Skyscraper Security Mgt Part IV- Bomb Threat Response- Richard Garrity


Published on

Published in: Business, Education

Skyscraper Security Mgt Part IV- Bomb Threat Response- Richard Garrity

  1. 1. Skyscraper Security Mgt. Part IV- Bomb Threat Response By, Richard Garrity
  2. 2. Skyscraper Security Mgt. Part IV Life Safety Threats- Section II Bomb Threat Procedures
  3. 3. Bomb Threat Response, Procedures, and Suspicious Package Detection is part 4 of 5 in the Life Safety- Emergency Management training series.
  4. 4. This presentation is proprietary information and can’t be copied or reproduced in any fashion without consent from the publisher owner.
  5. 5. 5 Bomb Threats & Response Bomb threats pose some unique planning and response issues for building owners, property managers, security directors, and the security personnel assigned to protect high rise buildings. Carefully thought out response plans to such an incident is a priority.
  6. 6. 6 Bomb Threats & Response Bombing and the threat of being bombed are harsh realities in today's world. The public is becoming more aware of those incidents of violence that are perpetrated by vicious, nefarious segments of our society through the illegal use of explosives. Law enforcement agencies are charged with providing protection for life and property, but law enforcement alone cannot be held responsible. Every citizen must do his or her part to ensure a safe environment.
  7. 7. 7 Bomb Threats & Response This presentation is designed to help both the public and private sectors prepare for the potential threat of explosives-related violence. While the ideas set forth herein are applicable in most cases, they are intended only as a guide. The information provided is compiled from a wide range of sources, including the actual experiences of special agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
  8. 8. 8 Bomb Threats & Response If there is one point that cannot be overemphasized, it is the value of being prepared. Do not allow a potential bomb incident to catch you by surprise. By developing a bomb incident plan and considering possible bomb incidents in your physical security plan, you can reduce the potential for personal injury and property damage.
  9. 9. 9 Could your building be a target?
  10. 10. 10 Disclosure: All types of bombing incidents are serious and horrific as what occurred in Boston, April 2013. However, this training segment will focus strictly on bomb threat procedures in a building environment only.
  11. 11. 11 The Bomb itself….. Bombs can be constructed to look like almost anything and can be placed or delivered in any number of ways. The probability of finding a bomb that looks like the stereotypical bomb is almost nonexistent. The only common denominator that exists among bombs is that they are designed or intended to explode.
  12. 12. 12 The Bomb itself….. Most bombs are homemade and are limited in their design only by the imagination of, and resources available to, the bomber. Remember, when searching for a bomb, suspect anything that looks unusual. Let the trained bomb technician determine what is or is not a bomb.
  13. 13. Bombs- both stereotypical and the modern elaborate
  14. 14. Traditional symbolic bomb
  15. 15. Different types of improvised bombs:
  16. 16. Standard watch clock detonator
  17. 17. 17 Different types of improvised bombs: Basic digital clock detonator
  18. 18. Remote bomb detonator
  19. 19. Bomb detonator wire leads
  20. 20. Bombs disguised as a consumer product:
  21. 21. Cell phone Bombs, small but easily concealed and quite lethal
  22. 22. 22 Just what is in that suspicious package?
  23. 23. 23 Pressure Cooker Bombs
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 Backpack type Bombs
  26. 26. Bomb Bag: Bomb Bag:
  27. 27. Suitcase type bombs
  28. 28. 28 Package type bombs, hand delivered or via mail
  29. 29. Package type bombs, hand delivered or via mail
  30. 30. 30 Computer Printer Bomb:
  31. 31. 31 Bomb Threats & Response First, evaluate the threat for credibility. Ignoring a bomb threat or always evacuating are two response strategies that can be inherently problematic. The first has some serious and obvious legal and liability implications and the latter can quickly become impractical. The best approach is to carefully evaluate each threat using a team approach and respond based on the merit and circumstances of the incident.
  32. 32. 32 Bomb Threats & Response While most occurrences of explosive devices being found or detonated in high rise buildings are not preceded by a communicated threat, this should never be the overriding determiner used in making the final decision. In examining any threat, the primary litmus test is in determining the level of credibility based on all known facts.
