding Designs:: Vierendeel steel trussesVierendeel steel trusses
    70. 70. 70 Skyscraper Foundation Layout:Skyscraper Foundation Layout:
    71. 71. Steel floorSteel floor “trusses”“trusses” define a tubedefine a tube structure building. From wall to core.structure building. From wall to core.
    72. 72. 72 United AirlinesUnited Airlines Flight 175Flight 175 slamsslams into the South Towerinto the South Tower
    73. 73. 73 Impact Zone- The North TowerImpact Zone- The North Tower
    74. 74. 74 Massive radio antenna- NorthMassive radio antenna- North
    75. 75. 75 What is a skyscraperWhat is a skyscraper sky lobby?sky lobby?
    76. 76. 76 A sky lobby is an intermediate interchange floor where people can change from an express elevator that stops only at the sky lobby to a local elevator which stops at every floor within a segment of the building. When designing very tall (super tall) buildings, supplying enough elevators is a problem, space wise. Building Sky Lobbies….Building Sky Lobbies….
    77. 77. 77 Office workers & visitors wanting to reach a specific higher floor may conceivably have to stop at a very large number of other floors on the way up to let other passengers off and on. This increases travel time, and indirectly requires many more elevator shafts to still allow acceptable travel times – thus reducing effective floor space on each floor for all levels. Building Sky Lobbies….Building Sky Lobbies….
    78. 78. 78 The 23rd floor Sky Lobby at the Mandarin Oriental Las Vegas.
    79. 79. 79 Sky Lobby- Building Unknown
    80. 80. 80 The Twin Towers- Sky Lobby Layout
    81. 81. 81 What is a slurry wall?
    82. 82. 82 A slurry wall is a technique used to build reinforced concrete walls in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. A trench is excavated to create a form for each wall, then filled with slurry; it is kept full of slurry at all Slurry Walls……Slurry Walls……
    83. 83. 83 The slurry prevents the trench from collapsing by providing outward pressure which balances the inward hydraulic forces and prevents water flow into the trench. Reinforcement is then lowered in and the trench is filled with an iron rebar cage & concrete, which displaces the slurry. Slurry Walls……Slurry Walls……
    84. 84. 84 Keeping lots of water…Out!
    85. 85. 85 A big hole, lots of steel, and cement. A slurry wall
    86. 86. 86 Slurry wall- Twin Towers, 1968
    87. 87. 87 Slurry wall, Brigham & Woman’s Hospital, Boston, MA- 2005
    88. 88. 88 Slurry wall- WTC Memorial, NYC
    89. 89. 89 Slurry wall cold cracks: A serious problem
    90. 90. 90 Slurry wall cold cracks, or simply, pesky leaks occur almost as soon as the high rise tower is completed. They can be a serious problem, especially within the subterranean structure that can be as many as 5- 10 floors deep. How could a brand new, very expensive cement foundation leak? Slurry wall cold cracks:
    91. 91. 91 Slurry wall cold cracks can be a few wall leaks, they can be many. Remember, slurry walls can be very deep and hold back large amounts water from local high density water tables, a nearby underground river, even the ocean, like Manhattan. Cold crack leaks have to be detected soon! Slurry wall cold cracks:
    92. 92. 92 Slurry wall cold cracks happen for different reasons. One of the main reason cold cracks develop is during the cement pouring process. Quite simply, when pouring the concrete to fill the massive trench that eventually will become your “bath tub”- the so called “cellar” of your building, Slurry wall cold cracks:
    93. 93. 93 there will be pauses or an amount of time in between pouring the cement that creates cold cracks. Let me explain. You have, say, 3-4 cement trucks on the street level pouring the cement almost consecutively. As the last cement truck finishes pouring it’s load in the trench, there is downtime. Slurry wall cold cracks:
    94. 94. 94 This down time is simply waiting for another round of cement trucks to come back with more cement. During this wait, the cement begins harden. It doesn't take that long. When the fresh cement is finally poured on top of the cement that is hardening, this is going to cause cold cracks…nasty leaks!! Slurry wall cold cracks:
    95. 95. 95 When cold crack leaks start to become a serious water issue in your new parking level floors, an epoxy type super fast drying “grout” is pumped into the leaking area to hopefully completely seal the wall from further leaks or crack expansion. The excess grout that oozes back out of the wall can be unsightly and very messy! Slurry wall cold cracks:
    96. 96. Pumping the Epoxy Grout:Pumping the Epoxy Grout:
    97. 97. Boston Big Dig- Serious slurry wall tunnel leaks- 2004
    98. 98. 98 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    99. 99. 99 Dig Safe Safety Rules:Dig Safe Safety Rules:  Utility location (Dig Safe) is the process of identifying and labeling public utility mains that are underground. These mains may include lines for telecommunication, electricity distribution, natural gas, cable television, fiber optics, traffic lights, street lights, storm drains, water mains, and wastewater pipes. In some locations, major oil and gas pipelines, national defense communication lines, mass transit, rail and road tunnels also compete for space underground
    100. 100. 100 Dig Safe Safety Rules:Dig Safe Safety Rules: Because of the many different types of materials that go into manufacturing each of the different types of underground lines, different detection and location methods must be used. For metal pipes & cables, this is often done with electromagnetic equipment consisting of a transmitter and receiver. For other types of pipe, such as plastic or concrete, radiolocation or modern ground-penetrating radar must be used.