  33. 33. 33 Levels of threats: Next, determine the level of threat. A low level threat is generally nonspecific with little or no indication of credibility. A medium level threat includes more specific details related to motive, location, etc. A high level threat would include a strong indication that a device is on campus.
  34. 34. 34 Levels of threats: A low level response should include notification of staff with instructions to be vigilant of unusual building activity or suspicious individuals. Law enforcement should be notified because any type of bomb threat – regardless of degree of credibility – is a criminal offense. While a detailed search may not be warranted, personnel should be alert for any suspicious or unusual item.
  35. 35. 35 Levels of threats: A medium level response would include all of the aforementioned, as well as a possible evacuation or relocation of building employees or simply leaving them in existing locations. It may involve a general walk through of the building by designated staff or, by necessity it may include a room by room examination. Some response by emergency service providers would be expected.
  36. 36. 36 Levels of threats: A high level response would usually involve most of the previous mentioned steps. However in this instance, a full evacuation of the building would most likely be warranted and not over reactionary. Law enforcement would potentially treat the building as a crime scene. Preparations for a search of the tower using special equipment or resources may be necessary.
  37. 37. 37 Electronic communication: While the chances of an electronic communication instrument such as a cellular phone or two-way radio detonating an explosive device is remote, it can occur, so plan ahead related to communicating with and between staff personnel during the event. Security staff supervising and monitoring the evacuation will have to be especially attentive to building employees trying to use cellular devices and should be prepared to seize phones if necessary. Second, expect media attention on bomb threats, especially with incidents where employees are evacuated, relocated or if a suspicious item is found.
  38. 38. 38 Bomb Threat Action Plan: Instruct all facility personnel, especially those at the telephone switchboard, in what to do if a bomb threat call is received. The bomb threat caller is the best source of information about the bomb. When a bomb threat is called in:
  39. 39. -Keep the caller on the line as long as possible. Ask him/her to repeat the message. Record every word spoken by the person (or persons). - If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of possible detonation, ask him/her for this information.
  40. 40. -Inform the caller that the building is occupied with workers and the detonation of a bomb could result in death or serious injury to many innocent people. - Pay particular attention to background noises, such as motors running, music playing, and any other noise which may give a clue as to the location of the caller.
  41. 41. - Listen closely to the voice (male, female), voice quality (calm, excited), accents, and speech impediments. Immediately after the caller hangs up, report the threat to building mgt. officials, i.e. Security Manager, Security Shift Supervisor, Property Manager, etc.
  42. 42. - Report the information immediately to the local police department and fire department. Notification to the ATF, FBI, and other appropriate state & federal agencies should be made by the local police department who has primary jurisdiction.
  43. 43. Security personnel and building mgt. officials should not be notifying any other state or federal entities unless instructed to by the local police incident commander.
  44. 44. When a written threat is received, save all materials, including any envelope or container. Once the message is recognized as a bomb threat, further unnecessary handling should be avoided.
  45. 45. Every possible effort must be made to retain evidence such as fingerprints, handwriting, typewriting, paper, and postal marks. These will prove essential in tracing the threat and identifying the suspect writer.
  46. 46. Written Messages: While written messages are usually associated with generalized threats and extortion attempts, a written warning of a specific device may occasionally be received. The warning should never be ignored.
  47. 47. Decision Time:
  48. 48. Decision Time: The most serious of all decisions to be made by management in the event of a bomb threat is whether to evacuate the building. In many cases, this decision may have already been made during the development of the bomb incident plan. Management may pronounce a carte blanche policy that, in the event of a bomb threat, total evacuation will be effective immediately.
  49. 49. This decision circumvents the calculated risk and demonstrates a deep concern for the safety of personnel in the building. However, such a decision can result in costly loss of time. Decision Time:
  50. 50. Decision Time: Essentially, there are three alternatives when faced with a bomb threat. They are: 1. Ignore the threat. 2. Evacuate immediately. 3. Search and evacuate if warranted.
  51. 51. Decision Time: Ignoring the threat completely can result in some problems. While a statistical argument can be made that very few bomb threats are real, it cannot be overlooked that bombs have been located in connection with threats. If employees learn that bomb threats have been received and ignored, it could result in morale problems and have a long-term adverse effect on your business.
  52. 52. Decision Time: Also, there is the possibility that if the bomb threat caller feels that he or she is being ignored, he or she may go beyond the threat and actually plant a bomb.
  53. 53. Decision Time: Evacuating immediately on every bomb threat is an alternative that on face value appears to be the preferred approach. However, the negative factors inherent in this approach must be considered. The obvious result of immediate evacuation is the disruptive effect on the client’s business.
  54. 54. Decision Time: If the bomb threat caller knows that your policy is to evacuate each time a call is made, he or she can continually call and force the business to a standstill. So, yes, theoretically if you were to evacuate on every bomb threat, there is no doubt that is the safest measure. However, would you be willing to evacuate once a month? Once a week? Everyday? Just based on a phoned in threat and nothing to substantiate it?
  55. 55. 55 Calling in the threat….
  56. 56. Decision Time: Initiating a search after a threat is received and evacuating a building after a suspicious package or device is found is the third, and perhaps most desired, approach. It is certainly not as disruptive as an immediate evacuation and will satisfy the requirement to do something when a threat is received.
  57. 57. Decision Time: If a device is found, the evacuation can be accomplished expeditiously while at the same time avoiding the potential danger areas of the bomb. Bomb threat “reaction” can be hit or miss, and you never want to miss during this type of crisis.
  58. 58. Evacuation Team: A building evacuation unit consisting of mgt. personnel should be organized and trained. The Team should comprise of security personnel, building Mgt. officials, building engineering, and select tenant contacts who may have roles as fire wardens, floor wardens, and tenant facility representatives.
  59. 59. Evacuation Team: The organization and training of this unit should be coordinated with the development of the internal facility bomb incident plan, as well as with all tenant reps of the building.
  60. 60. Evacuation Team: The evacuation unit should be trained in how to evacuate the building during a bomb threat. You should consider priority of evacuation, e.g., evacuation by floor level. Evacuate the floor levels above and below the danger area in order to remove those persons from danger as quickly as possible. In depth training in this type of evacuation is usually available from the local police dept., regional bomb squad unit, or the local FBI field office.
  61. 61. Evacuation Team: Volunteer building personnel should be solicited for the function of searching individual tenant floors. Assignment of search wardens, team leaders, etc., can be employed. To be proficient in searching the building, search personnel must be thoroughly familiar with all hallways, rest rooms, false ceiling areas, and every location on the floor where an explosive or incendiary device may be concealed.
  62. 62. When police officers or firefighters arrive at the building, the contents and the floor plan will be unfamiliar to them if they have not previously reconnoitered (inspect, observe, or survey) the facility. Thus, it is extremely important that the evacuation or search unit be thoroughly trained and familiar with the floor plan of the building and immediate outside areas.
  63. 63. When a room or particular area is searched, it should be marked or sealed with a piece of yellow tape or other clear marking and report to the supervisor of that area that it is clear. Evacuation Team:
  64. 64. Evacuation Team: The evacuation or search unit should be trained only in evacuation and search techniques and not in the techniques of neutralizing, removing or otherwise having contact with the device. If a device is located, it should not be disturbed. However, its location should be well marked and a route back to the device noted.
  65. 65. Search Teams: It is advisable to use more than one individual to search any area or room, no matter how small. Searches can be conducted by supervisory personnel, area occupants or trained explosive search teams. There are advantages and disadvantages to each method of staffing the search teams. Using supervisory personnel to search is a rapid approach and causes little disturbance.
  66. 66. Search Teams: Using area occupants to search their own areas is the best method for a rapid search. The occupants' concern for their own safety will contribute toward a more thorough search. Furthermore, the personnel conducting the search are familiar with what does or does not belong in a particular area. Using occupants to search will result in a shorter loss of work time than if all were evacuated prior to search by trained teams.
  67. 67. Search Teams: The search conducted by a trained team is the best for safety, morale and thoroughness, though it does take the most time. Using a trained team will result in a significant loss of production time. It is a slow operation that requires comprehensive training and practice.
  68. 68. Search Teams: The decision as to who should conduct searches or evacuate the facility lies with building management solely. Short of anybody actually finding a device or police authorities having credible evidence that a bomb device is in the building, property mgt. makes the sole decision on evacuations.