    101. 101. 101 Dig Safe Safety Rules:Dig Safe Safety Rules: Location by these technical means is necessary because maps often lack the pinpoint precision needed to ensure proper clearance. In older cities, like Boston & New York, it is especially a problem since maps may be very inaccurate and deteriorated, or may be missing entirely.
    102. 102. 102 Why do I need to know this:Why do I need to know this: State law requires you to notify Dig Safe before you dig in any area that most likely has underground lines of any sort. This area includes Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Maine. Why do you need to know this? Because if the property your assigned to has construction activity and they are digging up any part of the premises, then it is vital that you are fully aware of the guidelines and color codes involved with the various underground lines.
    103. 103. 103 Why do I need to know this:Why do I need to know this: This is to insure that those contractors are in compliance with notifying Dig Safe and more importantly, that the proper utility service has marked the area in question as SAFE in terms of orange spray paint markings and or color coded flags. If during your patrol or inspection of the facility your assigned to has any kind of digging or ground upheaval, or there is planned digging, then insure that Dig Safe and the Utility in question has been notified. Dial 811, it is the law!
    104. 104. 104 DIG SAFE:DIG SAFE: Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    105. 105. 105 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    106. 106. 106 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    107. 107. 107 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    108. 108. 108 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines & Info:Guidelines & Info:
    109. 109. 109 Failure to callFailure to call Dig SafeDig Safe (811)(811) can result in this:can result in this:
    110. 110. 110 DIG SAFE-DIG SAFE- Guidelines &Guidelines & Info:Info:
    111. 111. 111 HVAC Glossary Guide:HVAC Glossary Guide:
    112. 112. 112 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are access stairs? A stairway, usually OPEN, serving a number of floors of a common tenant. (These stairwells should always be kept free of storage/ debris)
    113. 113. 113 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are air diffusers? The air supply Outlets of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system into the conditioned space, (HVAC) as commonly referred to
    114. 114. 114 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are attack stairways? A FIRE stair used by the Fire Department to gain access to the Fire area, where the door between the stairway and the Fire are Open
    115. 115. 115 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is an audible alarm? A Fire safety and or alert mechanism meant to be heard & acknowledged.
    116. 116. 116 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a curtain wall? A non-load bearing wall, built between piers or columns for the enclosure of the structure, but not supported at each story.
    117. 117. 117 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a damper? A device to seal off or control air flow in a heating-ventilation/ air conditioning system (HVAC)
    118. 118. 118 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a duct detector? A fire life safety device to detect smoke in the ventilation system
    119. 119. 119 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a elevator control panel? A display unit to indicate the status and location of all elevator cars and controls for operation of the cars.
    120. 120. 120 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are fire control doors? A Fire Door is rated to contain a fire for a certain amount of time. Fire doors are either closed at all times or feature controls which close those doors in the
    121. 121. 121 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a fire partition? A rated vertical unit or assembly of material that separates one space from another within any story of a low rise or high rise building.
    122. 122. 122 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are fire wardens? Notifies floor members of a Fire and will assist in any organized floor/ building evacuation as required.
    123. 123. 123 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a Fire Tower? An enclosed stairway connected at each story by an outside balcony or Fireproof vestibule vented to the outside. (Example- a metal or wooden exterior fire escape).
    124. 124. 124 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a Fusible Link? A device designed to be actuated by an abnormal rise in temperature, as in a heat detector or sprinkler. (Example of a fusible link- standard thermostats and or smoke detectors).
    125. 125. 125 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a Hardwire communication? A system of communications in which wiring physically connects the control center and other related areas.
    126. 126. 126 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a Heat Detector? A Detector which senses a rise in temperature indicative of a Fire, and activates the Fire system. Heat detectors must not be blocked by material which impair their
    127. 127. 127 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a Hot Work? Work which could cause a spark, such as cutting and welding. Hot Work inside an existing facility requires a Hot Work Permit which outlines Fire Safety measures for the duration of the Hot work. (OSHA
    128. 128. 128 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is an Isolation Valve? This mechanism controls water to a specific section of the fire standpipe.
    129. 129. 129 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a fire standpipe? This is like a tree. It is the main delivery source for sprinkler water on all above floors. The water coming in from the street is around 65-70 pounds per square inch of pressure. The fire standpipe is 150- 175+ psi of pressure needed to be distributed “UP”
    130. 130. 130 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What is a jockey pump? The jockey pump regulates water pressure for the fire standpipes
    131. 131. 131 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are MSDS sheets? Sheets which notes the details of all hazardous type chemicals stored in the facility including how to handle, store, and clean the materials, as well as detailed safety precautions. (Material Safety Data Sheets)
    132. 132. 132 Selected Low Rise and HighSelected Low Rise and High Rise Building DefinitionsRise Building Definitions What are Scissor Stairs? Two stairs constructed side by side in the core of a building in which their doors alternate the point of exit to opposite sides of the core.
    133. 133. Recommended Reading:Recommended Reading:
    134. 134. Thank you for attending today’s presentation

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