  69. 69. Search Technique: The following room search technique is based on the use of a two person searching team. There are many minor variations possible in searching a room. The following contains only the basic techniques. When the two person search team enters the room to be searched, they should first move to various parts of the room and stand quietly with their eyes closed and listen for a clockwork device.
  70. 70. Search Technique: Frequently, a clockwork mechanism can be quickly detected without use of special equipment. Even if no clockwork mechanism is detected, the team is now aware of the background noise level within the room itself.
  71. 71. Search Technique: Background noise or transferred sound is always disturbing during a building search. If a ticking sound is heard but cannot be located, one might become unnerved. The ticking sound may come from an unbalanced air conditioner fan several floors away or from a dripping sink down the hall. Sound will transfer through air conditioning ducts, along water pipes, and through walls.
  72. 72. Search Technique: The individual in charge of the room searching team should look around the room and determine how the room is to be divided for searching and to what height the first searching sweep should extend. The first searching sweep will cover all items resting on the floor up to the selected height. You should divide the room into two virtually equal parts.
  73. 73. In conclusion, the following steps should be taken in order to search a room: 1. Divide the area and select a search height. 2. Start from the bottom and work your way up. 3. Start back-to-back and work toward each other. 4. Go around the walls and proceed toward the center of the room.
  74. 74. Suspicious object located: It is imperative that personnel involved in a search be instructed that their only mission is to search for and report suspicious objects. Under no circumstances should anyone move, jar, or touch a suspicious object or anything attached to it. The removal or disarming of a bomb must be left to the professionals in explosive ordnance disposal. When a suspicious object is discovered, the following procedures are recommended:
  75. 75. Suspicious object located: 1. Report the location and an accurate description of the object to the appropriate property mgt. official, floor warden or security officer. This information should be relayed immediately to the temp. command center, which will, notify the police and fire departments, and rescue squad. These officers should be met and escorted to the scene by building security.
  76. 76. Suspicious object located: 2. If absolutely necessary, place sandbags or mattresses, never metal shields, around the suspicious object. Do not attempt to cover the object. 3. Identify the danger area, and block it off with a clear zone of at least 300 feet, including floors below and above the
  77. 77. Suspicious object located: 4. Check to see that all doors and windows are open to minimize primary damage from blast and secondary damage from fragmentation. 5. Evacuate the building. 6. Do not permit re-entry into the building until the device has been removed/ disarmed, and the re-entry.
  78. 78. 78 Airgas-Lifegas oxygen tanks
  79. 79. Explosive Tanks on site: Airgas tanks that hold explosive oxygen, carbon dioxide, soda ash, sodium hypo-chlorite, and aqua ammonia type gases can be a huge target for a bomber, weather they are domestic or foreign. If your property has these type of tanks with any of those gases, they should be inspected & checked daily. To go a step further, a pelco type stationary camera should be fixed on them at all times.
  80. 80. Handling the News media: It is of paramount importance that all inquiries from the news media be directed to one individual appointed as a spokesperson. All other persons should be instructed not to discuss the situation with outsiders, especially the news media.
  81. 81. Handling the News media: The purpose of this provision is to furnish the news media with accurate information and to see that additional bomb threat calls are not precipitated by irresponsible statements from uninformed sources.
  82. 82. 82 The Bomb Threat Checklist:
  83. 83. 83 The Bomb Threat Checklist:
  84. 84. The Bomb Threat Checklist: Security personnel who answer any type of telephoned bomb threat shall always, always have their Bomb Threat checklist at the ready. This critical form should be in plain sight near the phone system for easy access when receiving such a call. The bomb threat checklist shall never be filed away in some binder or in a filing cabinet. This form must be VISIBLE to the security staff at all times!!
  85. 85. The source of Bomb Threats:
  86. 86. Traditionally and historically, telephoned bomb threats have sourced from public pay phones. Sometimes from a payphone right in front of the targeted building itself. Tracing the call before caller ID or enhanced 911 was nearly impossible. But with public payphones becoming a thing of the past, cell phones are now the common tool used for bomb threats and very easily traceable.
  87. 87. 87 Bomb Threat Incidents- Suffolk County, Boston 1976
  88. 88. Bomb Threat Incidents- Suffolk County Boston 1976 : The United Freedom Front (UFF) was a small American Marxist organization active in the 1970s and 1980s, and its members became known as the Ohio 7 when they were brought to trial. Between 1975 and 1984 the UFF carried out at least 20 bombings and nine bank robberies in the northeastern United States, targeting corporate buildings, courthouses, and military facilities. 22 people were injured in one 1976 bombing at the Suffolk County Courthouse in Boston, including a courthouse worker who lost a leg. The complex itself sustained serious damage.
  89. 89. 89 Bomb Threat Incidents- Los Angeles, CA. 1910
  90. 90. Bomb Threat Incidents- Los Angeles, CA. 1910 A massive deliberate explosion destroyed the Los Angeles Times building in the city's downtown area, killing 21 and injuring many more. Since Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Otis, a virulent opponent of unions, believed that the bomb was directed at him, further investigation uncovered 3 men to the union and were convicted.
  91. 91. Identifying Suspicious Packages, baggage or Mail:
  92. 92. “Just what is in that package”
  93. 93. Suspicious White Powders:
  94. 94. 94 Suspicious White Powders: Suspicious white powders or any suspect powder like substance can be completely harmless or quite lethal. There are lengthy & detailed emergency procedures for trained first responders on how to deal with suspect substances sent via the US mail system or other carriers.
  95. 95. 95 Suspicious White Powders: With that knowledge, we must reiterate to the security personnel and employees that upon first discovering a suspicious powder or similar substance, remember to take the first initial steps to contain a possibly volatile situation-
  97. 97. How to Recognize Suspicious Packages and Mail:
  98. 98. Suspicious packages , parcels, or backpacks demonstrate a prime example of an unwelcome “entity” entering your facility, thus a breach of access control. Potentially explosive parcels or ones laden with a biological hazard like Anthrax pose a serious threat to all concerned in your building environment.
  99. 99. It is critical for all security staff members as well as building occupants to remain alert for the tell-tale signs of potentially dangerous mail and packages. Security personnel must also remember the basic SOP procedures for handling an item that has come under scrutiny or suspicion.
  100. 100. 100 How to Recognize Suspicious Packages and Mail: Possible Indicators:  Excessive postage  Misspelled common words  No return address or strange return address  Restrictive markings, such as “personal” “confidential,” ”do not pre-screen” or “do not x-ray”  Postmarks that do not match return addresses
  101. 101. 101 Other indicators of suspicion:  Powdery white substances felt through or appearing on the package or parcel.  Oily stains or discolorations on the exterior.  Strange odors emanating from the package
  102. 102. 102 Other indicators of suspicion: Excessive packaging material, like tape or string  Ticking sounds, protruding wires, exposed aluminum
  103. 103. 103 Always remain calm! Do not open the letter or package (or open any further), do not shake it, do not show it to others, or empty its contents. Leave the letter or package where it is or gently place it on the nearest flat surface possible. If possible, gently cover the letter (use a trash can, article of clothing, etc.) Shut off any fans or equipment in the area that may circulate the material
  104. 104. 104 PRIORITY: Alert employees and visitors nearby to relocate to an area away from the site of the suspicious item without causing alarm or panic.
  105. 105. 105 Responding to Suspicious Packages:  Relocate to your office’s designated room-area or if instructed to do so, proceed to your designated exterior rally-meeting point. Take essential items with you.  Stay in the designated area until instructed otherwise by the local Police and or lobby security personnel- property management staff.
  106. 106. When you have received an external bomb threat who is the first person you are notifying? 911? Fire Dept.? the Police? or the Property Manager?
  107. 107. The answer to that question would be unequivocally your property manager. Allow me to explain why…….
  108. 108. Generally, during a telephoned bomb threat who makes the final decision to evacuate the building, before, during, o r after a search? The Fire Dept.? The Police Dept.? The FBI? The Security Manager?
  109. 109. 109 The Property Management Team!
  110. 110. Bomb threat response and suspicious package detection usually starts in the front lines of high rise access control- the lobby front desk. Therefore it is vital that those reception staff & security personnel are the most trained and most knowledgeable about these procedures.
  111. 111. Building employees, fellow employees, property management, and the visitors all count on YOU to know exactly what to do in a crisis situation and above all to not fail in a leadership role when one develops.
  112. 112. Thank you for attending today’s presentation on bomb threat procedures